Development and comparison of two H5N8 influenza A vaccine candidate strains
AbstractAvian influenza viruses circulating in birds have caused outbreaks of infection in poultry and humans, thereby threatening public health. Recently, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus (H5N8) of clade 2.3.4.4 emerged in Korea and other countries and caused multiple outbreaks in domestic and wild birds, with concerns for human infection. To combat HPAI viral infections, novel vaccines are likely to be the most effective approach. Therefore, in this study, we generated H5N8 vaccine candidate viruses based on a Korean isolate (A/broiler duck/Korea/Buan2/2014). The vaccine candidate viruses were 2:6 reassor...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 5, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Crude extracts of recombinant baculovirus expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 VLPs from both insect and rabbit cells protect rabbits from rabbit hemorrhagic disease caused by RHDV2
In this study we compared two different codon usages of RHDV2-VP1 to improve the expression of recombinant VP1 of RHDV2 by recombinant baculoviruses after infection of insect SF9 cells or transduction of mammalian RK13 cells in order to gain high protein yields. Also the influence on the auto-assembly of RHDV2-VP1 to VLPs was investigated. Finally, the immunogenic potential of such recombinant vaccines against RHDV2 to induce a protective immune response in rabbits against RHDV2 should be characterized. There was no influence of different codon usages on RHDV2-VP1 gene expression in the respective cell lines detected. Howe...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 5, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evidence of avian poxvirus and papillomavirus infection in Gyps fulvus in Italy
AbstractThe identification of avian poxvirus and avian papillomavirus associated with cutaneous lesions in griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) by histopathology, electron microscopy and PCR analysis is reported. Sequence analysis of thefpv140 gene revealed 99% identity to two poxviruses obtained from a white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and a common buzzard (Buteo buteo). Partial sequence of the papillomavirus L1 gene showed sequence similarity to papillomavirus LI genes from African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) (69% identity), duck (Anas platyrhynchos) (68% identity), and yellow-necked francolin (Francolinus le...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 5, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

“ Tupanvirus ”, a new genus in the family Mimiviridae
AbstractThe genus “Tupanvirus” is a new proposed taxon to be included in the familyMimiviridae. The two known tupanvirus isolates were isolated from soda lake and oceanic sediments samples collected in Brazil and were named “tupanvirus soda lake” and “tupanvirus deep ocean”, respectively. These viruses exhibit similarities to amoeba-infecting mimiviruses, but there are also several differences that place them in a separate group within the familyMimiviridae. Their virions have a mean size of 1.2  µm, which include a mimivirus-like capsid and a large cylindrical tail, both cove...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 5, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genetic characterization of a novel unique recombinant form of HIV-1 originating from subtype A1 and C in Guangdong Province, China
In this study, we report a unique recombinant form (URF) of HIV-1 that was identified in an HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) triple-infected patient who was an intravenous drug user (IDU) in Heyuan City, Guangdong Province. The near full-length genome was amplified, and the PCR products were sequenced by Sanger ’s method. The Recombination Identification Program (RIP 3.0) and jpHMM online tools showed that four subtype C fragments were inserted into the A1 backbone genome in thegag,pol,vpr andnef gene regions. In the phylogenetic tree analysis, the subtype A1 and C fragments clustered with HIV-1 A1...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 5, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) latent protein LANA modulates cellular genes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
AbstractKaposi ’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma and various lymphoproliferative diseases. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important step in the metastasis of cancer cells. Previous studies have shown an important role for EMT mark ers in B-cell malignancies. In the present study, we investigated the role of the KSHV latent protein LANA in the progression of EMT. Our data suggest that expression of LANA results in an increase in the migration and invasion potential of cancer cells, which is concurrent with modulation of transc ripti...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Isolation, identification, and classification of a novel rhabdovirus from diseased Chinese rice-field eels ( Monopterus albus )
AbstractIn 2017, a clinical disease outbreak resulted in substantial mortality of adults and larvae of cultured Chinese rice-field eels (Monopterus albus) on a farm in Hubei, Central China. A rhabdovirus was isolated from moribund specimens, and typical clinical symptoms associated with an outbreak included an enlarged and swollen head. This differed from previous observations. Histological changes included necrosis and cavities of various sizes within the brain and kidney. Homogenized tissues of diseased Chinese rice-field eels were screened for viral isolation using six different fish cell lines. A rhabdovirus was isolat...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Alstroemeria yellow spot virus (AYSV): a new orthotospovirus species within a growing Eurasian clade
AbstractAn orthotospovirus distinct from all other orthotospoviruses was isolated from naturally infected alstroemeria plants. Disease symptoms caused by this virus mainly consisted of yellow spots on the leaves based on which the name alstroemeria yellow spot virus (AYSV) was coined. A host range analysis was performed and a polyclonal antiserum was produced against purified AYSV ribonucleoproteins which only reacted with the homologous antigen and not with any other (established or tentative) orthotospovirus from a selection of American and Asian species. Upon thrips transmission assays the virus was successfully transmi...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The complete genome sequence analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated in Slovakia (central Europe)
AbstractThe present study reports the first complete genome sequence analysis of West Nile virus (WNV) strains isolated from brain samples from raptors. The results prove the circulation of closely related WNV lineage II strains in central Europe and genetic analysis revealed seven amino acid substitutions in structural (PrM3, E159 and E231) and in non-structural (NS1109, NS5259, NS5310 and NS5600) proteins. Observed amino acid substitutions Phe3 and Ser231 were common only within the lineage VII Koutango strain isolated fromRhipicephalus guilhoni tick in Senegal. Further research could reveal whether these substitutions i...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

GI.1b/GI.1b/GI.2 recombinant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 ( Lagovirus europaeus /GI.2) in Morocco, Africa
AbstractRabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is highly lethal to the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). It was first reported in 1984 in China, but in 2010, a new variant of the virus was detected (GI.2) in France. Several recombination events with pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains have been described. Here, we report the first sequences of RHDV in Africa, isolated from Moroccan rabbits, and these resemble GI.1b/GI.1b/GI.2 recombinants found in the Iberian Peninsula. Monitoring and characterization of strains from future outbreaks are advised to guarantee the success of current programs on small-rabbit product...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The influence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus on pig small intestine mucosal epithelial cell function
AbstractPorcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious, acute enteric tract infectious disease of pigs (Sus domesticus) caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). PED is characterized by watery diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, vomiting and death. PEDV damages pig intestinal epithelial tissue, causing intestinal hyperemia and atrophy of intestinal villi, with formation of intestinal epithelial cell cytoplasmic vacuoles. Since pig small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are target cells of PEDV infection, IEC cells were utilized as a model for studying changes in cellular activities post-PEDV infection. Mo...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Thailand orthohantavirus infection in patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka
In this study, a total of 89 seropositive sera were examined to identify their serotypes using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay, a truncated-N-protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a cross-neutralization test. These results indicated that the residents in this area were frequently infected with Thailand orthohantavirus or an antigenically related virus. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) latent protein LANA modulates cellular genes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
AbstractKaposi ’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus associated with Kaposi’s sarcoma and various lymphoproliferative diseases. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important step in the metastasis of cancer cells. Previous studies have shown an important role for EMT mark ers in B-cell malignancies. In the present study, we investigated the role of the KSHV latent protein LANA in the progression of EMT. Our data suggest that expression of LANA results in an increase in the migration and invasion potential of cancer cells, which is concurrent with modulation of transc ripti...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Isolation, identification, and classification of a novel rhabdovirus from diseased Chinese rice-field eels ( Monopterus albus )
AbstractIn 2017, a clinical disease outbreak resulted in substantial mortality of adults and larvae of cultured Chinese rice-field eels (Monopterus albus) on a farm in Hubei, Central China. A rhabdovirus was isolated from moribund specimens, and typical clinical symptoms associated with an outbreak included an enlarged and swollen head. This differed from previous observations. Histological changes included necrosis and cavities of various sizes within the brain and kidney. Homogenized tissues of diseased Chinese rice-field eels were screened for viral isolation using six different fish cell lines. A rhabdovirus was isolat...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Alstroemeria yellow spot virus (AYSV): a new orthotospovirus species within a growing Eurasian clade
AbstractAn orthotospovirus distinct from all other orthotospoviruses was isolated from naturally infected alstroemeria plants. Disease symptoms caused by this virus mainly consisted of yellow spots on the leaves based on which the name alstroemeria yellow spot virus (AYSV) was coined. A host range analysis was performed and a polyclonal antiserum was produced against purified AYSV ribonucleoproteins which only reacted with the homologous antigen and not with any other (established or tentative) orthotospovirus from a selection of American and Asian species. Upon thrips transmission assays the virus was successfully transmi...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The complete genome sequence analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated in Slovakia (central Europe)
AbstractThe present study reports the first complete genome sequence analysis of West Nile virus (WNV) strains isolated from brain samples from raptors. The results prove the circulation of closely related WNV lineage II strains in central Europe and genetic analysis revealed seven amino acid substitutions in structural (PrM3, E159 and E231) and in non-structural (NS1109, NS5259, NS5310 and NS5600) proteins. Observed amino acid substitutions Phe3 and Ser231 were common only within the lineage VII Koutango strain isolated fromRhipicephalus guilhoni tick in Senegal. Further research could reveal whether these substitutions i...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

GI.1b/GI.1b/GI.2 recombinant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 ( Lagovirus europaeus /GI.2) in Morocco, Africa
AbstractRabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is highly lethal to the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). It was first reported in 1984 in China, but in 2010, a new variant of the virus was detected (GI.2) in France. Several recombination events with pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains have been described. Here, we report the first sequences of RHDV in Africa, isolated from Moroccan rabbits, and these resemble GI.1b/GI.1b/GI.2 recombinants found in the Iberian Peninsula. Monitoring and characterization of strains from future outbreaks are advised to guarantee the success of current programs on small-rabbit product...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The influence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus on pig small intestine mucosal epithelial cell function
AbstractPorcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious, acute enteric tract infectious disease of pigs (Sus domesticus) caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). PED is characterized by watery diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, vomiting and death. PEDV damages pig intestinal epithelial tissue, causing intestinal hyperemia and atrophy of intestinal villi, with formation of intestinal epithelial cell cytoplasmic vacuoles. Since pig small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are target cells of PEDV infection, IEC cells were utilized as a model for studying changes in cellular activities post-PEDV infection. Mo...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Thailand orthohantavirus infection in patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka
In this study, a total of 89 seropositive sera were examined to identify their serotypes using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay, a truncated-N-protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a cross-neutralization test. These results indicated that the residents in this area were frequently infected with Thailand orthohantavirus or an antigenically related virus. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Human herpesvirus type 1 and type 2 disrupt mitochondrial dynamics in human keratinocytes
AbstractMitochondrial movement and distribution throughout the cytoplasm is crucial for maintaining cell homeostasis. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles but can be functionally disrupted during infection. Here, we show that the ubiquitous human pathogens HHV-1 and HHV-2 induce changes in the mitochondrial morphology and distribution in the early and late phases of productive infection in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). We observed a decrease in the mitochondrial potential at 2  h postinfection and a decrease in cell vitality at 24 h postinfection. Moreover, we found that mitochondria migrated to the perinucle...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genomic analysis of a novel isolate Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3i (HvAV-3i) and identification of ascoviral repeat ORFs ( aro s)
AbstractAscoviruses are circular double-stranded DNA viruses that infect insects. Herein we sequenced and analyzed the genome of the previously unrecorded ascovirus isolate Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3i (HvAV-3i). The genome size is 185,650  bp with 181 hypothetical open reading frames (ORFs). Additionally, definition based on ascovirus repeated ORFs (aros) is proposed; whereby the 29aros from all sequencedAscoviridae genomes are divided into six distinct groups. The topological relationship among the isolates ofHeliothis virescens ascovirus 3a is (HvAV-3f, {HvAV-3h, [HvAV-3e, (HvAV-3g, HvAV-3i)]}) with every clade...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

First evidence of the presence of adenovirus type 8 in myocardium of patients with severe idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy
AbstractPrevious studies have detected adenovirus and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in cardiac tissue of patients with myocarditis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the frequency of these viruses, which may be involved in the development of severe dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Myocardial tissue from of 23 cardiac transplant candidates with acute idiopathic DCM below the age of 40 years were analyzed by amplification of adenovirus and CMV DNA and subsequent sequencing. Adenovirus was detected in four (17.4%) and CMV in one (4.3%) of the patients. All controls were negative for the presence of both viruses. Our study shows ...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and agar gel immunodiffusion assay for diagnosis of equine infectious anemia employing p26 protein fused to the maltose-binding protein
AbstractA codon-optimized equine infectious anemia virus p26 gene was fused to a maltose-binding protein (MBP) and expressed inEscherichia coli for use as an antigen in agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for diagnosis of equine infectious anemia. An analysis of analytical sensitivity and specificity showed that the antigen MBP-p26rec reacted positively with a reference World Organization for Animal Health serum and demonstrated no cross-reaction against sera from vaccinated animals in either test. The diagnostic characteristics were evaluated and presented excellent values. The AG...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization of sida golden mottle virus isolated from S ida santaremensis Monteiro in Florida
AbstractThe genome of sida golden mottle virus (SiGMoV) (GU997691 and GU997692) isolated fromSida santaremensis Monteiro in Manatee County, Florida, was sequenced and characterized. SiGMoV was determined to be a bipartite virus belonging to the genusBegomovirus with a genome organization typical of the New World viruses in the genus. SiGMoV DNA-A had the highest identity scores (89%) and showed the closest evolutionary relationships to sida golden mosaic Buckup virus (SiGMBuV) (JX162591 and HQ008338). However, SiGMoV DNA-B had the highest identity scores (93%) and showed the closest evolutionary relationship to corchorus y...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Prevalence of naturally occurring amino acid substitutions associated with resistance to hepatitis C virus NS3/NS4A protease inhibitors in S ão Paulo state
This study aimed to screen naturally occurring RASs NS3/NS4A inhibitors (PIs). Samples were obtained from DAA na ïve patients, living in São Paulo state, Brazil. Screening for RASs in the HCV NS3 region was conducted in 859 samples from HCV-infected patients, of which 425 and 434 samples were subtype 1a and 1b, respectively. HCV-RNA was extracted, amplified, and sequenced. The overall prevalence of RASs to H CV PIs was 9.4%. The following RASs were observed in HCV-1a subtype infected patients: V36L (2.6%), T54S (1.6%), V55I/A (1.2% / 8.9%, respectively), Q80K (2.1%), R155K (0.5%), and D168E (0.2%); and in HCV-1...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation can disrupt tobacco mosaic virus particles and RNAs to inactivate their infectivity
In this study,N-carrying tobacco plants were inoculated with plasma irradiated and non-irradiated tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) solution, resulting in necrotic local lesions on non-irradiated, but not on irradiated, TMV-inoculated leaves. Virus particles were disrupted by plasma irradiation in an exposure-dependent manner, but the viral coat protein subunit was not. TMV RNA was also fragmented in a time-dependent manner. These results indicate that plasma irradiation of TMV can collapse viral particles to the subunit level, degrading TMV RNA and thereby leading to a loss of infectivity. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - October 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Discovery of two novel totiviruses from Culex tritaeniorhynchus classifiable in a distinct clade with arthropod-infecting viruses within the family Totiviridae
AbstractTwo double-stranded RNA viruses, named Culex tritaeniorhynchus totivirus NJ2 (CTV_NJ2) and NJ3 (CTV_NJ3), were discovered from wild-capturedCulex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes. The complete genomes (7,624 and 7,612 bp in length) were obtained using RNA sequencing. Both CTV_NJ2 and CTV_NJ3 encode a putative capsid protein and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The most similar strain to CTV_NJ2/3 is Omono River virus strain AK4 (ORV-AK4). The CP and RdRp identities of AK4 are different to CTV_NJ2 (84% and 87%) and CTV_NJ3 (47% and 62%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that taxonomically speaking CTV_NJ2/3 grouped within t...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genetic characterization of a new astrovirus in goslings suffering from gout
AbstractSince early 2016, the Chinese goose industry has experienced severe outbreaks of gout; however, the etiological factor of the disease is still unclear. Here, we investigated the possible involvement of viral infection in the disease. Using sequence-independent PCR amplification, astrovirus sequences were generated from a gout case. Full-length genomic sequencing and sequence analysis of three goose astrovirus (GoAstV) strains revealed that they belong to a new avastrovirus most closely related to viruses classified within speciesAvastrovirus 3. The GoAstV was detected in 16/16 gout cases collected from two province...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A novel polyomavirus in sigmodontine rodents from S ão Paulo State, Brazil
AbstractThe nearly complete genome sequence of a novel polyomavirus from blood samples ofAkodon montensis andCalomys tener collected in Brazil was determined by high-throughput sequencing. This virus showed a typical polyomaviruses genome organization, and it was classified as a member of the genusBetapolyomavirus. Our results expand the host range and viral diversity of the familyPolyomaviridae. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - October 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Detection and genomic characterization of new avian-like hepatitis E virus in a sparrow in the United States
AbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) is a nonenveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that has been detected in a wide variety of animals. In 2017, an avian-like HEV was identified in sparrow feces sampled from around a pig farm in the midwestern United States. Sequence analysis revealed that the sparrow isolate represents a novel HEV that is distantly related to chicken and little egret HEVs. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - October 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of an imported dengue virus serotype 4 isolate from Thailand
AbstractThe epidemic of dengue virus infections has spread markedly in Yunnan province of China in recent years due to an increase in the number of imported dengue cases. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report a whole genome sequence and molecular characterization of an imported DENV-4 isolate from Thailand. The current strain, 2013JH285, has an RNA genome of 10,772 nucleotides that shares 99.0% nucleotide and 99.7% amino acid sequence identity with the 2013 Thailand strain CTI2-13. Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome sequence revealed that the 2013JH285 strain belongs to genotype I of...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Phylogenetic analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates from Northern Ireland
This study provides the first report on PRRSV isolate diversity in Northern Ireland. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - October 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Clinical evaluation of a panel of multiplex quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of 16 respiratory viruses associated with community-acquired pneumonia
AbstractWe developed a panel of multiplex quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mqRT-PCR) assay consisting of seven internally controlled qRT-PCR assays to detect 16 different respiratory viruses. We compared the new mqRT-PCR with a previously reported two-tube mRT-PCR assay using 363 clinical sputum specimens. The mqRT-PCR assay performed comparably with the two-tube assay for most viruses, offering the advantages of quantitative analysis, easier performance, lower susceptibility to contamination, and shorter turnaround time in laboratories equipped with conventional real-time PCR instrum...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 10, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular detection and sequence analysis of porcine circovirus type 3 in sow sera from farms with prolonged histories of reproductive problems in Hunan, China
In this study, we report identification of PCV3 in cases of reproductive failure in various regions in Hunan, China. From January 2015 to December 2016, sera were collected from 190 sows from se ven farms with reproductive problems. Specifically, 85 samples were from sows with a history of reproductive failure, whereas the remaining 105 were from healthy sows. The PCV3-positive rate was significantly higher in sows with reproductive failure (45.9%) than in healthy sows (21.9%), based on qua ntitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Although phylogenetic analysis based on thecap gene suggested that these PCV3 isolates belonged to the cl...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 10, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence and phylogenetic analysis of spring viremia of carp virus isolated from leather carp ( Cyprinus carpio nudus ) in Korea in 2016
This report provides additional information for studying the molecular epidemiology and evolution of spring viremia of carp virus. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - September 10, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genomic analysis of a novel isolate Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3i (HvAV-3i) and identification of ascoviral repeat ORFs ( aro s)
AbstractAscoviruses are circular double-stranded DNA viruses that infect insects. Herein we sequenced and analyzed the genome of the previously unrecorded ascovirus isolate Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3i (HvAV-3i). The genome size is 185,650  bp with 181 hypothetical open reading frames (ORFs). Additionally, definition based on ascovirus repeated ORFs (aros) is proposed; whereby the 29aros from all sequencedAscoviridae genomes are divided into six distinct groups. The topological relationship among the isolates ofHeliothis virescens ascovirus 3a is (HvAV-3f, {HvAV-3h, [HvAV-3e, (HvAV-3g, HvAV-3i)]}) with every clade...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 10, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization of sida golden mottle virus isolated from S ida santaremensis Monteiro in Florida
AbstractThe genome of sida golden mottle virus (SiGMoV) (GU997691 and GU997692) isolated fromSida santaremensis Monteiro in Manatee County, Florida, was sequenced and characterized. SiGMoV was determined to be a bipartite virus belonging to the genusBegomovirus with a genome organization typical of the New World viruses in the genus. SiGMoV DNA-A had the highest identity scores (89%) and showed the closest evolutionary relationships to sida golden mosaic Buckup virus (SiGMBuV) (JX162591 and HQ008338). However, SiGMoV DNA-B had the highest identity scores (93%) and showed the closest evolutionary relationship to corchorus y...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 10, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Prevalence of naturally occurring amino acid substitutions associated with resistance to hepatitis C virus NS3/NS4A protease inhibitors in S ão Paulo state
This study aimed to screen naturally occurring RASs NS3/NS4A inhibitors (PIs). Samples were obtained from DAA na ïve patients, living in São Paulo state, Brazil. Screening for RASs in the HCV NS3 region was conducted in 859 samples from HCV-infected patients, of which 425 and 434 samples were subtype 1a and 1b, respectively. HCV-RNA was extracted, amplified, and sequenced. The overall prevalence of RASs to H CV PIs was 9.4%. The following RASs were observed in HCV-1a subtype infected patients: V36L (2.6%), T54S (1.6%), V55I/A (1.2% / 8.9%, respectively), Q80K (2.1%), R155K (0.5%), and D168E (0.2%); and in HCV-1...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 10, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation can disrupt tobacco mosaic virus particles and RNAs to inactivate their infectivity
In this study,N-carrying tobacco plants were inoculated with plasma irradiated and non-irradiated tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) solution, resulting in necrotic local lesions on non-irradiated, but not on irradiated, TMV-inoculated leaves. Virus particles were disrupted by plasma irradiation in an exposure-dependent manner, but the viral coat protein subunit was not. TMV RNA was also fragmented in a time-dependent manner. These results indicate that plasma irradiation of TMV can collapse viral particles to the subunit level, degrading TMV RNA and thereby leading to a loss of infectivity. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - September 10, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A novel polyomavirus in sigmodontine rodents from S ão Paulo State, Brazil
AbstractThe nearly complete genome sequence of a novel polyomavirus from blood samples ofAkodon montensis andCalomys tener collected in Brazil was determined by high-throughput sequencing. This virus showed a typical polyomaviruses genome organization, and it was classified as a member of the genusBetapolyomavirus. Our results expand the host range and viral diversity of the familyPolyomaviridae. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - September 10, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of an imported dengue virus serotype 4 isolate from Thailand
AbstractThe epidemic of dengue virus infections has spread markedly in Yunnan province of China in recent years due to an increase in the number of imported dengue cases. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report a whole genome sequence and molecular characterization of an imported DENV-4 isolate from Thailand. The current strain, 2013JH285, has an RNA genome of 10,772 nucleotides that shares 99.0% nucleotide and 99.7% amino acid sequence identity with the 2013 Thailand strain CTI2-13. Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome sequence revealed that the 2013JH285 strain belongs to genotype I of...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 10, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Phylogenetic analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates from Northern Ireland
This study provides the first report on PRRSV isolate diversity in Northern Ireland. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - September 10, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of susceptibility of HIV-1 CRF01_AE variants to neutralization by a panel of broadly neutralizing antibodies
AbstractBroadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are very promising agents for HIV-1 prophylaxis and AIDS treatment. However, the neutralization susceptibility of circulating recombinants such as CRF01_AE, which is becoming increasingly prevalent, has not been studied in detail until now. Here, we focused on CRF01_AE in China and aimed to find bNAbs that can be used for neutralization of CRF01_AE. Full-lengthenv clones were obtained from the plasma samples of 22 HIV-1-infected individuals sampled in 2009 and 2015. Anenv-pseudovirus-based neutralization assay was conducted using five categories of bNAbs: VRC01, NIH45-46G54W,...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 8, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification of rehmannia virus 1, a novel putative member of the genus Closterovirus, from Rehmannia glutinosa
In this study, we examined the molecular and biological characteristics of the novel virus. The complete genome of the novel virus is composed of monopartite single-stranded RNA of 15,322 nucleotides with 69% nucleotide sequence identity (with 68% coverage) to tobacco virus 1. Its genome organization is typical of the members of the genusClosterovirus, containing nine putative open reading frames. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the genome and encoded protein sequences strongly support that the identified virus is a new species of the genusClosterovirus in the familyClosteroviridae. The name rehmannia virus 1 (ReV1)...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 6, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Development of a serosurveillance assay for detection of Necocl í virus exposure
AbstractHantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) has gained importance in Latin America as an emerging disease, with reports of about 4000 HPS cases; however, this is probably an underestimate because of limited surveillance programs and diagnostic tools to confirm HPS. In order to address this issue and develop better serosurveillance capability, we evaluated three recombinant peptides from the Necocl í virus (NECV) nucleocapsid in antibody-capture ELISA. We cloned and expressed antigens representing the whole NECV nucleocapsid protein (NECV-rN), the immunodominant domain (NECV-rN100), and a serospecific domain (N...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 6, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Performance evaluation of a newly developed molecular assay for the accurate diagnosis of gastroenteritis associated with norovirus of genogroup II
AbstractThe performance of a newly proposed fully automated cassette-based sample-to-results solution for norovirus (NoV) detection, InGenius Norovirus ELITe MGB ®, was evaluated. A total of 120 selected archival stool samples from children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis were used to compare the results to a reference real-time RT-PCR. The InGenius NoV assay showed optimal diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 95.7%) and was able to c orrectly detect the entire wide panel of epidemiologically relevant genotypes tested. These preliminary results suggest that the InGenius NoV assay can be recommend...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 6, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a novel picobirnavirus in a chicken
AbstractPicobirnaviruses (PBVs) are bisegmented viruses with a wide geographical and host species distribution. The number of novel PBV sequences has been increasing with the help of the viral metagenomics. A novel picobirnavirus strain, pbv/CHK/M3841/HUN/2011, was identified by viral metagenomics; the complete segment 1 (MH327933) and 2 (MH327934) sequences were obtained by RT-PCR from a cloacal sample of a diseased broiler breeder pullet in Hungary. Although the conserved nucleotide (e.g., ribosome binding site) and amino acid motifs (e.g., ExxRxNxxxE, S-domain of the viral capsid and motifs in the RNA-dependent RNA poly...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 6, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Bottlenecks and complementation in the aphid transmission of citrus tristeza virus populations
AbstractAphid transmission is a major factor in the formation of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) populations. Here, we examined the effect of population interaction on aphid transmissibility of different CTV genotypes. We found that there was no correlation between the proportion of viral genotypes in the source population and what was transmitted. We next examined the transmission of a poorly transmitted infectious cDNA clone (T36) in mixture with other CTV genotypes. T36 transmission increased from 0.5% alone, to up to 35.7%, depending on the coinfecting genotype. These results suggest that interaction between CTV genotypes ...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 6, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genomic and biological characterization of a new member of the genus Phikmvvirus infecting phytopathogenic Ralstonia bacteria
AbstractBacterial wilt caused byRalstonia spp., soil-borne Gram-negative bacteria, is considered one of the most important plant diseases in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A large number of bacteriophages capable of lysing or physiologically reprogramming cells ofRalstonia spp. have been reported in Asia. Despite the potential use of these organisms in the management of bacterial wilt, information on viruses that infectRalstonia spp. is nonexistent in the Americas. We isolated a virus that infectsRalstonia spp. from a soil sample in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Microscopy and genomic and phylogenetic ...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 5, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chimeric Newcastle disease virus-vectored vaccine protects chickens against H9N2 avian influenza virus in the presence of pre-existing NDV immunity
AbstractA chimeric Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vector (NDV/AI4-TFHN) was constructed with the replacement of the ectodomains of the fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins by those from avian paramyxovirus type 2. The chimeric virus induced high antibody response in chickens pre-immunized with NDV. A recombinant vaccine candidate, NDV/AI4-TFHN-H9, expressing the hemagglutinin of H9N2 avian influenza virus, was generated, on the basis of the chimeric NDV vector mentioned above. The NDV/AI4-TFHN-H9 vaccine elicited H9-specific hemagglutination inhibition antibodies in chickens pre-immunized with NDV vaccine, and re...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 5, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research