Near-complete genome sequence and biological properties of an allexivirus found in Senna rizzinii in Brazil
AbstractSenna rizzinii is a flowering shrub found mainly in the northeast region of Brazil. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence, particle morphology, mode of transmission, and the indicator host responses of an isolate of the putative allexivirus cassia mild mosaic virus (CaMMV) found inS. rizzinii. The virus was transmitted mechanically toChenopodium amaranticolor,C. quinoa,Gomphrena globosa, which showed local lesions, andS. rizzinii, andS. occidentalis, which were infected systemically. It was also efficiently transmitted toS. rizzinii by grafting. Seed transmission was not observed. The near-complete ge...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 15, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Translating the language of giants: translation-related genes as a major contribution of giant viruses to the virosphere
AbstractGiant viruses of amoebas are a remarkable group of viruses. In addition to their large size and peculiar structures, the genetic content of these viruses is also special. Among the genetic features of these viruses that stand out is the presence of coding regions for elements involved in translation, a complex biological process that occurs in cellular organisms. No viral genome described so far has such a complex genetic arsenal as those of giant viruses, which code for several of these elements. Currently, tupanviruses have the most complete set of translation genes in the known virosphere. In this review, we hav...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 15, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Isolation and complete genome sequence of a novel cyanophage, S-B05, infecting an estuarine Synechococcus strain: insights into environmental adaptation
AbstractA new cyanophage, S-B05, infecting a phycoerythrin-enriched (PE-type)Synechococcus strain was isolated by the liquid infection method, and its morphology and genetic features were examined. Phylogenetic analysis and morphological observation confirmed that S-B05 belongs to the familyMyoviridae of the orderCaudovirales. Its genome was fully sequenced, and found to be 208,857  bp in length with a G + C content of 39.9%. It contained 280 potential open reading frames and 123 conserved domains. Ninety-eight functional genes responsible for cyanophage structuring and packaging, DNA replication and reg...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 15, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Elucidation of the mechanism of anti-herpes action of two novel semisynthetic cardenolide derivatives
AbstractHuman herpesviruses are among the most prevalent pathogens worldwide and have become an important public health issue. Recurrent infections and the emergence of resistant viral strains reinforce the need of searching new drugs to treat herpes virus infections. Cardiac glycosides are used clinically to treat cardiovascular disturbances, such as congestive heart failure and atrial arrhythmias. In recent years, they have sparked new interest in their potential anti-herpes action. It has been previously reported by our research group that two new semisynthetic cardenolides, namelyC10 (3 β-[(N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amino...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 15, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Comparative sequence and structural analysis of the ORF095 gene, a vaccinia virus A4L homolog of capripoxvirus in sheep and goats
AbstractSheeppox and goatpox are important transboundary animal viral diseases of sheep and goats caused by sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV), respectively, of the genusCapripoxvirus, familyPoxviridae. Among the proteins encoded by the capripoxvirus (CaPV) genome, ORF095 (vaccinia virus A4L homolog) is an immunodominant virion core protein that plays a pivotal role in virus assembly and morphogenesis. In the present study, sequence analysis of the ORF095 genes of 27 SPPV and GTPV isolates or field samples from different geographical regions of India was performed, and structure was prediction was done by homol...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 15, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Epidemiology, molecular characterization, and recombination analysis of chicken anemia virus in Guangdong province, China
AbstractChicken anemia virus (CAV) causes severe anemia and immunosuppression in young chickens and a compromised immune response in older birds, resulting in great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Here, we report the molecular epidemiology and characterization of CAV circulating in poultry in Guangdong province, China. Ninety-one of 277 chickens collected from 2016 to 2017 were CAV positive. Full-genome sequencing revealed the presence of eight separate strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the genome sequences obtained in this study and related sequences available in the GenBank database showed that a...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 15, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genomic characterisation of a newly identified badnavirus infecting ivy ( Hedera helix )
AbstractHigh-throughput sequencing (HTS) was used to investigate ringspots on ivy (Hedera helix) leaves.De novo assembly of HTS data generated from a total RNA extract from these leaves yielded a contig with sequence similarity to viruses of the genusBadnavirus, familyCaulimoviridae. The complete genome sequence of this virus consists of 8,885 nucleotides and has three open reading frames (ORFs). Genome organisation and phylogenetic analysis identifies this newly identified virus as a new member of the genusBadnavirus for which we propose the name"ivy ringspot-associated virus" (IRSaV). (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 15, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular and evolutionary analysis of dengue virus serotype 2 isolates from Korean travelers in 2015
This study shows that DENV type 2 strains with distinct phylogenetic, evolutionary, and virulence characteristics have been introduced into Korea by overseas travelers and have the potential to trigger autochthonous dengue outbreaks. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 14, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Epidemiological and genetic characteristics of porcine reproduction and respiratory syndrome virus 2 in mainland China, 2017 –2018
AbstractPorcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 (PRRSV2) is a major threat to the global pig industry, particularly in China, the world ’s largest pig-rearing and pork-production country. Continuously monitoring the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of PRRSV epidemic strains is beneficial for prevention and control of infection. Previously, we reported the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of PRRSV2 in China fr om 2012 to 2016. Here, the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of PRRSV2 in China from 2017 to 2018 are reported. During these two years, we collected different types ...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 14, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of cherry virus T, a novel cherry-infecting tepovirus
AbstractDouble-stranded RNA and total RNA purified from sour cherry leaves (Prunus cerasus, cv. Amarelka Chvalkovicka) was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. BLAST annotation identified contigs with homology to several already known cherry-infecting viruses (prune dwarf virus, prunus necrotic ringspot virus, prunus virus F, little cherry virus 1) as well as contigs with sequences more distantly related to those of members of the familyBetaflexiviridae and in particular to prunus virus T of the genusTepovirus. The full genome sequence of a putative virus (6,847 nucleotides [nt]; GenBank no. MT090966) was assembled and ...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 14, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A new begomovirus isolated from a potyvirus-infected bean plant causes asymptomatic infections in bean and N. benthamiana
AbstractIn this work, a begomovirus isolated from a bean plant coinfected with the potyviruses bean common mosaic virus and bean common mosaic necrosis virus was characterized. The three viruses were detected by high-throughput sequencing and assembly of total small RNAs, but the begomovirus-related contigs did not allow precise identification. Molecular analysis based on standard DNA amplification techniques revealed the presence of a single bipartite virus, which is a novel begomovirus according to the current taxonomic criteria. Infectious clones were generated and agroinoculated intoPhaseolus vulgaris andNicotiana bent...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 13, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Generation of recombinant VP3 protein of infectious bursal disease virus in three different expression systems, antigenic analysis of the obtained polypeptides and development of an ELISA test
In this study, three expression systems (bacteria, yeast, and human cells) were used to produce recombinant VP3 protein of IBDV. VP3 is a group-specific antigen and hence may be a good candidate for use in diagnostic tests. Comparison of the antigenic properties of the obtained polypeptides showed that the titres of antibodies raised in chickens against bacteria- or human-cell-derived recombinant VP3 were high, whereas the antibody level against yeast-derived recombinant VP3 was low. The results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of sera from IBDV-infected chickens demonstrated that the recombinant VP3 produce...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 13, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Whole-genome sequence of a reassortant G9P[4] rotavirus A strain from two children in the Czech Republic
AbstractAn unusual reassortant rotavirus A (RVA) strain was isolated during RVA surveillance in two previously hospitalized children in 2018. G/P typing revealed uncommon G9P[4] genotypes, so the strains were further characterized by Illumina next-generation sequencing. Whole-genome typing showed that the two strains had a DS-1-like backbone except for NSP2: G9-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N1-T2-E2-H2. The two strains shared 99.9-100% nucleotide sequence identity in all genes. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 13, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A novel putative betapartitivirus isolated from the plant-pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani
In this study, we describe the genome sequence of a novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus, designated as “Rhizoctonia solani partitivirus 15” (RsPV15), from the phytopathogenic fungusRhizoctonia solani. RsPV15 consists of two genomic double-stranded RNA segments, dsRNA-1 and dsRNA-2, which are 2433 bp and 2350 bp long, respectively. Each of the dsRNA segments contains a single open reading frame, encoding the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and coat protein, respectively. Homology searches and phylogenetic analysis suggested that RsPV15 is a new member of the genusBetapartitivirus within the familyP...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 13, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Flagellin of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens works as a resistance inducer against groundnut bud necrosis virus in chilli ( Capsicum annuum L.)
AbstractGroundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV), a member of the genusTospovirus, has an extensive host range and is associated with necrosis disease of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.), which is a major threat to commercial production. Plant  growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been investigated for their antiviral activity in several crops and for their potential use in viral disease management. However, the microbial mechanisms associated with PGPR in triggered immunity against plant viruses have rarely been studied. To under stand the innate immune responses activated byBacillus spp. against GBNV, we studied mi...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 12, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Studies on the clinical symptoms, virus distribution, and mRNA expression of several antiviral immunity-related genes in grass carp after infection with genotype II grass carp reovirus
This study provides detailed information about the pathogenicity of GCRV and expression of immunity-related genes, laying the foundation for further research on virus control and treatment. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 12, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the immune response in conventionally weaned pigs infected with porcine deltacoronavirus
AbstractAlthough porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a significant pandemic threat in the swine population and has caused significant economic losses, information regarding the immune response in conventionally weaned pigs infected with PDCoV is scarce. Hence, the immune response in conventionally weaned pigs infected with PDCoV was assessed after challenge and rechallenge. After the first challenge, obvious diarrhea and viral shedding developed successively in all pigs in the four inoculation dose groups from 3 to 14 days postinfection (dpi), and all pigs recovered (no clinical symptoms or viral shedding) by 21 dpi. All p...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 12, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genomic characterization of classical swine fever virus LOM variants with 3 ′-UTR INDELs from pigs on Jeju Island, South Korea
This study provides impo rtant information about the genetic evolution of LOM-derived CSFV circulating in the free region, and suggests that it arose from continuous non-lethal mutations to ensure viral fitness in host animals. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 11, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification of a novel bocaparvovirus in a wild squirrel in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China
AbstractIn December 2017, a squirrel (Callosciurus phayrei) died 2  days after capture in Kunming, and its intestinal tract, heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney were subjected to metagenomics analysis. Reassembly and verification by reverse transcription PCR of contigs generated by next-generation sequencing yielded a 5176-nt sequence, which was designated"squirrel bocaparvovirus" (SQBOV). Phylogenetic trees based on the aa sequences of NS1, NP1, and VP1 showed that SQBOV formed an independent branch in the bocaparvovirus phylogenetic tree. The amino acid sequence identity of the NS1 of SQBOV to those of ...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 9, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

First detection and genomic characteristics of bovine torovirus in dairy calves in China
In this study, 92 diarrheic fecal samples from five farms in four provinces in China were collected and tested for BToV using a RT-PCR assay, and 21.73% samples were found to be BToV positive. Moreover, two complete BToV genome sequences (MN073058 and MN073059) were obtained from the clinical samples, which were 28,297 and 28,301 nucleotides in length, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the two isolates shared 10 identical amino acid mutations in the S protein compared to the complete S sequences of BToV available in the GenBank database. In addition, seven consecutive amino acid mutations were found from aa 1,486...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 9, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of an isolate of duck enteritis virus from China
AbstractHere, we present the complete genomic sequence of duck enteritis virus (DEV) strain SD, isolated in China in 2012. The virus was virulent in experimentally infected 2-month-old ducks. The DEV SD genome is 160,945 base pairs (bp) in length. The viral genome sequence, when compared to that of strain DEV CSC, which was isolated in 1962, showed three discontinuous deletions of 101  bp, 48 bp and 417 bp within the inverted repeats. A comparison of the amino acid (aa) sequences of all ORFs of the CSC and SD isolates demonstrated an11-aa deletion, two single-aa deletions, and one single-aa deletion in LORF3...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 8, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Correction to: Intra-host diversity of hepatitis B virus during mother-to-child transmission: the X gene may play a key role in virus survival in children after transmission
Authors would like to correct few errors in their publication. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 6, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a novel grapevine-infecting member of the genus Polerovirus , grapevine polerovirus 1
AbstractDouble-stranded RNAs and total RNAs purified from grapevine (Vitis vinifera) phloem scrapings of two varieties held in the INRAE (France) grapevine germplasm collection were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. BLAST annotation revealed contigs with homology toPolerovirus genus members. The full genome sequence of one isolate (KT) was determined (5651 nucleotides [nt]), and a partial sequence representing about half of the genome was assembled for a second isolate (KS) that was found to share 95% nt sequence identity with the KT isolate. The genome has a typical polerovirus organization, containing six open read...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 5, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a novel toti-like virus from the plant-pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora cactorum
This report describes the complete genome sequence of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus infecting the oomycetous plant pathogenPhytophthora cactorum. The virus genome consists of a single dsRNA segment of 5699  bp with two open reading frames predicted to overlap with each other and encoding a putative capsid protein of 705 aa and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of 779 aa. Sequence comparisons indicated that this virus, designated as “Phytophthora cactorum RNA virus 1” (PcRV1), shares the highest seq uence similarity with the unclassified Pythium splendens RNA virus 1 (58% RdRp aa sequence identity). Phy...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 4, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular detection of a novel cyprinid herpesvirus in roach ( Rutilus rutilus ) and asp ( Leuciscus  aspius ) showing typical signs of carp pox disease
AbstractIn the early spring of 2018, in Lake Balaton (Hungary), a roach (Rutilus rutilus) and an asp (Leuciscus aspius) were found in an fish trap at the outlet of the river Si ó showing typical signs of the so-called carp pox disease, such as foci of epidermal hyperplasia on the head and the whole body surface, including the fins. Molecular tests revealed the presence of the DNA of an unknown fish herpesvirus. Three genes encoding the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase, major capsid protein and ATPase subunit of terminase were amplified and sequenced from the alloherpesviral genome. The gene sequences of the viruses obta...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 1, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Correction to: Binomial nomenclature for virus species: a consultation
The article Binomial nomenclature for virus species: a consultation, written by Stuart G. Siddell, Peter J. Walker, Elliot J. Lefkowitz, Arcady R. Mushegian, Bas E. Dutilh. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - April 16, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Prevalence and molecular characterization of parechovirus A in children with acute gastroenteritis in Shenzhen, 2016 –2018
In this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of acute gastroenteritis in Shenzhen, southern China, with an emphasis on PeV-A infections. A total of 1220 stool specimens from 1220 outpatient children under 5 years old with acute gastroenteritis were collected from January 2016 to December 2018. Viral RNA was detected by a real-time RT-PCR and PCR method. The PeV-A isolates were genotyped by sequencing the VP3/VP1 region. Of 1220 specimens, 148 (12.1%) were positive for PeV-A. The predominant genotype was PeV-A 1B (68.9%), followed by PeV-A 4 (12.2%), PeV-A 14 (6.1%), PeV-A 1A (5.4%), PeV-A 6 (2.7%), PeV-A 3 (2....
Source: Archives of Virology - April 15, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genetic variability of avian influenza virus subtype H5N8 in Egypt in 2017 and 2018
In this study, a genetic characterization of the HA gene was carried out with 31 isolates selected from different governorates and sectors. Fifteen isolates were selected for NA gene sequence analysis. The HA and NA genes were divided into two subgroups (I and II) with positive selection pressure identified at positions 174 and 29, respectively. The HA gene contained two novel mutations in the antigenic sites, A and E. The HA nucleotide sequence identity ranged from 77 to 90% with different vaccine seeds. Full-genome sequence analysis was carried out for eight viruses, representing different governorates and sectors, to id...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 13, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Sequence-based comparison of field and vaccine strains of infectious bursal disease virus in Ethiopia reveals an amino acid mismatch in the immunodominant VP2 protein
AbstractSequencing of the VP2 region was carried out to identify amino acid mismatches between vaccine strains and field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Viruses were isolated in chicken embryo fibroblast (DF-1) cells using pooled samples of bursa collected from nine outbreaks, which affected 30,250 chickens in five localities, with an overall mortality of 47.87%. Virus strains were identified by comparing the deduced amino acid sequence between positions 232 and 446 of the immunodominant VP2 epitope. All of the pooled samples were positive for IBDV. RT-PCR yielded a 645-bp DNA fragment of the VP2 gene. ...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 13, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance mutations in Henan Province, China (2017 –2019)
In this study, we investigated the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and the prevalence of drug resistance mutations (DRMs) among patients with HIV-1 infection in Henan Province, China. HIV-1 strains in blood samples taken from inpatients and outpatients visiting the Sixth People ’s Hospital of Zhengzhou from August 2017 to July 2019 with a viral load (VL) greater than 1000 copies/ml were subjected to subtype and DRMs analysis. Out of a total of 769 samples, subtype and DRM data were obtained from 657 (85.43%) samples. Phylogenetic analysis based on partialpol gene sequences indicated that the most commonly found genoty...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 11, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Emergence of a new lumpy skin disease virus variant in Kurgan Oblast, Russia, in 2018
AbstractIn this paper, we report the resurgence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Kurgan Oblast, Russia, in 2018. The majority of the outbreaks were silent with no mortality and congregated within an area with a radius of about 30  km located 1–50 km away from the national border with Kazakhstan. Following primary molecular diagnosis, LSD virus (LSDV) isolates were analyzed using a panel of PCR assays targeting different genetic loci, namely,LSD008 (vaccine),LSDV126 (field), andGPCR (vaccine and field), for differentiation and genotype assignment. All isolates were positive for the vaccine genotype ofGPCR and ...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 11, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a novel comovirus infecting common bean
AbstractThe complete genome sequence of a novel comovirus identified in Guanajuato, Mexico, in a common bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) coinfected with Phaseolus vulgaris alphaendornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and Phaseolus vulgaris alphaendornavirus 2 (PvEV-2) is presented. According to the current ICTV taxonomic criteria, this comovirus corresponds to a new species, and the name"Phaseolus vulgaris severe mosaic virus" (PvSMV) is proposed for this virus based on the observed symptoms of “severe mosaic” syndrome caused by comoviruses in common bean. PvSMV is closely related to bean pod mosaic virus (BPMV), a...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 10, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular detection, histopathological analysis, and immunohistochemical characterization of equine infectious anemia virus in naturally infected equids
In conclusion, the immunohistochemical assay standardized in this study was able to detect EIAV antigens in spleen, liver, kidney and lung cells from naturally infected EIAV equids. Immunostaining observed in the spl een confirms viral tropism by mononuclear phagocytes; however, the presence of EIAV in lung and kidney epithelial cells indicates that virus may be eliminated in urine and/or oronasal secretions, suggesting new routes for viral excretion. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - April 7, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characteristics of a novel ssRNA virus isolated from Auricularia heimuer in China
AbstractA novel positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus was isolated from strain CCMJ1271 of the fungusAuricularia heimuer, and the complete genome sequence of the virus was determined. Database searching, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this fungal virus and some viruses of familyVirgaviridae clustered into a single branch of a phylogenetic tree, and we thus tentatively named the virus"Auricularia heimuer mycovirgavirus 1" (AhMV1). The AhMV1 genome consists of 9,934 nucleotides and contains a short poly(A) tail and three open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes an RNA-dependent RNA p...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 7, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a novel bovine hepacivirus from Yunnan, China
AbstractWe detected a novel bovine hepacivirus N (HNV) subtype, IME_BovHep_01, in the serum of cattle in Tengchong, Yunnan, China, by high-throughput sequencing. The complete genome of IME_BovHep_01, was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer and found to be 8850 nt in length, encoding one hypothetical protein. BLASTn analysis showed that the genome sequence shared similarity with the bovine hepacivirus isolate BovHepV_209/Ger/2014, with 88% query coverage and 70.8% identity. However, the highest similarity was to bovine hepacivirus N strain BRBovHep_RS963, for which only a partial genome sequence is available, with 6...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 7, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a mite-associated virus obtained by high-throughput sequencing analysis of an apple leaf sample
AbstractWe provide the complete sequence of a virus tentatively named “Tetranychus urticae-associated picorna-like virus 1PK13” (TuaPV1-PK13) obtained from the high-throughput sequencing of a symptomless apple leaf sample. Although the virus sequence was originally derived from apple leaves, the data suggest that the virus is associated with the two-spotted miteTetranychus urticae. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - April 7, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Epidemiology and HBGA-susceptibility investigation of a G9P[8] rotavirus outbreak in a school in Lechang, China
AbstractRotaviruses cause severe gastroenteritis in infants, in which the viruses interact with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as attachment and host susceptibility factors. While gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by rotaviruses are uncommon in adolescents, we reported here one that occurred in a middle school in China. Rectal swabs and saliva samples were collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic students, and samples were also collected from the environment. Using PCR, followed by DNA sequencing, a single G9P[8] rotavirus strain was identified as the causative agent. The attack rate of the outbreak was 13.5% f...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 6, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Canine distemper virus induces downregulation of GABA A, GABA B , and GAT1 expression in brain tissue of dogs
AbstractThe aim of the study was to determine the expression profiles ofGABAA,GABAB, andGAT1 using RT-PCR and the immunoreactivity ofGAT1 via immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence assays in CDV-infected brain tissue of dogs. For this purpose, dogs with CDV and dogs without CDV were selected. The mRNA transcript levels ofGABAA,GABAB, andGAT1 were significantly downregulated in brain tissue in the CDV-infected group as compared with that in non-CDV-infected brain tissue in the control group (p
Source: Archives of Virology - April 6, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A flagellin-adjuvanted inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) vaccine provides enhanced immune protection against PEDV challenge in piglets
This study should guide the prevention and control strategies for PEDV infection, thereby reducing the losses associated with this virus. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - April 6, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Effect of the nanocapsulated adjuvant Sapomax on the expression of some immune response genes
AbstractThe use of the nanocapsulated adjuvant Sapomax increased the expression of innate immunity genes (H2Q10, Ddx58, Tyk2, Tlr3, Tlr7, and TNF) responsible for the primary recognition of influenza virus, i.e., those belonging to the RLR and TLR families; genes involved in stimulating the production of type I and III IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines; and Th1 and Th2 cellular immunity genes (Ccr4, Ccr5, IFN γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10) responsible for triggering regulatory immune mechanisms in the cell. The high immunological activity of the plant-derived nanocapsulated adjuvant Sapomax may be used to enhance the eff...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 4, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of Phobos: a novel bacteriophage with unusual genomic features that infects Pseudomonas syringae
AbstractThe GenBank database contains over 2580 complete genome sequences from bacteriophages. However, limited reports are available concerning phages can that lyse members ofPseudomonas syringae, although this is a widespread bacterial species that can infect almost 200 plant species. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a newSiphoviridae phage, named “Pseudomonas phage vB_PsyS_Phobos” (for brevity, referred to here as Phobos). To our knowledge, this is one of the first genome sequences reported for a phage with lytic activity againstP. syringae pv.syringae. The genome of Phobos is dsDNA of 56,...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 4, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a novel cytorhabdovirus with a unique genomic organization infecting yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) in Argentina
AbstractThe genome of a novel rhabdovirus was detected in yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.). The newly identified virus, tentatively named"yerba mate virus A" (YmVA), has a genome of 14,961 nucleotides. Notably, eight open reading frames were identified in the antigenomic orientation of the negative-sense, single-stranded viral RNA, including two novel accessory genes, in the order 3 ′-N-P-3-4-M-G-L-8-5′. Sequence comparisons of the encoded proteins as well as phylogenetic analysis suggest that YmVA is a new member of the genusCytorhabdovirus, familyRhabdoviridae. YmVA's unique genomic organiz...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 3, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of Xanthomonas phage RiverRider, a novel N4-like bacteriophage that infects the strawberry pathogen Xanthomonas fragariae
AbstractXanthomonas phage RiverRider is a novel N4-like bacteriophage and the first phage isolated from the plant pathogenXanthomonas fragariae. Electron microscopy revealed aPodoviridae morphology consisting of isometric heads and short noncontractile tails. The complete genome of RiverRider is 76,355  bp in length, with 90 open reading frames and seven tRNAs. The genome is characteristic of N4-like bacteriophages in both content and organization, having predicted proteins characterized into the functional groups of transcription, DNA metabolism, DNA replication, lysis, lysis inhibition, structu re and DNA packaging....
Source: Archives of Virology - April 3, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

RLP, a bacteriophage of the family Podoviridae , rescues mice from bacteremia caused by multi-drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
AbstractAntimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to public health around the globe. According to the World Health Organization, there will be a return to the pre-penicillin era by 2050 if no new antimicrobials are discovered. It is therefore necessary to find new antimicrobials and alternatives.Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits resistance against many antibiotics and causes a variety of infections in immunocompromised individuals and especially in those with burn wounds and lung infections. Bacteriophage RLP againstP. aeruginosa strain PA-1 was isolated from the Ravi River near Lahore. It showed marked stability at diffe...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 3, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Intra-host diversity of hepatitis B virus during mother-to-child transmission: the X gene may play a key role in virus survival in children after transmission
AbstractMother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the main route of transmission in Asia, and characterization of HBV quasispecies is needed to further understand virus evolution and adaptation. To understand changes in HBV during mother-to-child transmission, we enrolled nine pairs of mothers and children in the study, including a set of twins. Three groups were infected with HBV genotype C, and six groups were infected with HBV genotype B. The full-length HBV genome was amplified by PCR from serum samples before antiviral treatment, the whole viral genomes from each pair were sequenced, and the complexit...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 2, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of hepatitis B and C virus infection in Central West Argentina
Conclusion: A low rate of HBV immunity was observed, demonstrating the importance of HBV vaccination. High HCV prevalence was found, and HCV 1b was closely related to other Argentinian isolates. Finally, the performance of DBS testing in this population needs more optimization to increase its sensitivity and specificity. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - April 1, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Whole-genome sequence analysis of paris virus 1: a novel member of the genus Potyvirus infecting Paris polyphylla var . yunnanensis
AbstractThe complete genome sequence of a novel potyvirus, tentatively named “paris virus 1” (ParV1, GenBank accession no. MN549985), infectingParis polyphylla var.yunnanensis was determined in this study. A single large open reading frame (nt 96-9818) encoding a 3240-aa polyprotein that is predicted to be cleaved into 10 mature proteins was detected in the ParV1 genome. Comparative analysis of the ParV1 genome sequence with those of other potyviruses identified nine cleavage sites and conserved motifs that are typical features of potyviruses. Pairwise sequence comparisons showed that the ParV1 polyprotein shar...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 1, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Production of immunogenic recombinant L1 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 9 causing teat papillomatosis
In this study, we successfully produced immunogenic particles composed of recombinant L1 protein of BPV9 (rBPV9-L1), using a baculovirus expression system. rBPV9-L1-immunized mice produced BPV9-specific IgG, which did not cross-react with BPV type 6, which is another causative agent of teat papillomatosis. Hence, immunogenic rBPV9-L1 is potentially applicable as a vaccine candidate for teat papillomatosis. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - April 1, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Therapeutic effect of an anti-human-TNF-alpha antibody and itraconazole on feline infectious peritonitis
In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of combined use of adalimumab (an anti-human-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody, ADA) and itraconazole (ICZ), which are presently available to veterinarians. The neutralizing activity of ADA against fTNF-alpha-induced cytotoxicity was measured in WEHI-164 cells. Ten specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats were inoculated intraperitoneally with type I FIPV KU-2. To the cats that developed FIP, ADA (10 mg/animal) was administered twice between day 0 and day 4 after the start of treatment. ICZ (50 mg/head, SID) was orally administered daily from day 0 after the start of treatment. ADA d...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 31, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genome-wide identification of long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs reveal their ceRNA networks in response to cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infection in watermelon
This study provides a valuable resource of lncRNAs and circRNAs involved in the response to CGMMV infection in watermelon. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - March 30, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research