Anti-M üllerian Hormone production in the ovary: a comparative study in bovine and porcine granulosa cells.
In this study, we aimed to determine the origin of the difference, in terms of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) production, existing between the bovine and porcine ovaries. We first confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA assay and immunohistochemistry that AMH mRNA and protein production are very low in porcine ovarian growing follicles compared to bovine ones. We then have transfected porcine and bovine granulosa cells with vectors containing the luciferase gene driven by the porcine or the bovine AMH promoter. These transfection experiments showed that the porcine AMH promoter is less active and less responsive to bone...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 20, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Estienne A, Jarrier P, Staub C, Venturi E, Le Vern Y, Clemente N, Monniaux D, Monget P Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

CE2 Receptor Expression in Testes: Implications in COVID-19 Pathogenesis.
PMID: 32427288 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 19, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Verma S, Saksena S, Sadri-Ardekani H Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Gene analysis of major signalling pathways regulated by gonadotropins in human ovarian granulosa tumour cells (KGN) †.
Gene analysis of major signalling pathways regulated by gonadotropins in human ovarian granulosa tumour cells (KGN)†. Biol Reprod. 2020 May 19;: Authors: Tremblay PG, Sirard MA Abstract The female reproductive function largely depends on timing and coordination between follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Even though it was suggested that these hormones act on granulosa cells via shared signalling pathways, mainly protein kinases A, B, and C (PKA, PKB, PKC), there is still very little information available on how these signalling pathways are regulated by each hormon...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 19, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tremblay PG, Sirard MA Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Loss of myosin VI expression affects acrosome/acroplaxome complex morphology during mouse spermiogenesis.
Abstract During spermiogenesis in mammals actin filaments and a variety of actin-binding proteins are involved in the formation and function of highly specialized testis-specific structures. Actin-based motor proteins, such as myosin Va and VIIa, play a key role in this complex process of spermatid transformation into mature sperm. We have previously demonstrated that myosin VI (MYO6) is also expressed in mouse testes. It is present in actin-rich structures important for spermatid development, including one of the earliest events in spermiogenesis-acrosome formation. Here, we demonstrate using immunofluorescence, ...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 15, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Zakrzewski P, Rędowicz MJ, Buss F, Lenartowska M Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

CCL20-CCR6 axis directs sperm-oocyte interaction and its dysregulation correlates/associates with male infertility.
Allam JP, Homey B Abstract The interaction of sperm with the oocyte is pivotal during the process of mammalian fertilization. The limited numbers of sperm that reach the fallopian tube as well as anatomic restrictions indicate that human sperm-oocyte encounter is not a matter of chance but a directed process. Chemotaxis is the proposed mechanism for re-orientating sperm towards the source of a chemoattractant, and hence to the oocyte. Chemokines represent a superfamily of small (8-11 kDa), cytokine-like proteins that have been shown to mediate chemotaxis and tissue-specific homing of leukocytes through bindin...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 15, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Duan YG, Wehry UP, Buhren BA, Schrumpf H, Oláh P, Bünemann E, Yu CF, Chen SJ, Müller A, Hirchenhain J, van Lierop A, Novak N, Cai ZM, Krüssel JS, Schuppe HC, Haidl G, Gerber PA, Allam JP, Homey B Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Knockdown of IP3R1 Disrupts TBC-ER Contact Sites and the Morphology of Apical Processes Encapsulating Late Spermatids.
Abstract Tubulobulbar complexes (TBCs) internalize intercellular junctions during sperm release. One of the characteristic features of TBCs is that they form 'bulbs' or swollen regions that have well defined membrane contact sites (MCS) with adjacent cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum. Previously, we have localized the IP3R calcium channel to the TBC bulb-ER contacts and have hypothesized that fluctuations in local calcium levels may facilitate the maturation of TBC bulbs into putative endosomes, or alter local actin networks that cuff adjacent tubular regions of the TBCs. To test this, we injected the testes of S...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 14, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Adams A, Vogl W Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

In vitro ovarian follicle growth: a comprehensive analysis of key protocol variables.
Abstract Folliculogenesis is a complex process that requires integration of autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine factors together with tightly regulated interactions between granulosa cells and oocytes for the growth and survival of healthy follicles. Culture of ovarian follicles is a powerful approach for investigating folliculogenesis and oogenesis in a tightly controlled environment. This method has enabled unprecedented insight into the fundamental biology of follicle development but also has far-reaching translational applications, including in fertility preservation for women whose ovarian follicles may be da...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 14, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Simon LE, Kumar TR, Duncan FE Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Development of Human Ectocervical Tissue Models with Physiologic Endocrine and Paracrine Signaling.
Abstract There is a shortage of research models that adequately represent the unique mucosal environment of human ectocervix, limiting development of new therapies for treating infertility, infection or cancer. We developed three microphysiologic human ectocervix models to study hormone action during homeostasis. First, we reconstructed ectocervix using decellularized extracellular matrix scaffolds, which supported cell integration and could be clinically useful. Secondly, we generated organotypic systems consisting of ectocervical explants co-cultured with murine ovaries or cycling exogenous hormones, which mimic...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 13, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: McKinnon KE, Sensharma R, Williams C, Ravix J, Getsios S, Woodruff TK Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Is there a definite relationship between placental mTOR signaling and fetal growth?
Abstract Fetal growth restriction and overgrowth are common obstetrical complications that result in adverse perinatal outcomes and long-term health risks later in life, including neurodevelopmental dysfunction and adult metabolic syndrome. Placenta plays a critical role in the nutrition transfer from mother to fetus and even exert adaptive mechanism when the fetus is under poor developmental conditions. The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling serves as a critical hub of cell growth, survival, and metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors, energy, and stress signals. Placental mTOR...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 13, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Dong J, Shin N, Chen S, Lei J, Burd I, Wang X Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Experimentally induced endometritis impairs the developmental capacity of bovine oocytes.
In conclusion, endometritis reduced the capacity of oocytes to develop to morulae. PMID: 32401311 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - May 13, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Dickson MJ, Piersanti RL, Ramirez-Hernandez R, de Oliveira EB, Bishop JV, Hansen TR, Ma Z, Jeong KC, Santos JEP, Sheldon IM, Block J, Bromfield JJ Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Prokineticin 1-prokineticin receptor 1 signaling promotes angiogenesis in the porcine endometrium during pregnancy †.
Prokineticin 1-prokineticin receptor 1 signaling promotes angiogenesis in the porcine endometrium during pregnancy†. Biol Reprod. 2020 Apr 30;: Authors: Goryszewska E, Kaczynski P, Balboni G, Waclawik A Abstract Pregnancy establishment in mammals, including pigs, requires proper communication between embryos and the maternal reproductive tract. Prokineticin 1 (PROK1) has been described as a secretory protein with pleiotropic functions and as a novel tissue-specific angiogenic factor. However, despite the studies performed mainly on human cell lines and in mice, the function of PROK1 in the endo...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 30, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Goryszewska E, Kaczynski P, Balboni G, Waclawik A Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Interactions of circulating estradiol and progesterone on changes in endometrial area and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH †.
Interactions of circulating estradiol and progesterone on changes in endometrial area and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH†. Biol Reprod. 2020 Apr 30;: Authors: Motta JCL, Madureira G, Silva LOE, Alves RLOR, Silvestri M, Drum JN, Consentini CEC, Prata AB, Pohler KG, Wiltbank MC, Sartori R Abstract Changes in circulating progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) during proestrus produce dynamic changes in endometrial function and pituitary release of gonadotropins. Independent and combined effects of P4 and E2 on endometrium and pituitary were evaluated. In a preliminary study, an exogenous hormone m...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 30, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Motta JCL, Madureira G, Silva LOE, Alves RLOR, Silvestri M, Drum JN, Consentini CEC, Prata AB, Pohler KG, Wiltbank MC, Sartori R Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Testis-Specific Serine Kinase (TSSK) Proteins Family in Male Fertility and as Targets for Non-hormonal Male Contraception.
Abstract Male contraception is a very active area of research. Several hormonal agents have entered clinical trials, while potential non-hormonal targets have been brought to light more recently and are at earlier stages of development. The general strategy is to target genes along the molecular pathways of sperm production, maturation or function, and it is predicted that these novel approach will hopefully lead to more selective male contraceptive compounds with a decreased side-effect burden. Protein kinases are known to play a major role in signaling events associated with sperm differentiation and function. I...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 27, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Salicioni AM, Gervasi MG, Sosnik J, Tourzani DA, Nayyab S, Caraballo DA, Visconti PE Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Licensing meiotic progression.
PMID: 32338765 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 27, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Alavattam KG, Namekawa SH Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

The anti-inflammatory function of follicular fluid HDL and outcome of modified natural cycle-in vitro fertilization.
PMID: 32333006 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 25, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Jia C, Nagy RA, Homminga I, Hoek A, Tietge UJF Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

MicroRNA-21 as a regulator of human cumulus cell viability and its potential influence on the developmental potential of the oocyte.
Abstract MicroRNA-21 ( MIR-21 ) is expressed in bovine, murine and human cumulus cells with its expression in murine and bovine cumulus cells correlated with oocyte developmental potential. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between cumulus cell MIR-21 and human oocyte developmental potential. These studies revealed that both the immature and mature forms of MIR-21 ( MIR-21-5p ) were elevated in cumulus cells of oocytes that developed into blastocysts compared to cumulus cells of oocytes that arrested prior to blastocyst formation. This increase in MIR-21 was observed regardless of whether the oo...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 25, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Bartolucci AF, Uliasz T, Peluso JJ Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Targeted histone demethylation improves somatic cell reprogramming into cloned blastocysts but not postimplantation bovine concepti.
Abstract Correct reprogramming of epigenetic marks in the donor nuclei is a prerequisite for successful cloning by somatic cell transfer. In several mammalian species, repressive histone (H) lysine (K) trimethylation (me3) marks, in particular H3K9me3, form a major barrier to somatic cell reprogramming into pluripotency and totipotency. We engineered bovine embryonic fibroblasts (BEFs) for the doxycycline-inducible expression of a biologically active, truncated form of murine Kdm4b, a demethylase that removes histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and H3K36me3 marks. Upon inducing Kdm4b, H3K9me3 and H3K36me3 ...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 21, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Meng F, Stamms K, Bennewitz R, Green A, Oback F, Turner P, Wei J, Oback B Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Fatty acid induced lipolysis influence embryo development, gene expression and lipid droplet formation in the porcine cumulus cells.
Abstract The pig oocyte maturation protocol differs from other mammalian species due to dependence on follicular fluid (FF) supplementation. One on the most abundant components of the porcine follicular fluid are fatty acids. Although evidence from other mammalian models revealed a negative impact of saturated fatty acids (SFA) on developmental competence of oocytes, pig has not yet been widely analyzed. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether supplementation of IVM medium with 150 μM of stearic acid (SA) and oleic acid (OA) affects lipid content and expression of genes related to fatty acid metabolism ...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 21, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Pawlak P, Malyszka N, Szczerbal I, Kolodziejski P Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Kisspeptin induces LH release and ovulation in an induced ovulator.
Abstract Kisspeptin has been implicated in the ovulatory process of several species of spontaneous ovulators, but in only one induced ovulator. In contrast, NGF in semen is the principal trigger of ovulation in other species of induced ovulators-camelids. We tested the hypotheses that kisspeptin induces LH secretion in llamas through a hypothalamic mechanism, and kisspeptin neurons are the target of NGF in its ovulation-inducing pathway. In Experiment 1, llamas were given either NGF, kisspeptin or saline intravenously, and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and ovulation were compared among groups. All llamas trea...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 20, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Carrasco RA, Leonardi CE, Hutt K, Singh J, Adams GP Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Optimization of lead compounds into on-demand, non-hormonal contraceptives: leveraging a public-private drug discovery institute collaboration.
Abstract Efforts to develop new male or female non-hormonal, orally available contraceptives assume that to be effective and safe, targets must be (1) essential for fertility; (2) amenable to targeting by small-molecule inhibitors; and (3) restricted to the germline. In this perspective, we question the third assumption and propose that despite its wide expression, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC: ADCY10), which is essential for male fertility, is a valid target. We hypothesize that an acute-acting sAC inhibitor may provide orally available, on-demand, non-hormonal contraception for men without adverse, mechanism-ba...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 20, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Balbach M, Fushimi M, Huggins DJ, Steegborn C, Meinke PT, Levin LR, Buck J Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Oocytes suppress FOXL2 expression in cumulus cells in mice.
In this study, we sought to identify key transcriptional regulators responsible for the differential gene expression between the two cell-lineages. In silico analysis of transcriptomic comparison between cumulus cells and MGCs identified several candidate regulators responsible for the diversification of the two cell-lineages. Among them, we herein focused on Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) and showed that expression of FOXL2 as well as its target transcripts were differentially regulated between cumulus cells and MGCs. The lower expression of FOXL2 in cumulus cells seemed to be due to the suppression by oocyte-derived paracrine s...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 20, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Emori C, Ito H, Fujii W, Naito K, Sugiura K Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Barusiban, a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist: placental transfer in rabbit, monkey, and human1.
In conclusion, limited placental transfer of barusiban occurred in all three models. The similarity of barusiban transfer in the cynomolgus and the human placental single cotyledon suggests the latter ex-vivo model to be useful in assessing future drug candidates to be used in pregnant women. PMID: 32307542 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 18, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Helmer H, Saleh L, Petricevic L, Knoefler M, Reinheimer TM Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Prss55 but not Prss51 is required for male fertility in mice †.
Prss55 but not Prss51 is required for male fertility in mice†. Biol Reprod. 2020 Apr 17;: Authors: Kobayashi K, Endo T, Matsumura T, Lu Y, Yu Z, Matzuk MM, Ikawa M Abstract Mammalian spermatozoa are produced in the testis through spermatogenesis and matured in the epididymis to acquire fertilizing ability. Spermatozoa are ejaculated and migrate from the uterus to the oviducts to fuse with oocytes. Although over 2,000 genes are expressed abundantly in mouse testes, the genes responsible for male fertility are not yet fully clarified. Here, we focused on two testis-enriched serine protease genes,...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 17, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Kobayashi K, Endo T, Matsumura T, Lu Y, Yu Z, Matzuk MM, Ikawa M Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Knockout of serine-rich single-pass membrane protein 1 (Ssmem1) causes globozoospermia and sterility in male mice.
In this study, we generated Ssmem1 knockout (KO) mice using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, demonstrated that Ssmem1 is essential for male fertility in mice, and found that SSMEM1 protein is expressed during spermatogenesis but not in mature sperm. The sterility of the Ssmem1 knockout (null) mice is associated with globozoospermia and loss of sperm motility. To decipher the mechanism causing the phenotype, we analyzed testes with transmission electron microscopy and discovered that Ssmem1-disrupted spermatids have abnormal localization of Golgi at steps eight and nine of spermatid development. Immunofluorescence analysis with anti...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 17, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Nozawa K, Zhang Q, Miyata H, Devlin DJ, Yu Z, Oura S, Koyano T, Matsuyama M, Ikawa M, Matzuk MM Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Inactivation of Wt1 causes pre-granulosa cell to steroidogenic cell transformation and defect of ovary development.
This study demonstrates that Wt1 is required for lineage maintenance of granulosa cells and inactivation of Wt1 results in pre-granulosa cells to steroidogenic cells transformation which in turn causes the defect of ovary development. PMID: 32301970 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 17, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Cen C, Chen M, Zhou J, Jiang L, Hou X, Gao F Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Absence of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Semen and Testes of COVID-19 Patients.
PMID: 32297920 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 16, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Song C, Wang Y, Li W, Hu B, Chen G, Xia P, Wang W, Li C, Diao F, Hu Z, Yang X, Yao B, Liu Y Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Loss of RBBP4 results in defective inner cell mass, severe apoptosis, hyperacetylated histones and preimplantation lethality in mice.
Abstract Retinoblastoma binding protein 4 (RBBP4, also known as chromatin remodeling factor RBAP48) is an evolutionarily conserved protein that has been involved in various biological processes. Although a variety of functions have been attributed to RBBP4 in vitro, mammalian RBBP4 has not been studied in vivo. Here we report that RBBP4 is essential during early mouse embryo development. Although Rbbp4 mutant embryos exhibit normal morphology at E3.5 blastocyst stage, they cannot be recovered at E7.5 early post-gastrulation stage, suggesting an implantation failure. Outgrowth (OG) assays reveal that mutant blastoc...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 14, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Miao X, Sun T, Barletta H, Mager J, Cui W Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Metabolism of JQ1, an inhibitor of BET bromodomain proteins, in human and mouse liver microsomes †.
We present the first comprehensive view of JQ1 metabolism in liver microsomes, distinguishing nine JQ1 metabolites, including three monohydroxylated, one de-tert-butylated, two dihydroxylated, one monohydroxylated-dehydrogenated, one monohydroxylated-de-tert-butylated, and one dihydroxylated-dehydrogenated variant of JQ1. The dominant metabolite (M1) in both human and mouse liver microsomes is monohydroxylated on the fused three ring core. Using recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, chemical inhibitors and the liver S9 fraction of Cyp3a-null mice, we identify enzymes that contribute to formation of these metabolites. ...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 14, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Li F, MacKenzie KR, Jain P, Santini C, Young DW, Matzuk MM Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Contribution of senescence in human endometrial stromal cells during proliferative phase to embryo receptivity.
Abstract Successful assisted reproductive technology pregnancy depends on the viability of embryos and endometrial receptivity. However, the literature has neglected effects of the endometrial environment during the proliferative phase on implantation success or failure. Human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) were isolated from endometrial tissues sampled at oocyte retrieval during the proliferative phase from women undergoing infertility treatment. Primary hESC cultures were used to investigate the relationship between stemness and senescence induction in this population and embryo receptivity. Patients were cla...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 14, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tomari H, Kawamura T, Asanoma K, Egashira K, Kawamura K, Honjo K, Nagata Y, Kato K Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Temporal changes in the corpus luteum during early pregnancy reveal regulation of pathways that enhance steroidogenesis and suppress luteolytic mechanisms.
Abstract Although rescue of the corpus luteum is required for pregnancy, luteal function during maternal recognition of pregnancy remains largely unexplored. CL were collected from pregnant cattle on days 14, 17, 20, and 23, to encompass the maternal recognition of pregnancy period. Next Generation Sequencing was used to profile mRNA abundance during this time, while tandem mass spectrometry and Nanostring technology were used to profile proteins and miRNA, respectively. A total of 1157 mRNA were differentially abundant, while 27 miRNA changed and 29 proteins tended to change. mRNA that increased were regulators o...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - April 14, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Hughes CHK, Inskeep EK, Pate JL Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Conditionally Reprogrammed Macaque Endocervical Cells Retain Steroid Receptor Expression and Produce Mucus.
Abstract Cervical mucus produced by the endocervix plays an essential role as a hormonally induced regulator of female fertility. Cervical mucus fluctuates in both physical characteristics and in sperm penetrability in response to estrogens and progestogens. However, the mechanisms by which steroid hormones change mucus remains poorly understood. Current in vitro models have limited capability to study these questions as primary endocervical cells possess limited expansion potential, and immortalized cells lose in vivo characteristics such as steroid sensitivity. Here we overcome these limitations by establishing ...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 31, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Han L, Andrews W, Wong K, Jensen JT Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Rise of the rabbit model for implantation research. A commemoration of the scientific work of Bent G. Boving (1920-2019).
This article attempts to give an overview of his scientific contributions, which still harbour some treasures, including potentially stimulating ideas for future research on implantation. PMID: 32219333 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 27, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Denker HW Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

CHTF18 ensures the quantity and quality of the ovarian reserve †.
CHTF18 ensures the quantity and quality of the ovarian reserve†. Biol Reprod. 2020 Mar 27;: Authors: Holton RA, Harris AM, Mukerji B, Singh T, Dia F, Berkowitz KM Abstract The number and quality of oocytes, as well as the decline in both of these parameters with age, determines reproductive potential in women. However, the underlying mechanisms of this diminution are incompletely understood. Previously, we identified novel roles for CHTF18 (Chromosome Transmission Fidelity Factor 18), a component of the conserved Replication Factor C-like complex, in male fertility and gametogenesis. Currently,...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 27, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Holton RA, Harris AM, Mukerji B, Singh T, Dia F, Berkowitz KM Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Nodal is required to maintain the uterine environment in an anti-inflammatory state during pregnancy.
Abstract Preterm birth remains the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide, affecting up to 12% of pregnancies and accounting for approximately 75% of neonatal deaths. However, the mechanisms and causes that underlie it are still largely unknown. One of the major cause of preterm birth is infection or inflammation within the maternal-fetal interphase. Our lab has previously shown that a uterine specific deletion of Nodal results in mutant females delivering two days prior to term demonstrating an important role for this factor in the maintenance of pregnancy. Here we have addressed the function ...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 26, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Ayash TA, Starr LM, Dufort D Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Prenatal low-dose methyltestosterone, but not dihydrotestosterone treatment induces penile formation in female mice and guinea pigs.
In this study, we compared the masculinization effects of commonly used androgens methyltestosterone, dihydrotestosterone and testosterone on the induction of penile formation in females. Our results suggested that prenatal treatment with low doses of methyltestosterone, but not same doses of dihydrotestosterone or testosterone could induce penile formation in female mice. The minimum dose of dihydrotestosterone and testosterone for inducing tubular urethral formation in female mice was respectively 50 and 20 times higher than that of methyltestosterone. In vivo methyltestosterone treatment induced more nuclear translocati...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 26, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Wang S, Lawless J, Zheng Z Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Sequence comparisons of cytochrome P450 aromatases from Australian animals predict differences in enzymatic activity and/or efficiency.
This study examined the structure of aromatases from four diverse Australian species including a marsupial (tammar wallaby; Macropus eugenii), monotreme (platypus; Ornithorhynchus anatinus), ratite (emu; Dromaius novaehollandiae) and lizard (bearded dragon; Pogona vitticeps). We successfully built homology models for each species, using the only crystallographically determined structure available, human aromatase. The amino acid sequences showed high amino acid sequence identity to the human aromatase: wallaby 81%, platypus 73%, emu 75% and bearded dragon at 74%. The overall structure was highly conserved among the five sp...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 17, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Fatima A, Holien JK, Tiwari C, Parker MW, Rodgers RJ, Martin LL Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Corrigendum: G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells combined with platelet-rich plasma accelerate restoration of ovarian function in cyclophosphamide-induced POI rats †.
Corrigendum: G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells combined with platelet-rich plasma accelerate restoration of ovarian function in cyclophosphamide-induced POI rats†. Biol Reprod. 2020 Mar 16;: Authors: Huang Q, Liu B, Jiang R, Liao S, Wei Z, Bi Y, Liu X, Deng R, Jin Y, Tan Y, Yang Y, Qin A PMID: 32175574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 16, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Huang Q, Liu B, Jiang R, Liao S, Wei Z, Bi Y, Liu X, Deng R, Jin Y, Tan Y, Yang Y, Qin A Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Macrophage-induced reactive oxygen species promote myometrial contraction and labor-associated mechanisms.
Abstract At labor, the myometrium is infiltrated by a massive influx of macrophages that secrete high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines inducing the expression of specific labor-associated markers. However, the interactions between myocytes and macrophages and the role of macrophages in the myometrium at labor remain to be elucidated. In this work, we studied the role of myometrium-infiltrated macrophages and their interaction with myocytes in lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm labor. A co-culture model of human primary myometrial cells and macrophages was developed and validated. Collagen lattices were used to...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 13, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Wendremaire M, Hadi T, Pezze M, Barrichon M, Lopez T, Neiers F, Sagot P, Garrido C, Lirussi F Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

FMNL3 regulates FASCIN for actin-mediated spindle migration and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes.
In this study, we investigated the functions of FMNL3 during mouse oocyte maturation. Our results showed that FMNL3 mainly concentrated in the oocyte cortex and spindle periphery. Depleting FMNL3 led to the failure of polar body extrusion, and we also found large polar bodies in the FMNL3-deleted oocytes, indicating the occurrence of symmetric meiotic division. There was no effect of FMNL3 on spindle organization; however, we observed spindle migration defects at late metaphase I, which might be due to the decreased cytoplasmic actin. Microinjecting Fmnl3-EGFP mRNA into Fmnl3-depleted oocytes significantly rescued these de...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 13, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Pan MH, Wan X, Wang HH, Pan ZN, Zhang Y, Sun SC Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Functional effects of Tribbles Homolog 2 (TRIB2) in bovine ovarian granulosa cells.
Abstract Tribbles homolog (TRIB) 1, 2 and 3 represent atypical members of the serine/threonine kinase superfamily. We previously identified TRIB2 as a differentially expressed gene in granulosa cells of bovine preovulatory follicles. The current study aimed to further investigate TRIB2 regulation and study its function in the ovary. Granulosa cells (GC) were collected from follicles at different developmental stages: small antral follicles (SF), dominant follicles at day 5 of the estrous cycle (DF) and hCG-induced ovulatory follicles (OF). RT-qPCR analyses showed greater expression of TRIB2 in GC of DF as compared...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 11, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Warma A, Ndiaye K Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Role of vaspin in porcine ovary: effect on signaling pathways and steroid synthesis via GRP78 receptor and protein kinase A.
Abstract Vaspin, visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor, is involved in the development of obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation and energy metabolism. Our previous study showed vaspin expression and its regulation in the ovary; however, the role of this adipokine in ovarian cells has never been studied. Here, we studied in vitro the effect of vaspin on various kinase signaling pathways: mitogen-activated kinase (MAP3/1), serine/threonine kinase (AKT), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein kinase AMP (PRKAA1), protein kinase A (PKA) and on expression of nuclear f...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 9, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Kurowska P, Mlyczyńska E, Dawid M, Dupont J, Rak A Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Characteristics of the endometrium in menstruating species: Lessons learned from the Animal Kingdom †.
Characteristics of the endometrium in menstruating species: Lessons learned from the Animal Kingdom†. Biol Reprod. 2020 Mar 04;: Authors: Catalini L, Fedder J Abstract Here we have summarized what is currently know about menstruating animal species with special emphasis on non-primate species: length of their menstrual cycle, ovulation, implantation, placentation, decidualization, and endometrial characteristics. Having an overview of all the possible animal models that can be used to study menstruation and the menstrual cycle could be useful to select the one that better matches the needs of t...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - March 4, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Catalini L, Fedder J Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Effect of neuronal nitric oxide synthase serine-1412 phosphorylation on hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function and leptin response.
Abstract Hypothalamic neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) potentiates adult female fertility in rodents by stimulating gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, which in turn promotes luteinizing hormone (LH) release and ovulation. The mechanism of hypothalamic nNOS activation is not clear but could be via nNOS serine1412 (S1412) phosphorylation, which increases nNOS activity and physiologic NO effects in other organ systems. In female rodents, hypothalamic nNOS S1412 phosphorylation reportedly increases during proestrus or upon acute leptin exposure during diestrus. To determine if nNOS S1412 regulates f...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - February 26, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Guerra DD, Bok R, Cari EL, Nicholas C, Orlicky DJ, Johnson J, Hurt KJ Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

UHRF1: a jack of all trades, and a master epigenetic regulator during spermatogenesis.
PMID: 32101289 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - February 26, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Newkirk SJ, An W Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Knockout of mouse receptor accessory protein 6 (REEP6) leads to sperm function and morphology defects.
Abstract Receptor accessory protein 6 (REEP6) is a member of the REEP/Ypt-interacting protein (Yip) family that we recently identified as essential for normal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis and protein trafficking in the retina of mice and humans. Interestingly, in addition to the loss of REEP6 in our knockout (KO) mouse model recapitulating the retinal degeneration of humans with REEP6 mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa, we also found that male mice are sterile. Herein we characterize the infertility caused by loss of Reep6. Expression of both Reep6 mRNA transcripts are present in the testis; however,...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - February 26, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Devlin DJ, Agrawal-Zaneveld S, Nozawa K, Han X, Moye AR, Liang Q, Harnish JM, Matzuk MM, Chen R Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

S100A4 Promotes the Progression of Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Epididymitis in Mice †.
S100A4 Promotes the Progression of Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Epididymitis in Mice†. Biol Reprod. 2020 Feb 19;: Authors: Wu Y, Li H, Qin Y Abstract S100A4 has been suggested to be a critical regulator of tumor metastasis and is implicated in the progression of inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression and possible role of S100A4 in epididymitis. Using a mouse model of epididymitis induced by the injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the deferent duct, we found that LPS administration induced an upregulation of S100a4 transcription (P 
Source: Biology of Reproduction - February 19, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Wu Y, Li H, Qin Y Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Key Regulators and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Myometrial Activation during Equine Placentitis.
Abstract The key event in placentitis-induced preterm labor is myometrial activation with the subsequent initiation of labor. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying myometrial activation are not fully understood in the mare. Therefore, the equine myometrial transcriptome was characterized during placentitis (290.0 ± 1.52 d GA, n = 5) and the prepartum period (330d GA, n = 3) in comparison to normal pregnant mares (289.8 ± 2.18 GA, n = 4). Transcriptome analysis identified 596 and 290 DEGs in the myometrium during placentitis and the prepartum pe...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - February 17, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Ali HE, Boakari YL, Loux SC, Dini P, Scoggin KE, Esteller-Vico A, Kalbfleisch T, Ball BA Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

The XY Body: An Attractive Chromatin Domain.
PMID: 32055839 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biology of Reproduction)
Source: Biology of Reproduction - February 14, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Handel MA Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Characterization and regulation of extracellular vesicles in the lumen of the ovine uterus †.
Characterization and regulation of extracellular vesicles in the lumen of the ovine uterus†. Biol Reprod. 2020 Feb 14;: Authors: O'Neil EV, Burns GW, Ferreira CR, Spencer TE Abstract Secretions of the endometrium are vital for peri-implantation growth and development of the sheep conceptus. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present in the uterine lumen, emanate from both the endometrial epithelia of the uterus and trophectoderm of the conceptus, and hypothesized to mediate communication between those cell types during pregnancy establishment in sheep. Size exclusion chromatography and nanopartic...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - February 14, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: O'Neil EV, Burns GW, Ferreira CR, Spencer TE Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

LYPD4, mouse homolog of a human acrosome protein, is essential for sperm fertilizing ability and male fertility.
Abstract Fertilization is one of the fundamental biological processes but so far we still do not have a full understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism. We have identified a human acrosome protein, LY6/PLAUR Domain Containing 4 (LYPD4), expressed specifically in human testes and sperm, and conserved within mammals. Mouse Lypd4, also specific to the testis and sperm, is essential for male fertility. LYPD4 protein first appeared in round spermatids during acrosome biogenesis, and became part of acrosomes during spermatogenesis and in mature sperm. Lypd4 knockout mice are infertile with normal sperm number a...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - February 10, 2020 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Wang D, Cheng L, Xia W, Liu X, Guo Y, Yang X, Guo X, Xu EY Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research