High Content Imaging Analyses of the Effects of Bisphenols and Organophosphate Esters on TM4 Mouse Sertoli Cells
Biol Reprod. 2022 May 20:ioac101. doi: 10.1093/biolre/ioac101. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe endocrine disruptive effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and brominated flame retardants (BDE-47) have led to restrictions to their use and increased the pressure to identify safe replacements for these chemicals. Although there is evidence that some of these alternatives may be toxic to spermatogonial and Leydig cells, little is known about the toxicity of emerging replacements on Sertoli cells, one of the major testicular cell types. We used high-content imaging to compare the effects of legacy chemicals, BPA and BDE-47, to their co...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 21, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Abishankari Rajkumar Trang Luu Barbara F Hales Bernard Robaire Source Type: research

Fancb deficiency causes premature ovarian insufficiency in mice †
In this study, we found that the fertility of Fancb knockout male mice in C57/ICR mixed backgrounds was not affected. Female Fancb-/- mice were obtained by crossing Fancb+/- females with Fancb-/Y males. The number of PGCs was dramatically decreased in Fancb-/- females. Very few oocytes were observed after birth and primordial follicle pool was completely depleted at 6 weeks of age in Fancb-/- females. However, the remained oocytes from Fancb-/- mice were normal in fertilization and embryonic development from 2-cell to blastocyst stage. We also found that Fancb and Fancl double knockout males were also fertile and the numbe...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 21, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Changhuo Cen Junhua Chen Limei Lin Min Chen Fangfang Dong Zhiming Shen Xiuhong Cui Xiaohui Hou Fei Gao Source Type: research

Hypoxia-induced polarization of M2 macrophages and CCL5 secretion promotes the migration and invasion of trophoblasts
Biol Reprod. 2022 May 19:ioac100. doi: 10.1093/biolre/ioac100. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn the early stage of pregnancy, hypoxia in the placenta is of great significance to the migration and invasion of trophoblasts. In addition, changes to the polarity and activity of macrophages can affect embryo implantation, trophoblast migration and invasion, and vascular remodeling by affecting cytokine secretion. However, the mechanism of the effects of hypoxic conditions in the placenta on trophoblasts remains unknown. We used gene knockdown on macrophages, and drug treatment on trophoblasts, and cultured them under hypoxic an...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 20, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Xin Chen Qian Lin Song Rui Ji Jia Yu Wang Ze Hong Li Zhuo Ni Xiao DuanYing Guo Jing Yang Source Type: research

Collagen and elastic fiber remodeling in the pregnant mouse myometrium
This study was aimed to demonstrate the expression profile of sub-sets of genes involved in the synthesis, processing, and assembly of collagen and elastic fibers, their structural remodeling during pregnancy, and hormonal regulation. Myometrial tissues were isolated from non-pregnant and pregnant mice to analyze gene expression and protein levels of components of collagen and elastic fibers. Second harmonic generation imaging was used to examine the morphology of collagen and elastic fibers. Gene and protein expression of collagen and elastin were induced very early in pregnancy. Further, the gene expression of some of th...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 20, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Alexis Ouellette Mala Mahendroo Shanmugasundaram Nallasamy Source Type: research

Placental expression of Estrogen related receptor gamma (ESRRG) is reduced in FGR pregnancies and is mediated by hypoxia
Biol Reprod. 2022 May 19:ioac108. doi: 10.1093/biolre/ioac108. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFetal growth restriction (FGR) describes a fetus which has not achieved its genetic growth potential, it is closely linked to placental dysfunction and uteroplacental hypoxia. Estrogen related receptor gamma (ESRRG) is regulated by hypoxia and is highly expressed in the placenta. We hypothesised ESRRG is a regulator of hypoxia-mediated placental dysfunction in FGR pregnancies. Placentas were collected from women delivering appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 14) or FGR (n = 14) infants. Placental explants (n = 15) from uncomp...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 20, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Zhiyong Zou Lynda K Harris Karen Forbes Alexander E P Heazell Source Type: research

Loss of raptor induces Sertoli cells into an undifferentiated state in mice
Biol Reprod. 2022 May 19:ioac104. doi: 10.1093/biolre/ioac104. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn mammals, testis development is triggered by expression of the sex-determining Y-chromosome gene SRY to commit Sertoli cell (SC) fate at gonadal sex determination in the fetus. Several genes have been identified to be required to promote the testis pathway following SRY activation (i.e. SOX9) in embryo; however, largely remains unknown about the genes and mechanisms involved in stabilizing the testis pathway after birth and throughout adulthood. Herein, we report that postnatal males with SC-specific deletion of Raptor demonstrat...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 20, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Minyu Xie Xiao Hu Lei Li Zhi Xiong Hanbin Zhang Yuge Zhuang Zicong Huang Jinsheng Liu Jingyao Lian Chuyu Huang Qiang Xie Xiangjin Kang Yong Fan Xiaochun Bai Zhenguo Chen Source Type: research

Recent advances on the relationship between the DLK1 system and central precocious puberty
Biol Reprod. 2022 May 19:ioac106. doi: 10.1093/biolre/ioac106. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPrecocious puberty, as a common pediatric endocrine disease, can be divided into central precocious puberty (CPP) and peripheral precocious puberty (PPP), even though most cases of precocious puberty are diagnosed as CPP. According to its etiology, CPP can be further divided into organic and idiopathic CPP. However, the mechanisms of idiopathic CPP have not yet been fully elucidated. Currently, four genes, including the kisspeptin gene (KISS1), the kisspeptin receptor gene (KISS1R), the makorin ring finger protein 3 (MKRN3), and th...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 20, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Yating Lin Yuanyuan He Wen Sun Yonghong Wang Jian Yu Source Type: research

The Ruminant Placental Trophoblast Binucleate cell - an evolutionary breakthrough
Biol Reprod. 2022 May 19:ioac107. doi: 10.1093/biolre/ioac107. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTViviparity and the development of a placenta are two of the major reasons for the success of the mammals in colonising all habitats, both terrestrial and aquatic. The placenta is an apposition of fetal to maternal tissue which serves two main, but competing functions: to maximise oxygen transfer and the acquisition of nutrients from the mother, but to minimise immunological rejection by the maternal immune system. This has resulted in the evolution of four main types differing in the degree of loss of the maternal uterine epithelia...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 20, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: F B P Wooding Source Type: research

Advanced molecular approaches in male infertility diagnosis
Biol Reprod. 2022 May 19:ioac105. doi: 10.1093/biolre/ioac105. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn the recent years a special attention has been given to a major health concern namely to male infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse, taken into account the statistics that highlight that sperm counts have dropped by 50-60% in recent decades. According to the WHO, infertility affects approximately 9% of couples globally, and the male factor is believed to be present in roughly 50% of cases, with exclusive responsibility in 30%. The aim of this manuscript is to p...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 20, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: A Botezatu S Vladoiu A Fudulu A Albulescu A Plesa A Muresan C Stancu I V Iancu C C Diaconu A Velicu O M Popa C Badiu D Dinu-Draganescu Source Type: research

Uterine NK cell functions at maternal-fetal interface
Biol Reprod. 2022 May 11:ioac094. doi: 10.1093/biolre/ioac094. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDuring pregnancy, maternal decidual tissue interacts with fetal trophoblasts. They constitute the maternal-fetal interface responsible for supplying nutrition to the fetus. Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are the most abundant immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy and play critical roles throughout pregnancy. This review provides current knowledge about the functions of uNK cells. uNK cells have been shown to facilitate remodeling of the spiral artery, control the invasion of extravillous trophoblas...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 13, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Xiuxiu Xu Yonggang Zhou Binqing Fu Haiming Wei Source Type: research

The mystery of the life tree: the placenta
Biol Reprod. 2022 May 11:ioac095. doi: 10.1093/biolre/ioac095. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe placenta is the interface between the fetal and maternal environments during mammalian gestation, critically safeguarding the health of the developing fetus and the mother. Placental trophoblasts origin from embryonic trophectoderm that differentiates into various trophoblastic subtypes through villous and extravillous pathways. The trophoblasts actively interact with multiple decidual cells and immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface and thus construct fundamental functional units, which are responsible for blood perfusio...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 13, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Xuan Shao Wenzhe Yu Yun Yang Feiyang Wang Xin Yu Hongyu Wu Yeling Ma Bin Cao Yan-Ling Wang Source Type: research

De novo programming: establishment of epigenome in mammalian oocytes
Biol Reprod. 2022 May 11:ioac091. doi: 10.1093/biolre/ioac091. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInnovations in ultrasensitive and single-cell measurements enable us to study layers of genome regulation in the view of cellular and regulatory heterogeneity. Genome-scale mapping allows to evaluate epigenetic features and dynamics in different genomic contexts, including genebodies, CGIs, ICRs, promoters, PMDs, and repetitive elements. The epigenome of early embryos, fetal germ cells, and sperm has been extensively studied for the past decade, while oocytes remain less clear. Emerging evidence now supports the notion that transcr...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 13, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Jingjing Qian Fan Guo Source Type: research

Elongating porcine conceptuses can utilize Glutaminolysis as an Anaplerotic pathway to maintain the TCA cycle
Biol Reprod. 2022 May 11:ioac097. doi: 10.1093/biolre/ioac097. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDuring the peri-implantation period of pregnancy, the trophectoderm of pig conceptuses utilize glucose via multiple biosynthetic pathways to support elongation and implantation, resulting in limited availability of pyruvate for metabolism via the TCA cycle. Therefore, we hypothesized that porcine trophectoderm cells replenish TCA cycle intermediates via a process known as anaplerosis, and that trophectoderm cells convert glutamine to α-ketoglutarate, a TCA cycle intermediate, through glutaminolysis. Results demonstrate: 1) that ex...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 13, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Heewon Seo Avery C Kramer Bryan A McLendon Joe W Cain Robert C Burghardt Guoyao Wu Fuller W Bazer Greg A Johnson Source Type: research

Deconstructing human peri-implantation embryogenesis based on embryos and embryoids
Biol Reprod. 2022 May 11:ioac096. doi: 10.1093/biolre/ioac096. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe peri-implantation period from blastula to gastrula is one of the crucial stages of human embryo and stem cell development. During development, human embryos undergo many crucial events, such as embryonic lineage differentiation and development, structural self-assembly, pluripotency state transition, cell communication between lineages, and crosstalk between the embryo and uterus. Abnormalities in these developmental events will result in implantation failure or pregnancy loss. However, because of ethical and technical limits, ...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 13, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Zongyong Ai Yu Yin Baohua Niu Tianqing Li Source Type: research

MTOR-mediated interaction between the oocyte and granulosa cells regulates the development and function of both compartments in mice
Biol Reprod. 2022 May 12:ioac099. doi: 10.1093/biolre/ioac099. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCoordinated development of the germline and the somatic compartments within a follicle is an essential prerequisite for creating a functionally normal oocyte. Bi-directional communication between the oocyte and the granulosa cells enables the frequent interchange of metabolites and signals that support the development and functions of both compartments. Mechanistic target of Rapamycin (MTOR), a conserved serine/threonine kinase and a widely recognized integrator of signals and pathways key for cellular metabolism, proliferation, an...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 13, 2022 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: You-Qiang Su Yaoxue Yin Jing Guo Xuhong Gong Yufeng Tian Lanying Shi Source Type: research