Inflammation induced by faulty replication during embryonic development causes skewed sex ratio.
PMID: 31189185 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - June 12, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Wang Z, Yan W Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Ovarian cancer and the evolution of subtype classifications using transcriptional profiling.
Abstract Ovarian cancer is a complex disease with multiple subtypes, each having distinct histopathologies and variable responses to treatment. This review highlights the technological milestones and the studies that have applied them to change our definitions of ovarian cancer. Over the past 50 years, technologies such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing have led to the discovery of molecular alterations that define each of the ovarian cancer subtypes and has enabled further subclassification of the most common subtype, high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Improvements in mutational profiling have ...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - June 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Cook DP, Vanderhyden BC Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Testicular endothelial cells promote self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells in rats.
In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of various cell lines as a feeder layer for rat SSCs. Germ cells enriched for SSCs were cultured on feeder layers including SIM mouse embryo-derived thioguanine and ouabain-resistant cells, C166 cells, and mouse and rat testicular endothelial cells (TECs) and their stem cell potential for generating donor-derived colonies and offspring was assessed by transplantation into recipient testes. Rat germ cells cultured on TECs showed increased mRNA and protein levels of undifferentiated spermatogonial markers. Rat SSCs derived from these germ cells underwent spermatogenesis and ge...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - June 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Kim YH, Oh MG, Bhang DH, Kim BJ, Jung SE, Kim SM, Dohr G, Kim SU, Ryeom S, Ryu BY Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Preeclampsia may influence offspring neuroanatomy and cognitive function: A role for placental growth factor?
, Croy BA Abstract Preeclampsia (PE) is a common pregnancy complication affecting 3-5% of women. PE is diagnosed clinically as new-onset hypertension with associated end organ damage after 20 weeks of gestation. Despite being diagnosed as a maternal syndrome, fetal experience of PE is a developmental insult with lifelong cognitive consequences. These cognitive alterations are associated with distorted neuroanatomy and cerebrovasculature, including a higher risk of stroke. The pathophysiology of a PE pregnancy is complex, with many factors potentially able to affect fetal development. Deficient pro-angiogenic facto...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - June 7, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Kay VR, Rätsep MT, Figueiró-Filho EA, Croy BA Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Smooth muscle cell-specific TMEM16A deletion does not alter Ca2+ signaling, uterine contraction, gestation length or litter size in mice †.
Smooth muscle cell-specific TMEM16A deletion does not alter Ca2+ signaling, uterine contraction, gestation length or litter size in mice†. Biol Reprod. 2019 Jun 07;: Authors: Qu M, Lu P, Bevell K, Fogarty K, Lifshitz L, Shi F, ZhuGe R Abstract Ion channels in myometrial cells play critical roles in spontaneous and agonist-induced uterine contraction during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy maintenance and parturition; thus identifying the genes of ion channels in these cells and determining their roles are essential to understanding the biology of reproduction. Previous studies with in vitro funct...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - June 7, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Qu M, Lu P, Bevell K, Fogarty K, Lifshitz L, Shi F, ZhuGe R Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Influence of mouse defective zona pellucida in folliculogenesis on apoptosis of granulosa cells and developmental competence of oocytes1.
Abstract Zona pellucida (ZP), which enwraps the oocyte during folliculogenesis, initially forms in the primary follicle and plays an important role in female fertility. Here, we investigated a mouse strain ("mutant mice" for short) carrying two types of ZP defects in folliculogenesis, i.e. ZP thinned (but intact) and ZP cracked, caused by targeted mutation in the Zp1 gene. Using this mutant mouse strain and wild type mouse as control, we studied the effects of the ZP defects on the development of oocytes and granulosa cells during folliculogenesis. For each ZP defect, we examined the morphology of transz...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - June 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Wang Y, Lv C, Huang HL, Zeng MH, Yi DJ, Tan HJ, Peng TL, Yu WX, Deng HW, Xiao HM Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Germ cell-less hybrid fish: ideal recipient for spermatogonial transplantation for the rapid production of donor-derived sperm.
In this study, we evaluated the suitability of the germ cell-less fish as a recipient by transplanting donor testicular cells directly into the gonads through the urogenital papilla. The donor testicular cells were collected from hemizygous transgenic, green fluorescent protein (gfp) (+ / - ) blue drum and transplanted into the germ cell-less gonads of the 6-month-old adult hybrid croakers. Fluorescent and histological observations showed the colonization, proliferation, and differentiation of transplanted spermatogonial cells in the gonads of hybrid croakers. The earliest production of spermatozoa in a hybr...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 27, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Xu D, Yoshino T, Konishi J, Yoshikawa H, Ino Y, Yazawa R, Maria Dos S, Lacerda SN, de França LR, Takeuchi Y Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone increase Ca2+ in the granulosa cells of mouse ovarian follicles †.
Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone increase Ca2+ in the granulosa cells of mouse ovarian follicles†. Biol Reprod. 2019 May 14;: Authors: Egbert JR, Fahey PG, Reimer J, Owen CM, Evsikov AV, Nikolaev VO, Griesbeck O, Ray RS, Tolias AS, Jaffe LA Abstract In mammalian ovarian follicles, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) signal primarily through the G-protein Gs to elevate cAMP, but both of these hormones can also elevate Ca2+ under some conditions. Here we investigate FSH- and LH-induced Ca2+ signaling in intact follicles of mice expressing geneticall...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 14, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Egbert JR, Fahey PG, Reimer J, Owen CM, Evsikov AV, Nikolaev VO, Griesbeck O, Ray RS, Tolias AS, Jaffe LA Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Non-canonical RNA polyadenylation polymerase FAM46C is essential for fastening sperm head and flagellum in mice †.
In this study, we found that FAM46C is specifically localized to the manchette of spermatids in mouse testes, a transient microtubule-based structure mainly involved in nuclear shaping and intra-flagellar protein traffic. Gene knockout of Fam46c in mice resulted in male sterility, characterized by the production of headless spermatozoa in testes. Sperm heads were intermittently found in the epididymides of Fam46c knockout mice, but their fertilization ability was severely compromised based on the results of intracytoplasmic sperm injection assays. Interestingly, our RNA-sequencing analyses of Fam46c knockout testes reveale...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 14, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Zheng C, Ouyang YC, Jiang B, Lin X, Chen J, Dong MZ, Zhuang X, Yuan S, Sun QY, Han C Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Sperm-borne glutathione-s-transferase omega 2 accelerates the nuclear decondensation of spermatozoa during fertilization in mice †.
This study investigates the role of one such constituent, Glutathione-S-Transferase Omega 2 (GSTO2), an oxidative-reductive enzyme found in the PAS and perforatorial regions of the PT. GSTO2 uses the conjugation of reduced glutathione, an electron donor shown to be compulsory in sperm disassembly within the ooplasm. The proximity of GSTO2 to the condensed sperm nucleus led us to hypothesize that this enzyme may facilitate nuclear decondensation by reducing disulfide bonds before the recruitment of GSTO enzymes from within the ooplasm. To test this hypothesis, we utilized a cell permeable isozyme-specific inhibitor, which f...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 14, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Hamilton LE, Suzuki J, Aguila L, Meinsohn MC, Smith OE, Protopapas N, Xu W, Sutovsky P, Oko R Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

The epigenetic impacts of endocrine disruptors on female reproduction across generations †.
The epigenetic impacts of endocrine disruptors on female reproduction across generations†. Biol Reprod. 2019 May 11;: Authors: Rattan S, Flaws JA Abstract Humans and animals are repeatedly exposed to endocrine disruptors, many of which are ubiquitous in the environment. Endocrine disruptors interfere with hormone action; thus, causing non-monotonic dose responses that are atypical of standard toxicant exposures. The female reproductive system is particularly susceptible to the effects of endocrine disruptors. Likewise, exposures to endocrine disruptors during developmental periods are particula...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Rattan S, Flaws JA Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

What has single-cell RNA-seq taught us about mammalian spermatogenesis?
Abstract Mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex developmental program that transforms mitotic testicular germ cells (spermatogonia) into mature male gametes (sperm) for production of offspring. For decades, it has been known that this several-weeks-long process involves a series of highly-ordered and morphologically-recognizable cellular changes as spermatogonia proliferate, spermatocytes undertake meiosis, and spermatids develop condensed nuclei, acrosomes and flagella. Yet, much of the underlying molecular logic driving these processes has remained opaque because conventional characterization strategies often ag...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Suzuki S, Diaz VD, Hermann BP Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Establishment of novel monoclonal antibodies for identification of type A spermatogonia in teleosts1.
Abstract We recently established a germ cell transplantation system in salmonids. Donor germ cells transplanted into the body cavity of recipient embryos migrate toward and are incorporated into the recipient gonad, where they undergo gametogenesis. Among the various types of testicular germ cells, only type A spermatogonia (A-SG) can be incorporated into the recipient gonads. Enriching for A-SG is therefore important for improving the efficiency of germ cell transplantation. To enrich for A-SG, an antibody against a cell surface marker is a convenient and powerful approach used in mammals; however, little is know...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Hayashi M, Ichida K, Sadaie S, Miwa M, Fujihara R, Nagasaka Y, Yoshizaki G Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

"Artificial spermatid"-mediated genome editing.
"Artificial spermatid"-mediated genome editing. Biol Reprod. 2019 May 11;: Authors: Wang L, Li J Abstract For years, extensive efforts have been made to use mammalian sperm as the mediator to generate genetically modified animals, however the strategy of sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is unable to produce stable and diversified modifications in descendants. Recently, haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) have been successfully derived from haploid embryos carrying the genome of highly specialized gametes, and can stably maintain haploidy (through periodic cell sorting based on DNA quant...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Wang L, Li J Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Genetics of human female infertility.
Abstract About 10% of women of reproductive age are unable to conceive or carry a pregnancy to term. Female factors alone account for at least 35% of all infertility cases and comprise a wide range of causes affecting ovarian development, maturation of oocytes, and fertilization competence, as well as the potential of a fertilized egg for preimplantation development, implantation, and fetal growth. Genetic abnormalities leading to infertility in females comprise large chromosome abnormalities, submicroscopic chromosome deletion and duplications, and DNA sequence variations in the genes that control numerous biolog...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 11, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Yatsenko SA, Rajkovic A Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Androgens regulate follicle stage-dependent pro- and anti-apoptosis in teleost ovaries through ZIP9 activation of different G proteins †.
This study demonstrates that ZIP9 mediates opposite survival responses of croaker G/T cells by activating different G proteins in a follicle stage-dependent manner. PMID: 31074766 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 10, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Converse A, Thomas P Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

A segregating human allele of SPO11 modeled in mice disrupts timing and amounts of meiotic recombination, causing oligospermia and a decreased ovarian reserve.
Abstract A major challenge in medical genetics is to characterize variants of unknown significance (VUS). Doing so would help delineate underlying causes of disease and the design of customized treatments. Infertility has presented an especially difficult challenge with respect to not only determining if a given patient has a genetic basis, but also to identify the causative genetic factor(s). Though genome sequencing can identify candidate variants, in silico predictions of causation are not always sufficiently reliable so as to be actionable. Thus, experimental validation is crucial. Here, we describe the phenot...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 10, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tran TN, Schimenti JC Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Profiles of prostaglandin F2 α metabolite (PGFM) in dairy cattle during luteal regression and pregnancy: implications for corpus luteum maintenance.
In this study, characterization of PGFM and P4 occurred through continuous bihourly blood sampling in cows undergoing CL regression (D18-21, n = 5), and during the first (D18-21, n = 5) and second month (D47-61; n = 16) of pregnancy. Cattle in the second month were assigned to control (n = 8) or oxytocin treatment (n = 8; three pulses to mimic luteolysis) to evaluate if oxytocin receptors were active. All cows but one (which had elevated PGFM prior to oxytocin treatment) maintained the pregnancy. Basal PGFM concentrations were low (11.6 ± 0.7 pg/mL) in firs...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 8, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Mezera MA, Hamm CS, Gamarra CA, Gennari RS, Prata AB, Sartori R, Wiltbank MC Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Hemoglobin: potential roles in the oocyte and early embryo.
Abstract Hemoglobin (Hb) is commonly known for its capacity to bind and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in erythroid cells. However, it plays additional roles in cellular function and health due to its capacity to bind other gases including nitric oxide. Further, Hb acts as a potent antioxidant, quenching reactive oxygen species. Despite its potential roles in cellular function, the preponderance of Hb research remains focused on its role in oxygen regulation. There is increasing evidence that Hb expression is more ubiquitous than previously thought, with Hb and its variants found in a myriad of cell types ran...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 6, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Lim M, Brown HM, Kind KL, Thompson JG, Dunning KR Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

A Tale of Two Tracts: history, current advances and future directions of research on sexual differentiation of reproductive tracts.
Abstract Alfred Jost's work in 1940s laid the foundation of the current paradigm of sexual differentiation of reproductive tracts, which contends that testicular hormones drive the male patterning of reproductive tract system whereas the female phenotype arises by default. Once established, the sex-specific reproductive tracts undergo morphogenesis, giving rise to anatomically and functionally distinct tubular organs along the rostral-caudal axis. Impairment of sexual differentiation of reproductive tracts by genetic alteration and environmental exposure are the main causes of disorders of sex development, and inf...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 6, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Zhao F, Yao HH Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Growth differentiation factor 8 regulates SMAD2/3 signaling and improves oocyte quality during porcine oocyte maturation in vitro.
In conclusion, for the first time, we demonstrated paracrine factor GDF8 in porcine follicular fluid in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that GDF8 supplementation improved mature oocyte quality by regulating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and intracellular glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during porcine IVM. PMID: 31004472 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 20, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Yoon JD, Hwang SU, Kim M, Jeon Y, Hyun SH Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Sulforaphane ameliorates high-fat diet-induced spermatogenic deficiency in mice.
In this study, 8-week-old mice were randomly divided into four groups. Mice were fed a normal diet or an HFD with or without SFN supplementation. SFN was subcutaneously injected at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg 5 days/week for 4 weeks beginning 8 weeks after initiation of the HFD. The results demonstrated that SFN could protect against HFD-induced reproductive dysfunction in male mice. Moreover, SFN also improved reproductive ability, as demonstrated by an increased pregnancy rate and decreased embryo resorption rate in comparison to the corresponding HFD group. We also observed a decrease in apoptosis and an attenuation of endoplas...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 20, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Mu Y, Yin TL, Huang XX, Hu X, Yin L, Yang J Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

CXCR4 signaling at the ovine fetal-maternal interface regulates vascularization, CD34  + cell presence, and autophagy in the endometrium.
This study suggests that CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling governs placental homeostasis by serving as a critical upstream mediator of vascularization and cell viability, thereby ensuring appropriate placental development. PMID: 31004477 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 20, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Runyan CL, McIntosh SZ, Maestas MM, Quinn KE, Boren BP, Ashley RL Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

A molecular tool for menstrual cycle phase dating in endometriosis transcriptomic studies.
K, Peters M PMID: 31004479 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 20, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Saare M, Laisk T, Teder H, Paluoja P, Koel M, Kirss F, Karro H, Sõritsa D, Salumets A, Krjutškov K, Peters M Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Intraflagellar transport protein 74 is essential for spermatogenesis and male fertility in mice ‡.
In this study, we investigated its role in sperm flagella formation and discovered that mice deficiency in Ift74 gene in male germ cells were infertile associated with low sperm count and immotile sperm. The few developed spermatozoa displayed misshaped heads and short tails. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal flagellar axoneme in the seminiferous tubules where sperm are made. Clusters of unassembled microtubules were present in the spermatids. Testicular expression levels of IFT27, IFT57, IFT81, IFT88 and IFT140 proteins were significantly reduced in the conditional Ift74 mutant mice, with the exception of...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 20, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Shi L, Zhou T, Huang Q, Zhang S, Li W, Zhang L, Hess RA, Pazour GJ, Zhang Z Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

The incorporation of cystine by the soluble carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11) is a component of the redox regulatory mechanism in stallion spermatozoa.
ínez H, Peña FJ Abstract Oxidative stress is considered a major mechanism causing sperm damage during cryopreservation and storage, and underlies male factor infertility. Currently, oxidative stress is no longer believed to be caused only by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, but rather by the deregulation of redox signaling and control mechanisms. With this concept in mind, here, we describe for the first time the presence of the soluble carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11) antiporter, which exchanges extracellular cystine (Cyss) for intracellular glutamate, in stallion spermatozoa, as w...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 18, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Ortiz-Rodriguez JM, Martín-Cano FE, Ortega-Ferrusola C, Masot J, Redondo E, Gázquez A, Gil MC, Aparicio IM, Rojo-Domínguez P, Tapia JA, Rodriguez-Martínez H, Peña FJ Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Impaired decidualization caused by downregulation of Circadian Clock Gene BMAL1 contributes to human recurrent miscarriage.
Abstract Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is characterized by two or more consecutive losses of a clinically established intrauterine pregnancy at early gestation. To date, the etiology of RM remains poorly understood. Impaired decidualization is thought to predispose women to subsequent pregnancy failure. The transcriptional factor brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (BMAL1) controls circadian rhythms and regulates a very large diversity of physiological processes. BMAL1 is essential for fertility. Here, we investigated the expression and function of BMAL1 in human decidualization and i...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 15, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Lv S, Wang N, Ma J, Li WP, Chen ZJ, Zhang C Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

CFTR mutation compromises spermatogenesis by enhancing miR-15b maturation and suppressing its regulatory target CDC25A.
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been shown to be important for spermatogenesis; both DROSHA and Dicer1 KO mice exhibit infertility due to abnormal miRNA expression. However, the roles of individual miRNAs in spermatogenesis remain elusive. Here we demonstrated that miR-15b, a member of the miR-15/16 family, is primarily expressed in testis. A miR-15b transgenic mouse model was constructed to investigate the role of miR-15b in spermatogenesis. Impaired spermatogenesis was observed in miR-15b transgenic mice, suggesting that appropriate expression of miR-15b is vital for spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we de...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 15, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Chen Y, Li X, Liao H, Leung X, He J, Wang X, Li F, Yue H, Xu W Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Valine increases milk fat synthesis in mammary gland of gilts through stimulating AKT/MTOR/SREBP1 pathway ‡.
Valine increases milk fat synthesis in mammary gland of gilts through stimulating AKT/MTOR/SREBP1 pathway‡. Biol Reprod. 2019 Apr 15;: Authors: Che L, Xu M, Gao K, Zhu C, Wang L, Yang X, Wen X, Xiao H, Jiang Z, Wu Abstract Lactating mammary glands are among the most active lipogenic organs and provide a large percentage of bioactive lipids and calories for infant growth. The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) valine is known to modulate fatty acids synthesis in adipose tissue; however, its effects on fat metabolism and the underlying mechanisms in mammary glands remain to be determined. Valine su...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 15, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Che L, Xu M, Gao K, Zhu C, Wang L, Yang X, Wen X, Xiao H, Jiang Z, Wu Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Conservation of chicken male germ line by orthotopic transplantation of primordial germ cells from genetically distant donors †.
Conservation of chicken male germ line by orthotopic transplantation of primordial germ cells from genetically distant donors†. Biol Reprod. 2019 Apr 13;: Authors: Mucksová J, Reinišová M, Kalina J, Lejčková B, Hejnar J, Trefil P Abstract Successful derivation and cultivation of primordial germ cells (PGC) opened the way to efficient transgenesis and genome editing in the chicken. Furthermore, implantation of male PGCs from non-chicken galliform species into the chicken embryos resulted in cross-species germ line chimeras and viable offspring. We have recently impro...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 13, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Mucksová J, Reinišová M, Kalina J, Lejčková B, Hejnar J, Trefil P Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Bovine endometrium responds differentially to age-matched short and long conceptuses.
This study combined in vitro production of bovine blastocysts, multiple embryo transfer techniques and a conceptus-endometrial explant co-culture system to test the hypothesis that bovine endometrium exposed to long vs. short Day 15 conceptuses would exhibit a different transcriptome profile reflective of potential for successful pregnancy establishment. Bovine endometrial explants collected at the late luteal stage of the estrous cycle were cultured in RPMI medium for 6 h with nothing (Control), 100 ng/ml recombinant ovine interferon tau (IFNT), a long Day 15 conceptus, or a short Day 15 conceptus. Transcriptional profili...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 12, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Sánchez JM, Mathew DJ, Behura SK, Passaro C, Charpigny G, Butler ST, Spencer TE, Lonergan P Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Active Peristaltic Movements and Fluid Production of the Mouse Oviduct: Their Roles in Fluid and Sperm Transport and Fertilization †.
Active Peristaltic Movements and Fluid Production of the Mouse Oviduct: Their Roles in Fluid and Sperm Transport and Fertilization†. Biol Reprod. 2019 Apr 12;: Authors: Hino T, Yanagimachi R Abstract To study how the oviduct behaves in relation to fluid secretion and sperm transport, ovary-oviduct-uterus complexes of the mouse were installed in a fluid-circulating chamber without disturbing the blood circulation or parasympathetic innervation. Injection of a bolus of Indian ink into the lower isthmus revealed very active adovarian peristalsis of the isthmus, which was most prominent during the ...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 12, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Hino T, Yanagimachi R Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 are Elevated in Human Preterm Laboring Uterine Myometrium and Exacerbate Uterine Contractility.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest abnormal MMP2/9 expression affects the contractile state of the uterine myometrium to promote parturition and that MMP2/9 inhibition attenuates this effect. PMID: 30951583 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 5, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Ulrich CC, Arinze V, Wandscheer CB, Salem CC, Nabati C, Etezadi-Amoli N, Burkin HR Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

GPAT2 is required for piRNA biogenesis, transposon silencing, and maintenance of spermatogonia in mice.
In this study, we generated GPAT2-deficient mice and conducted comprehensive analyses. The deficient mice showed defective piRNA production and subsequent de-silencing of IAP and Line-1 retrotransposons in fetal testes. In addition, apoptosis of pachytene spermatocytes was observed. These abnormalities were all common to the phenotype of PIWIL2-deficient mice, in which piRNA production was impaired. GPAT2-deficient mice exhibited apoptosis in spermatogonia at the neonatal stage, which was not observed in PIWIL2-deficient mice. These data show that GPAT2 plays a critical role in preventing apoptosis in spermatogonia. P...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 5, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Shiromoto Y, Kuramochi-Miyagawa S, Nagamori I, Chuma S, Arakawa T, Nishimura T, Hasuwa H, Tachibana T, Ikawa M, Nakano T Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

The Genomic Distribution of Histone H3K4me2 in Spermatogonia is Highly Conserved in Sperm.
Abstract Environmental exposures can alter the long-term health and development of offspring. How this environmental information is transmitted via the germline remains unknown, but it is thought to involve epigenetic inheritance. We recently determined that genetic disruption of histone H3 di-methylation at lysine 4 (H3K4me2) in sperm alters gene expression in the embryo and negatively impacts development across generations. However, little is known regarding when in spermatogenesis H3K4me2 methylation is established, and whether specific regions bearing H3K4me2 resist the epigenome remodelling that occurs throug...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 5, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Lambrot R, Siklenka K, Lafleur C, Kimmins S Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Prenatal Exposure to Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and High-fat Diet Synergistically Disrupts Mouse Fetal Oogenesis and Affects Folliculogenesis.
In this study, our goal was to determine if there are synergistic effects of DEHP exposure at an environmentally relevant level (20 μg/kg body weight/day) and high-fat diet on oogenesis and folliculogenesis. Dams were fed with a high-fat diet (45 kcal% fat) or a control diet (10 kcal% fat) one week before mating and during pregnancy and lactation. The pregnant mice were dosed with DEHP (20 μg/kg body weight/day) or vehicle control from E10.5 to litter birth. We discovered that treatment with an environmentally relevant dosage of DEHP and consumption of high-fat diet significantly increases synapsis defects in meiosis...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 2, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Mirihagalle S, You T, Suh L, Patel C, Gao L, Rattan S, Qiao H Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Human recombinant fsh induces chemoresistance in human breast cancer cells via hif-1 α activation.
Human recombinant fsh induces chemoresistance in human breast cancer cells via hif-1α activation. Biol Reprod. 2019 Apr 02;: Authors: Bergandi L, Canosa S, Pittatore G, Silvagno F, Doublier S, Gennarelli G, Benedetto C, Revelli A Abstract Breast cancer patients under 40 years of age who are candidate to chemotherapy with alkylating drugs may undergo controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with human recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH) in order to get fertility preservation by mature oocyte cryostorage. The direct effect(s) of exogenous rhFSH on the chemosensitivity of breast cancer is ...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 2, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Bergandi L, Canosa S, Pittatore G, Silvagno F, Doublier S, Gennarelli G, Benedetto C, Revelli A Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Plasminogen activator, tissue type regulates germinal vesicle breakdown and cumulus expansion of bovine cumulus-oocyte complex in vitro †.
Plasminogen activator, tissue type regulates germinal vesicle breakdown and cumulus expansion of bovine cumulus-oocyte complex in vitro†. Biol Reprod. 2019 Apr 02;: Authors: Yu BY, Subudeng G, Du CG, Liu ZH, Zhao YF, Namei E, Bai Y, Yang BX, Li HJ Abstract Plasminogen activator, tissue type (PLAT) and its inhibitor serpin family E member 1 (SERPINE1) cooperatively regulate PLAT activity in various reproductive processes. However, it is unknown whether this includes bovine oocyte maturation. We addressed this question in the present study by evaluating PLAT and SERPINE1 protein localization in i...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 2, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Yu BY, Subudeng G, Du CG, Liu ZH, Zhao YF, Namei E, Bai Y, Yang BX, Li HJ Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

The perforatorium and postacrosomal sheath of rat spermatozoa share common developmental origins and protein constituents †.
The perforatorium and postacrosomal sheath of rat spermatozoa share common developmental origins and protein constituents†. Biol Reprod. 2019 Apr 02;: Authors: Protopapas N, Hamilton L, Warkentin R, Xu W, Sutovsky P, Oko R Abstract The perinuclear theca (PT) is a cytosolic protein capsule that surrounds the nucleus of eutherian spermatozoa. Compositionally, it is divided into two regions: the subacrosomal layer (SAL) and the postacrosomal sheath (PAS). In falciform spermatozoa, a third region of the PT emerges that extends beyond the nuclear apex called the perforatorium. The formation of the S...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 2, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Protopapas N, Hamilton L, Warkentin R, Xu W, Sutovsky P, Oko R Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Specific visualization of live type A spermatogonia of Pacific bluefin tuna using fluorescent dye-conjugated antibodies †.
Specific visualization of live type A spermatogonia of Pacific bluefin tuna using fluorescent dye-conjugated antibodies†. Biol Reprod. 2019 Apr 01;: Authors: Ichida K, Kawamura W, Miwa M, Iwasaki Y, Kubokawa T, Hayashi M, Yazawa R, Yoshizaki G Abstract During our previous work toward establishing surrogate broodstock that can produce donor-derived gametes by germ cell transplantation, we found that only type A spermatogonia (ASGs) have the potency to colonize recipient gonads. Therefore, the ability to visualize ASGs specifically would allow the sequential analysis of donor cell behavior in the...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Ichida K, Kawamura W, Miwa M, Iwasaki Y, Kubokawa T, Hayashi M, Yazawa R, Yoshizaki G Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Endo-siRNAs regulate early embryonic development by inhibiting transcription of long terminal repeat sequence in pig.
Abstract Activity of some endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) has been proven to be important for development of early mammalian embryo. However, abnormal activation of ERVs can also cause genetic diseases due to their ability to retrotranspose, so the regulatory mechanism to limit transcription of ERVs needs to be clarified. Endogenous small interfering RNA (endo-siRNA) has been reported to protect cells against transposable elements (TEs). Here, we determined the role of ERVs long terminal repeat sequences (LTRs) derived endo-siRNAs (LTR-siRNAs) on inhibition of the activity of ERVs during early embryonic development...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 18, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Kong Q, Quan X, Du J, Tai Y, Liu W, Zhang J, Zhang X, Mu Y, Liu Z Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 and 2 regulate granulosa cell mitosis and survival through a NF ΚB-dependent mechanism.
Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 and 2 regulate granulosa cell mitosis and survival through a NFΚB-dependent mechanism. Biol Reprod. 2019 Mar 16;: Authors: Peluso JJ, Pru CA, Liu X, Kelp NC, Pru JK Abstract Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1) interacts with PGRMC2 and disrupting this interaction in spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCS) leads to an inappropriate entry into the cell cycle, mitotic arrest and ultimately cell death. The present study revealed that PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 localize to the cytoplasm of murine granulosa cells of non-atretric follicles wi...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 16, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Peluso JJ, Pru CA, Liu X, Kelp NC, Pru JK Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Comprehensive evaluation of ubiquitous promoters suitable for the generation of transgenic cynomolgus monkeys †.
Comprehensive evaluation of ubiquitous promoters suitable for the generation of transgenic cynomolgus monkeys†. Biol Reprod. 2019 Mar 14;: Authors: Seita Y, Tsukiyama T, Azami T, Kobayashi K, Iwatani C, Tsuchiya H, Nakaya M, Tanabe H, Hitoshi S, Miyoshi H, Nakamura S, Kawauchi A, Ema M Abstract Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are considered to be the most valuable models for human transgenic (Tg) research into disease, because human pathology is more closely recapitulated in NHPs than rodents. Previous studies have reported the generation of Tg NHPs that ubiquitously overexpress a transgene using vari...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 14, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Seita Y, Tsukiyama T, Azami T, Kobayashi K, Iwatani C, Tsuchiya H, Nakaya M, Tanabe H, Hitoshi S, Miyoshi H, Nakamura S, Kawauchi A, Ema M Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Endometrial cells contribute to preexisting endometriosis lesions in a mouse model of retrograde menstruation.
Abstract Endometriosis is characterized by extra-uterine growth of endometrial tissue accompanied by adverse clinical manifestations including chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Retrograde menstruation, the efflux of endometrium into the peritoneal cavity during menstruation, is believed to contribute to implantation of endometrial tissue and formation of endometriotic lesions at ectopic sites. While it is established through various rodent and non-human primate models that endometrial tissue fragments, as well as non-dissociated stroma and glands, are capable of seeding endometriosis in a manner mimicking retro...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 14, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tal A, Tal R, Pluchino N, Taylor HS Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Gasotransmitters in pregnancy: from conception to uterine involution †.
Gasotransmitters in pregnancy: from conception to uterine involution†. Biol Reprod. 2019 Mar 08;: Authors: Guerra DD, Hurt KJ Abstract BACKGROUND: Gaso-transmitters are endogenous small gaseous messengers exemplified by nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S or sulfide). Gasotransmitters are implicated in myriad physiologic functions including many aspects of reproduction. OBJECTIVE: Comprehensively review basic mechanisms and functions of gasotransmitters during pregnancy from conception to uterine involution and highlight future research opportunities. . ...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 8, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Guerra DD, Hurt KJ Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Hyperprolactinemic African elephant (Loxodonta africana) females exhibit elevated dopamine, oxytocin and serotonin concentrations compared to normal cycling and non-cycling, low prolactin elephants.
The objective of this study was to determine how longitudinal dopamine, serotonin and oxytocin patterns in African elephants are related to ovarian cycle function. We hypothesized that dopamine concentrations are decreased, while oxytocin and serotonin are increased in non-cycling, hyperprolactinemic African elephants. Weekly urine and serum samples were collected for 8 consecutive months from 28 female African elephants. Females were categorized as: 1) non-cycling with average prolactin concentrations of 15 ng/ml or greater (HIGH; n = 7); 2) non-cycling with average prolactin concentrations below 15 ng/ml (LOW; ...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 8, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Prado NA, Keady M, Oestmann A, Steinbeiser CM, Brown JL Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Translational activation of maternally-derived mRNAs in oocytes and early embryos and the role of embryonic poly(A) binding protein (EPAB).
Abstract Transcription ceases upon stimulation of oocyte maturation and gene expression during oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early cleavage relies on translational-activation of maternally-derived mRNAs. Two key mechanisms that mediate translation of mRNAs in oocytes have been described in detail: cytoplasmic polyadenylation-dependent and -independent. Both of these mechanisms utilize specific protein complexes that interact with cis-acting sequences located on 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), and both involve embryonic poly(A) binding protein (EPAB), the predominant poly(A) binding protein during early de...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - February 26, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Esencan E, Kallen A, Zhang M, Seli E Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Sperm selection methods in the 21st century.
Abstract Natural sperm selection in humans is a rigorous process resulting in the highest quality sperm reaching, and having an opportunity to fertilize, the oocyte. Relative to other mammalian species, the human ejaculate consists of a heterogeneous pool of sperm, varying in characteristics such as shape, size and motility. Semen preparation in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has long been performed using either a simple swim up method or density gradients. Both methodologies provide highly motile sperm populations, however neither replicate the complex selection processes seen in nature. A number of met...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - February 25, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Vaughan DA, Sakkas D Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

An Interview with Dr Blanche Capel.
PMID: 30801633 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - February 25, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Kumar TR Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Cooperative effects of sequential PGF2 α and IL-1β on IL-6 and COX-2 expression in human myometrial cells.
Cooperative effects of sequential PGF2α and IL-1β on IL-6 and COX-2 expression in human myometrial cells. Biol Reprod. 2019 Feb 22;: Authors: Leimert KB, Verstraeten BSE, Messer A, Nemati R, Blackadar K, Fang X, Robertson SA, Chemtob S, Olson DM Abstract Complex cellular and physiological interactions are required to prepare the uterus for birth. The change from the state of pregnancy to the state of parturition, which we call uterine transitioning, requires the actions of inflammatory mediators and results in an activated uterus capable of performing the physiology of labor. Interleukin (I...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - February 22, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Leimert KB, Verstraeten BSE, Messer A, Nemati R, Blackadar K, Fang X, Robertson SA, Chemtob S, Olson DM Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research