30 years of Virology Division News in Archives of Virology
(Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - April 9, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genome characterization of zucchini yellow mosaic virus infecting cucurbits reveals the presence of a new genotype in Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean region
In this study, four ZYMV isolates infecting pumpkin in Trinidad and Tobago were characterized by complete genome sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed 5.9 –6.0% nt and 7.7–7.9% aa sequence divergence in comparison to the most closely related isolates NAT and AG from Israel and SE04T from Slovakia. Based on the variations in the complete genome sequence as well as individual gene sequences, a new genotype, designated ZYMV-Trini, is proposed for the se isolates. Among the gene sequences of ZYMV-Trini isolates, the greatest variation was observed in the HC-Pro gene, with 20.8% aa sequence divergence from their ...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 3, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a previously undescribed monopartite begomovirus and betasatellite infecting Malvastrum coromandelianum in Cambodia
AbstractA previously undescribed monopartite begomovirus was identified in Kampot province, Cambodia, inMalvastrum coromandelianum plants exhibiting yellow vein symptoms characteristic of begomovirus infections. The apparently full-length viral component was cloned and sequenced following enrichment of circular DNA by rolling-circle amplification and restriction enzyme digestion. The genome of the virus was 2737 nucleotides in length (KP188831) and exhibited an organization like that of other monopartite begomoviruses, sharing the highest nucleotide sequence similarity (87.7% identity) with ageratum yellow vein virus (AM94...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 3, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The common risk factors for progression and mortality in COVID-19 patients: a meta-analysis
AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), has affected more than 50 million patients worldwide and caused a global public health emergency. Therefore, there is a recognized need to identify risk factors for COVID-19 severity and mortality. A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library) for studies published before September 29, 2020, was performed. Studies that investigated risk factors for progression and mortality in COVID-19 patients were included. A total 344,431 participants from 34 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Regard...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 2, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Comparative study of potyvirid NIa proteases and their cleavage sites
AbstractNuclear inclusion a protease (NIaPro), a major protease of potyvirids, processes its cognate viral polyprotein at distinct cleavage sites. AlthoughPotyviridae is the largest family of the realmRiboviria, the individual NIaPro enzymes and their cleavage sites are believed to be species-specific. In the present study, the NIaPro amino acid sequences of 165 potyvirids of 10 genera and their 1154 cleavage sites were compared to understand their genus/species-specificity and functional regulation. Of these, the NIaPro of macluraviruses, maintains a constant length of 217 amino acids, while those of other genera allow va...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 11, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Polymorphisms in the DC-SIGN gene and their association with the severity of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71
AbstractSevere hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is associated with high mortality and disability. DC-SIGN, a receptor for EV71, is widely distributed in dendritic cells and may influence the severity of HFMD caused by EV71 infection. This observational study attempts to explore whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DC-SIGN are related to the severity of EV71-associated HFMD. Based on linkage disequilibrium and functional predictions, two DC-SIGN SNPs were selected and tested to explore their potential association with the severity of HFMD caused by EV71 infection. T...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 11, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A new highly divergent copiparvovirus in sheep
AbstractThe subfamilyParvovirinae within the familyParvoviridae consists of viruses that can infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts and cause effects ranging from severe disease to asymptomatic infection. In the present study, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) was utilized to analyze samples obtained from an abortion outbreak in a sheep flock to identify a putative viral etiology. A highly divergent nearly complete parvovirid genome sequence, approximately 4.9 kb in length, was determined. The nonstructural protein (NS1) amino acid (aa) sequence of this virus shared less than 30% identity with those of other copiparvovirus...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 10, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Human pegivirus 1 in Cabo Verde: prevalence and genotypic distribution among HIV-infected individuals
AbstractHuman pegivirus 1 (HPgV-1) belongs to the genusPegivirus, familyFlaviviridae, and until now has been considered a non-pathogenic agent, despite being considered a risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, a beneficial impact of HPgV-1 on HIV disease progression has been extensively reported. Given the high prevalence of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and the scarcity of epidemiological data for many countries of West Africa, we conducted the first study of HPgV-1 in HIV-infected individuals from Cabo Verde. To obtain new data regarding prevalence and genetic diversity of HPgV-1 in Africa, serum samples from 102 HIV...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 10, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Low virus diversity and spread in wild Capsicum spp. accessions from Ecuador under natural inoculum pressure
In this study, 56 wildCapsicum spp. accessions from Ecuador that were under natural inoculum pressure for six months were screened for virus infections by RNA sequencing. These plants exhibited low virus diversity in comparison to a commercial pepper cultivar that was used as a susceptible host. Subjecting numerous plants to natural infection prior to artificial assays may indicate promising accessions to track within virus/vector resistance breeding programs. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - March 9, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete nucleotide sequence of a new carlavirus infecting Aconitum carmichaelii in China
AbstractA novel virus was identified in aconite (Aconitum carmichaelii Debx.) in China by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and tentatively named"aconite virus A" (AcVA). The genomic RNA of AcVA consists of 8,844 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) at the 3 ′ end. Analysis of the genomic organization of AcVA indicated that it possesses a genomic structure that is typical of carlaviruses and contains six putative open reading frames (ORFs). Pairwise analysis revealed that the replicase and coat protein of AcVA share the highest amino acid sequence ide ntity (43.78% and 57.01%) with those of coleus vein necrosi...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 9, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Diversity of β-lactamase-encoding genes in wastewater: bacteriophages as reporters
AbstractA reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is present in pathogenic, commensal, and environmental bacteria as well as in mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophages. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered hotspots for the spread of ARGs. The aim of this work was to analyze the diversity of the highly prevalent ARGsblaCTX-M andblaTEM in bacterial and bacteriophage fractions associated with human and animal environments through the study of urban waste and animal residues discharged into WWTPs to provide information about the composition and maintenance of the current resistome in Buenos Aire...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 8, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Viruses that affect Argentinian honey bees ( Apis mellifera )
AbstractBeekeeping is a widespread activity in Argentina, mainly producing honey that has gained both national and international recognition. There are more than 3,000,000 hives in the country, mainly concentrated in Buenos Aires Province (approximately 1,000,000 hives). In recent decades, worrying rates of hive loss have been observed in many countries around the world. In Latin America, the estimated loss of hives is between 13% (Peru and Ecuador) and 53% (Chile). Argentina had annual losses of 34% for the period of October 1, 2016 to October 1, 2017. The causes of these losses are not clear but probably involve multiple...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 8, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Dynamics and stability in the maturation of a eukaryotic virus: a paradigm for chemically programmed large-scale macromolecular reorganization
AbstractVirus maturation is found in all animal viruses and dsDNA bacteriophages that have been studied. It is a programmed process, cued by cellular environmental factors, that transitions a noninfectious, initial assembly product (provirus) to an infectious particle (virion). Nudaurelia capensis omega virus (N ωV) is an ssRNA insect virus with T=4 quasi-symmetry. Over the last 20 years, NωV virus-like particles (VLPs) have been an attractive model for the detailed study of maturation. The novel feature of the system is the progressive transition from procapsid to capsid controlled by pH. Homogeneous pop ulati...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 8, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of kinase inhibitors as potential therapeutics for flavivirus infections
AbstractThe recent introduction of Zika virus (ZIKV), the recurrence of dengue virus (DENV), and the lethality of yellow fever virus (YFV) have had a significant impact on Brazilian society and public health. Here, we targeted two cellular kinases implicated in cell proliferation and cancer that are also important for viral replication: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and Src. We used two MEK inhibitors – trametinib and selumetinib – and two Src inhibitors – saracatinib and bosutinib – to inhibit ZIKV, DENV, and YFV replication in cell culture. The cytotoxicity of the four inhibitors w...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 8, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A novel mitovirus isolated from the phytopathogenic fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea
In this study, we isolated and determined the complete genome sequence of a novel mitovirus, “Botryosphaeria dothidea mitovirus 2” (BdMV2), from the phytopathogenic fungusBotryosphaeria dothidea isolate DT-5. BdMV2 has a genome 2,482 nt in length with an A+U content of 67%. The genome of BdMV2 contains a single large open reading frame (ORF) encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of 717 amino acids (aa) with a molecular mass of 81.86 kDa. A BLASTp comparison of the RdRp sequence showed the highest identity (66.67%) with that of Alternaria arborescens mitovirus 1 (AbMV1). Sequence comparisons and phylog...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 8, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Nuclear localization of non-structural protein 3 (NS3) during dengue virus infection
AbstractAlthough dengue virus (DENV) replication occurs in the cytoplasm, the nucleus plays an essential role during infection. Both the capsid protein (C) and non-structural protein 5 (NS5) are translocated into the infected cell nucleus to favor viral replication. Previously, our group reported the nuclear localization of the NS3 protein during DENV infection of mosquito cells; however, the nuclear localization of the DENV NS3 protein in human host cells has not been described. Here, we demonstrated that NS3 is present in the nucleus of Huh7 cells at early infection times, and later, it is mainly located in the cytoplasm...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 8, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Construction of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of potato aucuba mosaic virus
AbstractPotato aucuba mosaic virus (PAMV), a positive single-strand RNA virus, has one of the longest genomes of the viruses in the genusPotexvirus. In 2019, potato samples with mottle and crinkling symptoms from Huzhou, Zhejiang province, China, were identified to be infected with PAMV, potato virus X (PVX), and potato virus Y (PVY) by transcriptome sequencing. To study the effects of single infection by PAMV, the full-length sequence of PAMV from Huzhou (MT193476) was determined and an infectious full-length cDNA clone was constructed. This cDNA clone was infectious by agro-infiltration, leading to systemic symptoms inNi...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 8, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

First complete genome sequence of carnation latent virus, the type member of the genus Carlavirus
AbstractThe genusCarlavirus (familyBetaflexiviridae, orderTymovirales) currently includes 53 species recognized by the ICTV. The NCBI GenBank database has 43 full-length carlavirus genome sequences (7,890 to 9,073 nt). Surprisingly, the type speciesCarnation latent virus is not associated with a complete genome sequence of a carnation latent virus (CLV) isolate; GenBank only has accessions with 1313 or fewer nucleotides. The goal of this study was to determine the full-length genome sequence of CLV. Naturally infected greenhouse-grown ‘Kiwi Lace’ carnation plants that tested positive for CLV by ELISA and RT-PCR...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 7, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The titers of rice tungro bacilliform virus dictate the expression levels of genes related to cell wall dynamics in rice plants affected by tungro disease
AbstractRice tungro disease (RTD) is a devastating disease of rice caused by combined infection with rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), with one of the main symptoms being stunting. To dissect the molecular events responsible for RTD-induced stunting, the expression patterns of 23 cell-wall-related genes were examined in different rice lines with the same titers of RTSV but different titers of RTBV and in lines where only RTBV was present. Genes encoding cellulose synthases, expansins, glycosyl hydrolases, exostosins, and xyloglucan galactosyl transferase showed downregulation, whe...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 3, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

First detection and genetic characterization of equid herpesvirus 2, 4, and 5 in China
AbstractIn November 2018, an outbreak of respiratory disease occurred in foals at an equestrian club in Changji, northern Xinjiang, China. We applied viral metagenomics to investigate this outbreak and identify potential pathogens involved in this equine respiratory syndrome. The metagenomics data revealed the presence of sequences matching those of equid herpesvirus (EHV) 2, 4, and 5. PCR with specific primers targeting ORF33 of EHV-4 and ORF8 of EHV-2 and EHV-5 revealed coinfection with these viruses in this respiratory syndrome. To investigate the prevalence of these viruses in China, 453 nasal swabs from clinically hea...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 3, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

EBV-miR-BART12 inhibits cell migration and proliferation by targeting Snail expression in EBV-associated gastric cancer
In this study, we found that EBV-miR-BART12 (miR-BART12) inhibits cell proliferation and migration. Zinc finger protein SNAI1 (Snail) is an important epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer, and overexpression of Snail is closely associated with cancer metastasis. Here, we report that Snail expression in EBVaGC cells is lower than in EBV-negative gastric cancer (EBVnGC) cells. A dual luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-BART12 targets Snail directly by interacting with its 3 ʹ-UTR. A CHX chase assay revealed that miR-BART12 accelerates the degradation of Snail. Furthermore, we found that miR-BART12 can regula...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of artemisia virus B, a new polerovirus infecting Artemisia princeps in South Korea
AbstractThe complete genome sequence of a new polerovirus found naturally infectingArtemisia princeps, artemisia virus B (ArtVB), was determined using high-throughput sequencing. The ArtVB genome comprises 6,141 nucleotides and contains six putative open reading frames (ORF0 to ORF5) with a genome structure typical of poleroviruses. A multiple sequence alignment showed that the complete ArtVB genome shares 50.98% nucleotide sequence identity with ixeridium yellow mottle virus 1 (IxYMaV-1, GenBank accession no. KT868949). ArtVB shares the highest amino acid sequence identity in P0 and P3 –P5 (21.54%–51.69%) with...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genomic analysis of bacteriophage Xoo-sp13 infecting Xanthomonas oryzae pv . oryzae
AbstractXanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae is a bacterial pathogen that gives rise to diseases in rice all over the world. A bacteriophage infecting this bacterium was isolated from rice fields in China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this phage, which has a linear dsDNA genome of 309,023 bp and a G + C content of 42.43%. It contains 401 open reading frames and encodes 28 tRNAs. It belongs to the familyMyoviridae and has a broad host range, making it a possible candidate for phage therapy. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 14, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Viral mouse models used to study multiple sclerosis: past and present
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a common inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although the etiology of MS is unknown, genetics and environmental factors, such as infections, play a role. Viral infections of mice have been used as model systems to study this demyelinating disease of humans. Three viruses that have long been studied in this capacity are Theiler ’s murine encephalomyelitis virus, mouse hepatitis virus, and Semliki Forest virus. This review describes the viruses themselves, the infection process, the disease caused by infection and its accompanying pathology, and the model...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 13, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification and genotyping of a new subtype of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 isolated from cattle with diarrhea
AbstractIn 2019, diarrhea cases occurred on cattle farms in Qionglai and Guang'an, Sichuan Province. Two out of 20 (10%) serum and nasal swab samples were positive when tested using a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen-capture ELISA kit. Two non-cytopathic strains of BVDV were isolated and named QL1903 and GA190608, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the genomes of the two isolates were 89.52% identical. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 5'-UTR sequence revealed that the BVDV isolate QL1903 belonged to BVDV subtype 1b, whereas isolate GA190608 clustered with strains HN1814, EN-19, and BJ09_26 in a separate ...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 13, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase in respiratory syncytial virus infection activates lipid metabolism
AbstractRespiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is most commonly associated with upper respiratory tract infections during childhood. The lipid composition of cells and lipogenic enzymes play an important role in RSV infection. There are controversial data about whether lipid biosynthesis regulators such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are deregulated by RSV. Hence, we examined whether the activation state of AMPK is altered in RSV-infected HEp-2 cells. Our data show that RSV infection inhibits AMPK activity, favoring the activation of downstream lipogenic effectors and cellular lipid anabolism in HEp-2 cells. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 12, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Growth capability of epidemic influenza viruses in Japan since the 2009 H1N1 pandemic
AbstractThe correlation of viral growth capability (n = 156) with the viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs (n = 76) was assessed. Epidemic influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B viruses showed a wide range of growth capability (104–1011 copies/mL) in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The growth was correlated with the nasopharyngeal viral load (r = 0.53). Six selected strains showed growth-dependent cell death (r = 0.96) in a growth kinetics assay. Epidemic influenza viruses exhibit a wide range of growth capability. Growth capability should be considered one of the key factors in disease prognosis. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 12, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Serological and virological response in patients with hepatitis B virus genotype E treated with entecavir or tenofovir: a prospective study
AbstractEuropean clinical practice guidelines (EASL) on chronic hepatitis B (CHB) recently recognized the importance of migration flows in the changing hepatitis B virus (HBV) epidemiology in low-endemic European countries. The role of different genotypes in nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) treatment is still unknown. In the case of genotype E, which is mainly circulating in West Africa, a quantitative decrease in the level of HBsAg (qHBsAg) during treatment with entecavir (ETV) predicts a longer time to HBsAg loss when compared to genotypes A and D. We prospectively evaluated qHBsAg decline in HBeAg-negative CHB patients infec...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 12, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Discovery of a phylogenetically distinct poxvirus in diseased Crocodilurus amazonicus (family Teiidae)
AbstractA novel poxvirus was discovered inCrocodilurus amazonicus (Teiidae) presenting with a debilitating skin disease. The generated first genome sequence of a reptilian poxvirus revealed the closest phylogenetic relationship to avipoxviruses, highlighting potential virus exchanges between avian and reptilian species. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 12, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Development and application of a novel triplex protein microarray method for rapid detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and avian infectious bronchitis virus
In this study, a novel triplex protein microarray assay was developed and validated for the rapid and simultaneous visualized detection of antibodies against AIV, NDV, and IBV in chicken sera. The AIV nuclear protein (NP), NDV phosphoprotein (P), and IBV nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5) were produced in a prokaryotic expression system, purified, and immobilized onto an initiator integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (iPDMS) film as probes to detect antibodies against these viruses in chicken sera. After optimization of the reaction conditions, no cross-reactivity was detected with infectious bursal disease virus, avian leukosis ...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 12, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 on Jeju Island, South Korea, 2019 –2020: evidence of a novel intergenotypic recombinant
AbstractPorcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the most ubiquitous viral pathogen of pigs and has persistently affected the global swine industry. Since first being identified in South Korea in 1999, the virus has undergone considerable genetic change and genotype shifts during the past two decades. These events have contributed to the coexistence of genotypes PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d in Korean pig populations, which may promote viral recombination. The genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of PCV2 strains circulating in pig herds on Jeju Island from 2019 to 2020 were the focus of this study. Genotype-specific PCR indicat...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 11, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular evolution of dengue virus types 1 and 4 in Korean travelers
In this study, the molecular, phylogenetic, and evolutionary characteristics of Korean DV-1 and DV-4 isolates were evaluated for the first time. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 11, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a novel partitivirus hosted by the false morel mushroom Gyromitra esculenta
AbstractVirus populations of uncultivated fungi remain scarcely studied. In the present study, we characterized a new partitivirus isolated from the false morel mushroomGyromitra esculenta, named “Gyromitra esculenta partitivirus 1” (GePV1). The complete genome of GePV1, whose sequence was determined by combining high-throughput sequencing and RLM-RACE approaches, comprises two dsRNA segments of 1971 bp and 1799 bp, respectively. Each dsRNA genome segment contains a single open reading f rame (ORF), encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a capsid protein (CP), respectively. The sequences of...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 11, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a novel cytorhabdovirus associated with chrysanthemum yellow dwarf disease
AbstractDeep-sequencing analysis of a chrysanthemum plant with yellow dwarf symptoms led to the discovery of a novel putative cytorhabdovirus, here tentatively named"chrysanthemum yellow dwarf associated virus" (CYDaV). Its negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome comprises 14,086 nucleotides and contains eight open reading frames in the order 3 ′ leader-N-P′-P-P3-M-G-P6-L-5′ trailer. CYDaV shares moderate sequence similarity (
Source: Archives of Virology - February 11, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete nucleotide sequence of chrysanthemum mosaic-associated virus, a novel emaravirus infecting chrysanthemum
AbstractHere, we report the complete genome sequence of chrysanthemum mosaic-associated virus (ChMaV), a putative new member of the genusEmaravirus. The ChMaV genome comprises seven negative-sense RNA segments (RNAs 1, 2, 3a, 3b, 4, 5, and 6), and the amino acid sequences of its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNA1), glycoprotein precursor (RNA2), nucleocapsid protein (RNA3), and movement protein (RNA4) showed the closest relationship to pear chlorotic leaf spot-associated virus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it clusters with emaraviruses whose host plants originate from East Asia. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 10, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Diversity of limestone bacteriophages infecting Dickeya solani isolated in the Czech Republic
AbstractSeven novel tailed lytic viruses (Ds3CZ, Ds5CZ, Ds9CZ, Ds16CZ, Ds20CZ, Ds23CZ, Ds25CZ) infecting the bacteriumDickeya solani were isolated in the Czech Republic. Genomes of these viruses are dsDNA, 149,364 to 155,285 bp in length, and the genome arrangement is very similar to that of the type virus Dickeya virus LIMEstone 1. All but the Ds25CZ virus should be regarded as strains of a single species. Most of the sequence differences are due to the presence or absence of homing endonuclease (HE) genes, with 23 HEs found in Ds3CZ, Ds5CZ, and Ds20CZ, 22 in Ds9CZ, 19 in Ds16CZ, 18 in Ds25CZ, and 15 in Ds23CZ. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 9, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a novel partitivirus isolated from the phytopathogenic fungus Aplosporella javeedii
In this study, we report a new mycovirus, Aplosporella javeedii partitivirus 1 (AjPV1), isolated fromA. javeedii strain NX55-3. The AjPV1 genome contains two double-stranded RNA elements (dsRNA1 and dsRNA2). The size of dsRNA1 is 2,360 bp, and it encodes a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), while dsRNA2 is 2,301 bp in length and encodes a putative capsid protein (CP). The sequences of RdRp and CP have significant similarity to those of members of the familyPartitiviridae. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that AjPV1 is a new member of the familyPartitiviridae that is related to members of the g...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 9, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A potential new recombinant echovirus 18 strain detected in a 4-year-old child with encephalitis in China in 2019
In this study, a 4-year-old child was diagnosed with viral encephalitis, but the causative agent could not be identified using routine immunological tests. Using metagenomic RNA sequencing, a novel strain of enterovirus B, strain PC06, was identified, and its genome sequence was determined by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. The viral genome sequence was most similar to that of echovirus E18 strain E18-HeB15-54498/HeB/CHN/2015 (GenBank accession MG720261), with 87.73% nucleotide sequence identity, while the viral proteins shared 96.98% amino acid sequence identity with those of E18 strain Jena/AN1365/10 (GenBank accession no....
Source: Archives of Virology - February 8, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Sequence analysis of the DA domain of glycoprotein E2 of pestiviruses isolated from beef cattle in Southern Brazil
In this study, we analyzed the E2 DA domain of 43 pestiviruses from Southern Brazil. The isolates were identified asBovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) subtypes 1a  and 1b or BVDV-2b. Compared to reference strains, the BVDV-1 and -2 isolates had four and two mutations in the DA domain, respectively. All BVDV-2 isolates had a deletion of residues 724 and 725. All mutated amino acids in the BVDV isolates had the same aa substitution, and all were in previousl y identified antibody binding sites. It is possible that an immunity-mediated selection is acting on the pestiviruses circulating in Southern Brazil....
Source: Archives of Virology - February 7, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of aucuba ringspot virus
AbstractA new badnavirus, aucuba ringspot virus (AuRV), was identified in plants ofAucuba japonica showing mild mosaic, vein banding, and yellow ringspot symptoms on the leaves. The complete nucleotide sequence of the AuRV genome was determined and found to be 9,092 nt in length, and the virus was found to have a genome organization typical of members of the genusBadnavirus. ORF3 was predicted to encode a polyprotein containing conserved movement protein, coat protein, aspartic protease, reverse transcriptase (RT), and RNase H domains. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this virus is most closely related to codonopsis ve...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 7, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Papillomas and probable in situ carcinoma in association with a novel papillomavirus in a red-billed gull ( Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae scopulinus )
AbstractNumerous raised plaques were observed on the feet of a red-billed gull (Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae scopulinus) that had been found dead. The plaques consisted of thickened epidermis with cell changes indicative of papillomavirus (PV) infection prominent within affected areas. Evidence suggesting progression to neoplasia was visible in one lesion. A DNA sequence that was most similar, but only 68.3% identical, to duck PV type 3 was amplified from the papillomas, suggesting a novel PV type. Lesions containing PV DNA have only previously been reported in three avian species. This is the first evidence that PVs co...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 6, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

First complete genome characterization of swinepox virus directly from a clinical sample indicates divergence of a Eurasian-lineage virus
In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of swinepox virus from a clinical sample from a naturally occurring infection in India. The sequencing was done on a Nanopore MinION sequencer from Oxford Nanopore Technologies. Two new annotations were added to the genome. Three of the genes were found to have frameshifts, which might be of importance in relation to infection. When compared to the only other reported whole genome sequence of swinepox virus, which was obtained from an isolate from America in 1999, our sequence is only 98.19% identical at the nucleotide level. The average amino acid sequence identity of ...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 6, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The origin of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs)
AbstractPorcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) are integrated in the genome of all pigs, and they produce viral particles that are able to infect human cells and therefore pose a special risk for xenotransplantation. In contrast to other pig microorganisms that also pose a risk, such as porcine cytomegalovirus and hepatitis E virus, PERVs cannot be eliminated from pigs by vaccines, antiviral drugs, early weaning, or embryo transfer. Since PERVs are relevant for xenotransplantation, their biology and origin are of great interest. Recent studies have shown that PERVs are the result of a transspecies transmission of precurso...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 6, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genomic analysis of putative novel serotypes of Tibet orbivirus isolated in Japan
AbstractTibet orbivirus (TIBOV) was initially isolated in Tibet in 2009 and subsequently in Guangdong, Hunan, and Yunnan, China. We document the first isolation of TIBOV outside of China: two TIBOV isolates fromCulicoides collected in 2009 and 2010 in Kagoshima, Japan. Their complete genome sequences were also determined. Our results suggest that the two virus isolates are of novel serotypes, evident by variability within genome segment 2 encoding VP2. These new putative TIBOV serotypes will help with future virus surveillance and with the evaluation of its potential to cause disease in domestic ruminants. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 6, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Early diagnosis of rabies virus infection by RPA-CRISPR techniques in a rat model
This study provides an RPA-CRISPR technique for early detection of RABV with potential application in the clinical diagnosis of human rabies. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 5, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Combined use of lactic-acid-producing bacteria as probiotics and rotavirus vaccine candidates expressing virus-specific proteins
AbstractDue to the lower efficacy of currently approved live attenuated rotavirus (RV) vaccines in developing countries, a new approach to the development of safe mucosally administered live bacterial vectors is being considered, using probiotic bacteria as an efficient delivery platform for heterologous RV antigens. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are considered food-grade bacteria and normal microbiota, have been utilized throughout history as probiotics and developed since the 1990s as a delivery system for recombinant heterologous proteins. Over the last decade, LAB have frequently been used as a platform for the del...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 3, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with direct-acting antivirals plus ribavirin eliminates viral RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and reduces virologic relapse in diverse hepatic parenchymal changes
AbstractElimination of hepatitis C virus (HCV) may fail, leading to a non-response outcome because of inappropriate testing for viral RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Sequelae of HCV genotype 4 therapy with sofosbuvir and daclatasvir ± ribavirin were assessed in our study at the 12th week after end of treatment (EOT) by screening for viral genomic RNA in serum and PBMCs with correlation to hepatic parenchymal changes. We recruited 102 out of 2165 patients who had received sofosbuvir/daclatasvir, either alone (n = 1573) or together with ribavirin (n = 592). Subjects were classified into three groups...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 3, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Transcriptome profiling in head kidney of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) after infection with the low-virulent Nagano genotype of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus
AbstractInfectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes clinical diseases and mortality in a wide variety of salmonid species. Here, we studied transcriptional responses in rainbow trout infected by the IHNV-Nagano strain isolated in Korea. RNA-seq-based transcriptome analysis of head kidney tissues cataloged differentially expressed genes. Enrichment analysis of gene ontology annotations was performed, and a total of fifteen biological process terms were commonly identified at all time points. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis, pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) signaling pathways such...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 2, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Interferon- λ rs12979860 genotype association with liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients in the Pakistani population
AbstractRisk and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients is significantly influenced by host genetic factors in a polygenic manner. The rs12979860 genetic polymorphism  in the interferon-λ3–interferon-λ4 (IFNL3-IFNL4)  region has been found to be a major determinant of hepatic inflammatory and fibrotic progression in CHC patients of mainly Caucasian origin; however, it is not known if this association applies to other ethnicities, including Pakistani CHC patients. Here, we genotypedIFNL3-IFNL4 rs12979860 genetic variants in a sample...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 2, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of GII noroviruses in outpatients with acute gastroenteritis in Shandong Province, China
AbstractNoroviruses have been recognized as the most important causative agents of acute gastroenteritis. The present study was carried out to investigate the molecular epidemiological features of genotype II (GII) norovirus in outpatients with acute gastroenteritis in Shandong province in China from July 2017 to June 2018. In total, 151 (10.30%) samples were positive for NoV GII strains by RT-PCR. Eight genotypes were detected: GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.12, GII.13 and GII.17. GII.4 (43.71%) was the most prevalent genotype, and the dominant strains belonged to the group of Sydney-2012 strains. GII.17 (27.15%),...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research