Decreased incidence of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis associated with enhanced public health intervention during the COVID-19 epidemic in China, 2020
In this study, we investigated the association between enhanced public health intervention and the incidence of AHC during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. A total of 212,526 AHC cases were reported in China during 2015 –2020. The overall yearly incidence rate and number of AHC cases decreased by 23.08% and 22.15%, respectively, during the COVID-19 epidemic, compared with the previous 5 years (allp
Source: Archives of Virology - January 18, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a novel mitovirus detected in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis
AbstractParis mitovirus 1 (ParMV1) is a positive-sense RNA virus that was detected in diseasedParis polyphylla var.yunnanensis plants in Wenshan, Yunnan. The complete genome sequence of ParMV1 is 2,751 nucleotides in length, and the genome structure is typical of mitoviruses. The ParMV1 genome has a single open reading frame (ORF; nt 358-2,637) that encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) with a predicted molecular mass of 86.42 kDa. ParMV1 contains six conserved motifs ( Ι-VΙ) that are unique to mitoviruses. The 5′ and 3′ termini of the genome are predicted to have a stable secondary structure...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 17, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Booster administration can make a difference in the antibody response to intradermal foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in cattle
In this study, a commercial tetravalent FMD vaccine adjuvanted with Montanide ISA 206 was administered to cattle via the intramuscular (2 mL [n = 10] and 0.5 mL [n = 9]) and intradermal (0.5 mL [n = 11]) routes. Booster doses were administered 28 days later using the same vaccine and routes. Serum samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, and 28 post-vaccination (pv) and at 30 and 60 days post-booster. Homologous and heterologous virus neutralization tests and liquid-phase blocking and isotype ELISAs were used to measure the antibody response. The results showed that intradermal administration of quarter doses of the vaccin...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 16, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a novel penoulivirus from the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum camelliae
In this study, a novel mycovirus designated as"Colletotrichum camelliae botourmiavirus 1" (CcBV1) was isolated from strain ZJQT11 ofC. camelliae, and its complete genome sequence was determined. CcBV1 has a genome of 2,506 nucleotides and contains a large open reading frame (ORF) that encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) with 672 amino acids and a predicted molecular mass of 75.23 kDa. A BLASTp search showed that RdRp encoded by CcBV1 is closely related to that of Pyricularia oryzae ourmia-like virus 1 with 73.22% identity. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CcBV1 clustered in the penoulivirus clade w...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 16, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a novel partitivirus infecting the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria tenuissima
AbstractIn the present study, a novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus designated as"Alternaria tenuissima partitivirus 2" (AttPV2), was isolated fromAlternaria tenuissima strain BJ-SY-1, a phytopathogenic fungus causing muskmelon leaf blight in Beijing municipality of China. The genome of AttPV2 comprises two dsRNA segments. The larger segment is 1829 bp in length and has a single open reading frame (ORF), potentially encoding a 65.8-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and the smaller segment is 1681 bp in length and also contains a single ORF, encoding a putative coat protein (CP) with a molecular mas...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 15, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequences of two isolates of spiraea yellow leafspot virus (genus Badnavirus) from Spiraea x bumalda ‘Anthony Waterer’
AbstractThe complete genome sequences of two isolates of spiraea yellow leafspot virus (SYLSV) were determined. Spiraea (Spiraea x bumalda) ‘Anthony Waterer’ plants showing virus-like symptoms including yellow spotting and leaf deformation were used for sequencing. The viral genome of SYLSV-MN (Minnesota) and SYLSV-MD (Maryland) is 8,017bp in length. The sequences share 95% identity at the nucleotide level. Both isolates have the sa me genome organization containing three open reading frames (ORFs), with ORF3 being the largest, encoding a putative polyprotein of 232 kDa with conserved domains including a zinc f...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 14, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Pathogenicity and genome-wide sequence analysis reveals relationships between soybean mosaic virus strains
In this study, SMV strains N1 and N3 were found to be the most closely related to SC18. Moreover, N3 was found to be more virulent than N1. A global pathotype classification revealed the highest level of genetic diversity in China. The N3 type was the most frequent and widespread worldwide, implying that SMV possibly originated in China and spread across continents through the dissemination of infected soybean. It also suggests that the enhanced virulence of N3 facilitated its spread and adaptability in diverse geographical and ecological regions worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis revealed prominent geographical associations...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 13, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization of a novel Vibrio parahaemolyticus host-phage pair and antibacterial effect against the host
In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the novelV. parahaemolyticus strain BTXS2 and its associated phage, VB_VpP_BT-1011, isolated from the Bohai Coast (Tianjin, China). Strain BTXS2 is a short coryneform bacterium with a terminal flagellum and is able to utilize and metabolize a wide variety of organic matter because of its unique carbon source utilization and enzyme activity. It grows well in medium between pH 5.0 and 9.0 and salinities of simulated freshwater, estuary water, and seawater (NaCl 0.5%-3%). Multiple antibiotic resistance genes and virulence genes that endanger human health were found in the ...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 13, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification and genome analysis of a tomato zonate spot virus isolate from Bidens pilosa
AbstractBidens pilosa is a weed species that invades crop areas in tropical and subtropical regions. To date, only two potyviruses have been reported to infectB. pilosa. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a tomato zonate spot tospovirus (TZSV) isolate fromBidens named TZSV-Bidens. The tripartite RNA of the TZSV-Bidens genome contains L, M, and S segments that are 8912, 4724, and 2997 nt in length, respectively. The genome contains five open reading frames (ORFs), with 92.23 –95.01% amino acid sequence identity to the TZSV-YN isolate. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences of members of the f...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 11, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a novel fusagravirus in the phytopathogenic fungus Streptobotrys caulophylli
We report a novel fusagravirus identified inS. caulophylli strain STB-2, provisionally named"Streptobotrys caulophylli fusagravirus 1" (ScFV1). The full-length genome of ScFV1 is 9270 nucleotides (nt) long and putatively possesses two large open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2), which are separated by an intergenic region of 955 nt. A conserved domain search revealed that ORF2 (1051 aa) encodes a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), whereas ORF1 (1404 aa) encodes a protein of unknown function. Homology searches and phylogenetic analysis of the putative RdRp suggest that ScFV1 is a new member of the propose...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 11, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a new quadrivirus infecting a member of the genus Thelonectria
AbstractA novel dsRNA virus named “Thelonectria quadrivirus 1” (TQV1) was found in a member of the genusThelonectria (Ascomycota), isolated from a root associated with stem collar necrosis ofFraxinus excelsior L. The complete genome of TQV1 is composed of four segments, each containing a single ORF on the positive sense RNA. The sequence of the 5 ´ (5´-(C/T)ACGAAAAA-3´) and 3´termini (5´AT(T/G)AGCAATG(T/C)GC(G/A)CG-3’) of dsRNA 1 (4876 bp), dsRNA 2 (4312 bp), dsRNA 3 (4158 bp), and dsRNA 4 (3933 bp) are conserved. Based on its genome organization and phylogenetic position, TQ...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 11, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a new orthotospovirus associated with ringspot in Fatsia japonica
In this study, we detected an orthotospovirus-like sequence in symptomaticF. japonica plants using RNA sequencing analysis. The complete nucleotide sequences of the L, M, and S segments of the virus were determined using conventional sequencing strategies. The virus had a typical orthotospovirus genome structure, and the putative nucleocapsid protein showed the highest sequence identity to that of groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus, with 83.7% identity at the amino acid level (which is below the 90% species demarcation cutoff for the genusOrthotospovirus). Although we could not confirm the pathogenicity of the virus inF. j...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 11, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

“Yaraviridae”: a proposed new family of viruses infecting Acanthamoeba castellanii
AbstractHere, we propose the creation of the family “Yaraviridae ”, a new taxon to classify a virus infectingAcanthamoeba castellanii cells. Recently, we described the discovery of a new virus infecting free-living amoebae, yaravirus, which has features that strongly differ from those of all other viruses of amoebae described to date. Yaravirus particles are about 80 nm in diameter and have a dsDNA genome of ~45 kbp containing 74 ORFs, most of which (>90%) have no homologs in current databases. Together, these data support the creation of a new species ( “Yaravirus brasiliense ”), a new viral gen...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 9, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Emergence of two distinct variants of SARS-CoV-2 and an explosive second wave of COVID-19: the experience of a tertiary care hospital in Pune, India
AbstractThe emergence of novel variants of SARS-CoV-2 in several countries has been associated with increased transmissibility or reduced neutralization potential of antibodies against the Wuhan virus (wild type). From August 2021 onwards, India experienced a progressive decline in the number of active SARS-CoV-2 infections, indicative of a downward trend in the explosive second wave. This prospective study was conducted quarterly for one year (May 2020 to June 2021) at a tertiary care hospital in the city of Pune in western India. Receptor-binding domain (RBD, n = 319) and full genome (n = 20) sequences from viral-RNA-pos...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 9, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evidence for a non-fusogenic aquareovirus encoding a transmembrane protein
AbstractFusogenic aquareoviruses can induce host cell-cell fusion, forming syncytia via a fusion-associated transmembrane protein. However, there have been very few reports on non-fusogenic aquareoviruses encoding a membrane-associated protein. Previously, sequence-based analysis has indicated that grass carp reovirus strain 104 (GCRV-104), a non-fusogenic aquareovirus, encodes the proteins VP8 (nt 36-263) and VP15 (nt 400-822) in its genome segment S11. Here, we employed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay to experimentally annotate small coding genes in the GCRV-104 genome and confirmed that segment S1...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 8, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Comparative genomic analysis of dwarf Vibrio myoviruses defines a conserved gene cluster for successful phage infection
AbstractTailed bacteriophages have been at the center of attention, not only for their ability to infect and kill pathogenic bacteria but also due to their peculiar and intriguing complex contractile tail structure. Tailed bacteriophages with contractile tails are known to have aMyoviridae morphotype and are members of the orderCaudovirales. Large bacteriophages with a genome larger than 150 kbp have been studied for their ability to use multiple infection and lysis strategies to replicate more efficiently. On the other hand, smaller bacteriophages with fewer genes are represented in the GenBank database in greater numbers...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 8, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Rapid visual detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus via recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick
In this study, we established a method that combines reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) with a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) for detecting North American PRRSV (PRRSV-2). The primers and probe were designed based on the conserved region of all complete PRRSV-2 genomic sequences available in China (n = 512) from 1996 to 2020. The detection limit of the assay was 5.6 × 10-1 median tissue culture infection dose (TCID50) per reaction within 30 min at 42 °C, which was more sensitive than that of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (5.6 TCID50 per reaction). The assay...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 7, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genomic characterization of grapevine viruses N and O: novel vitiviruses from South Africa
AbstractA survey was performed on aVitis cultivar collection in Stellenbosch, South Africa. Metaviromes were generated for each cultivar, using an RNAtag-seq workflow. Analysis of assembled contigs indicated the presence of two putatively novel members of the genusVitivirus, provisionally named"grapevine virus N" (GVN) and"grapevine virus O" (GVO). Comparisons of amino acid sequences showed that GVN and GVO are most closely related to grapevine virus G and grapevine virus E, respectively. The incidence of these novel viruses within the sampling site was low, with GVO and GVN associated with only five an...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 6, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a distinct rosadnavirus isolated from Viola plants in China
AbstractIn 2019, plants of the genusViola showing yellow mottling symptoms were collected in Liaoning, China. RNA sequencing and PCR both confirmed the presence of a reverse-transcribing DNA virus. The novel virus was named “viola yellow mottle virus” (VYMV), and its 9,872-bp genome was found to contain eight open reading frames. The polymerase (RT + RNase H) gene shared the most similarity (31.6% nucleotide and 41.6% amino acid sequence identity) with that of rose yellow vein virus (RYVV, NC_020999), which is cu rrently the only member of the genusRosadnavirus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a close...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 6, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Production and application of mouse monoclonal antibodies targeting linear epitopes in pB602L of African swine fever virus
AbstractAfrican swine fever (ASF) is an acute hemorrhagic  disease of domestic pigs. The causative agent of ASF, ASF virus (ASFV), is a double-stranded DNA virus, the sole member in the familyAsfarviridae. The non-structural protein pB602L of ASFV is a molecular chaperone of the major capsid protein p72 and plays a key role in icosahedral capsid assembly. This protein is antigenic and is a target for developing diagnostic tools for ASF. To generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against pB602L, a prokaryotically expressed recombinant pB602L protein was produced, purified, and used as an antigen to immunize mice. A total...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 5, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification and complete genome sequence of mulberry cryptic virus 1
AbstractA cryptic virus, named mulberry cryptic virus 1 (MuCV1), was identified in a mulberry (Morus alba) transcriptome dataset and confirmed using RACE methods. The genome of MuCV1 is composed of two double-stranded RNAs, 1605 bp and 1627 bp in size, encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a coat protein (CP), respectively. The 5 ′-AGAAUU-3′ sequence in the 5′ untranslated region was conserved in the two dsRNAs. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis based on RdRp and CP sequences both indicated that MuCV1 is a deltapartitivirus (familyPartitiviridae). (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - January 5, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genetic characteristics of spring viraemia of carp virus strains Kirov/08 and Orenburg/14
AbstractThe paper presents the genetic characteristics of two strains of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV), Kirov/08 and Orenburg/14, isolated in the Kirov and Orenburg oblasts of the Russian Federation, respectively. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a 516-bp fragment of the G genes of Kirov/08 and Orenburg/14 showed 9.5% divergence. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship of these strains to SVCV isolates recovered in Russia, Ukraine, and the Republic of Moldova. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - January 5, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Isolation and molecular characterization of Adenovirus in suspected acute flaccid paralysis patients: A preliminary report from Pakistan
AbstractHuman adenoviruses (HAdVs) usually cause asymptomatic or mild infection, but infrequently, they are responsible for various severe syndromes including neurological disorders. Various research studies have investigated the association of HAdVs with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of HAdVs and their association with AFP. Stool samples from patients ≤ 12 years of age with suspected AFP were collected from all over Pakistan within the framework of poliovirus surveillance. Poliovirus- and enterovirus-negative samples were screened for HAdVs. For virus ...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 4, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of viral load and transcriptome changes in tracheal tissue of two hybrids of commercial broiler chickens infected with avian infectious bronchitis virus: a comparative study
AbstractInfectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the major threats to the poultry industry, with significant economic consequences. Despite strict measures, the disease is difficult to control worldwide. Experimental evidence demonstrates that the severity of IBV is affected by the genetic background of the chicken, and the selection of appropriate breeds can increase production efficiency. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the strength of the immune response to IBV in tracheal tissues of Ross 308 and Cobb 500 broiler chickens by evaluating transcriptome changes, focusing on immune responses and the ...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 4, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Effect of mutations in the 2b protein of tomato aspermy virus on RNA silencing suppressor activity, virulence, and virus-induced gene silencing
AbstractTomato aspermy virus (TAV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) belong to the genusCucumovirus in the familyBromoviridae. The cucumovirus 2b protein is one of the first identified viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSR). The cucumovirus 2b protein contains a conserved amino acid motif consisting of several highly conserved amino acid residues. Here, we demonstrate that the TAV 2b protein N-terminal region, Arg46, Ser40, and Ser42 as well as the CMV 2b protein are essential for VSR activity, virulence, and viral RNA accumulation. Furthermore, we developed the first TAV-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vector. In contrast t...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 3, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a novel secovirid infecting cassava in the Americas
We report the complete genome sequence of a field isolate of a novel bipartite secovirid infecting cassava in Colombia, provisionally named"cassava torrado-like virus" (CsTLV). The genome sequence was obtained using Oxford Nanopore Technology, and the 5 ’ ends were confirmed by RACE. The RNA1 is 7252 nucleotides (nt) long, encoding a polyprotein of 2336 amino acids (aa) containing the typical “replication block”, conserved torradovirus motifs, and a Maf/Ham1 domain, which is not commonly found in viral genomes. The RNA2 is 4469 nt long and co ntains two overlapping ORFs encoding proteins of 226 ...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 3, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of Plantago asiatica virus A, a novel putative member of the genus Polerovirus
AbstractHere, we report the complete genome sequence of a novel polerovirus, “Plantago asiatica virus A” (PlaVA), detected inPlantago asiatica using high-throughput RNA sequencing and validated by Sanger sequencing. The complete PlaVA genome contains 5,881 nucleotides and has seven open reading frames (ORF0 –5 and ORF3a) encoding putative proteins (P0–5 and P3a, respectively) in an arrangement that is similar to that of typicalPolerovirus members. Pairwise sequence comparisons revealed that P0 to P5 encoded by PlaVA had the highest sequence identity (25.48% –79.21%) to the corresponding protei...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 1, 2022 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Correction to: Salidroside exhibits anti-dengue virus activity by upregulating host innate immune factors
(Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - December 9, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification of heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) and serine- and arginine-rich (SR) proteins that induce human papillomavirus type 16 late gene expression and alter L1 mRNA splicing
AbstractWe have determined the effect of seven serine- and arginine-rich (SR) proteins and 15 heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) on human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) late gene expression. Of the seven SR proteins analyzed here, SRSF1, SRSF3, and SRSF9 induced HPV16 late gene expression, and five of the SR proteins affected HPV16 L1 mRNA splicing. Of the 15 hnRNP proteins analyzed here, hnRNP A2, hnRNP F, and hnRNP H efficiently induced HPV16 late gene expression, and all of the hnRNPs affected HPV16 L1 mRNA levels or mRNA splicing. Thus, the majority of SR proteins and hnRNPs have the potential to regulate...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 3, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization of a newly identified RNA segment derived from the genome of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum reovirus 1
AbstractSclerotinia sclerotiorum reovirus 1 (SsReV1) was previously reported to infect hypovirulent strain SCH941 of the phytopathogenic fungusSclerotinia sclerotiorum and to contain 11 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments (S1 –S11). Here, we report that SsReV1 is actually composed of 12 dsRNA segments instead of 11. The full-length nucleotide sequence of the twelfth segment (S12) was determined using a combination of RACE and high-throughput sequencing methods. S12 is 1217 nucleotides in length and has highly conserved terminal sequences that resemble those of the other 11 segments of SsReV1. S12 contains a single o...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 2, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of the first  chrysovirus from the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria solani on potato in China
AbstractThe complete genome sequence of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus that was isolated fromAlternaria solani strain DT-10 causing potato foliar disease was determined. The virus, designated as"Alternaria solani chrysovirus 1" (AsCV1), has four dsRNA segments (dsRNA 1-4) with a length of 3600 bp, 3128 bp, 2996 bp, and 2714 bp, respectively. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, 1084 amino acids [aa]), putative capsid protein (905 aa), alphachryso-P3 (835 aa), and alphachryso-P4 (729 aa) were encoded by dsRNA1, dsRNA2, dsRNA3, and dsRNA4, respectively, which had the highest sequence identity of 41.77%-...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a novel mitovirus associated with Lagenaria siceraria
AbstractHere, we report the discovery and molecular characterization of a novel mitovirus isolated from tissues ofLagenaria siceraria, named"Lagenaria siceraria associated mitovirus 1" (LsaMV1). Next-generation sequencing and adapter-ligation-mediated amplification were used to obtain the full-length genome sequence of LsaMV1. The genome of LsaMV1 is 3,098 nucleotides (nt) long and contains an opening reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). Homology searches and phylogenetic analysis of the 855-aa RdRP suggested that LsaMV1 is a member of a new species in the familyMitoviridae...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

cGAS –STING-mediated sensing pathways in DNA and RNA virus infections: crosstalk with other sensing pathways
AbstractViruses cause a variety of diseases in humans and other organisms. The most important defense mechanism against viral infections is initiated when the viral genome is sensed by host proteins, and this results in interferon production and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. The sensing of the viral genome or its replication intermediates within host cells is mediated by cytosolic proteins. For example, cGAS and IFI16 recognize non-self DNA, and RIG-I and MDA5 recognize non-self RNA. Once these sensors are activated, they trigger a cascade of reactions activating downstream molecules, which eventually results in the...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification of cryptic putative IRESs within the ORF encoding the nonstructural proteins of the human rhinovirus 16 genome
AbstractInternal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent translation is a mechanism distinct from 5 ′ cap-dependent translation. IRES elements are located mainly in the 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of viral and eukaryotic mRNAs. However, IRESs are also found in the coding regions of some viral and eukaryotic genomes to initiate the translation of some functional truncated isoforms. Here, fiv e putative IRES elements of human rhinovirus 16 (HRV16) were identified in the coding region of the nonstructural proteins P2 and P3 through fusion with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression vectors and bicistronic vect...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Taxonomy update for the family Alphasatellitidae: new subfamily, genera, and species
AbstractAlphasatellites (familyAlphasatellitidae) are circular, single-stranded DNA molecules (~1 –1.4 kb) that encode a replication-associated protein and have commonly been associated with some members of the familiesGeminiviridae,Nanoviridae, andMetaxyviridae (recently established). Here, we provide a taxonomy update for the familyAlphasatellitidae following the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Ratification Vote held in March 2021. The taxonomic update includes the establishment of the new subfamilyPetromoalphasatellitinae. This new subfamily includes three new genera as well as the genusBabus...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The first third-generation HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF114_0155) identified in central China
AbstractA novel circulating recombinant form (CRF) was identified in eight HIV-1-infected patients without direct epidemiological relationships in Henan Province, Central China. Recombination analysis indicated that the genome of this novel CRF comprises five segments: three inherited from CRF01_AE cluster-4 and two from CRF55_01B. Therefore, the CRF was designated CRF114_0155. It is not only the first novel CRF identified in Henan Province but also the first third-generation CRF of HIV-1 and the first CRF descendant of CRF55_01B. Bayesian inference of phylogeny dated the most recent common ancestor of the CRF114_0155 clus...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Olea europaea geminivirus is present in a germplasm repository and in California and Texas olive (Olea europaea L.) groves
AbstractOlea europaea geminivirus (OEGV) from olive accessions in Italy was characterized recently. OEGV was also detected during routine high-throughput sequencing screening of olive (cv. Leccino) material, and its complete bipartite genome segments were sequenced and shown to be 100% identical to those of the isolate from Italy. Using two pairs of newly designed primers targeting the AV1 and BV1 genes, OEGV was detected in randomly sampled olive trees from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Clonal Germplasm Repository (USDA-NCGR) (21.4% or 6/28), commercial and residential settings in California (47.6% or 10/21)...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Efficacy of three lytic bacteriophages for eradicating biofilms of multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis
AbstractProteus mirabilis is one of the most frequent causes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) owing to its capability to colonize and develop crystalline multidrug-resistant (MDR) biofilms. Here, we report the isolation and partial characterization of three novel bacteriophages, vB_PmiM-ES1a, vB_PmiM-ES1b, and vB_PmiM-ES1c, which were active against the planktonic form and biofilms of the MDRP. mirabilis strain ES01, isolated from CAUTIs in Egypt. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of theP. mirabilis isolates showed resistance to most of the antibiotics tested. The isolated phages were identified...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The complete genome sequence of a novel chrysovirus from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin
AbstractBeauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus, is used for arthropod pest control worldwide. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of a novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus, Beauveria bassiana chrysovirus 2 (BbCV-2), isolated from a ChineseB. bassiana strain. The genome sequence of the virus was determined by metagenomic sequencing, RT-PCR, and RACE cloning and was found to consist of four dsRNA segments that are 3441  bp, 2779 bp, 2925 bp, and 2688 bp long, respectively. Each dsRNA segment contains a single ORF. The ORF of dsRNA1 encodes a 1114-amino-acid (aa) protein (123....
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a putative new and distinct caulimovirus from Metaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Makino in China
AbstractIn 2019, a new disease characterized by yellow mottling on leaves was observed onMetaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Makino plants in Liaoning, China. Using RNA sequencing and PCR with overlapping primers, the complete nucleotide sequence of the circular double-stranded DNA genome of a new virus similar to caulimoviruses in diseased samples was determined. The genome comprised 7733 base pairs and was predicted to encode six proteins. It had the closest relationship to a caulimovirus, strawberry vein banding virus, based on sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis. Species-level sequence divergences from caulimovirus...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence and construction of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of a cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) isolate from Portugal
In this study, we report the complete sequence of an isolate of CVYV from Portugal (DSMZ PV-0776) along with the construction of an infectious full-length cDNA clone via Gibson assembly. The sequence of CVYV Portugal shows the closest relationship to a CVYV isolate from Spain (genome, 99.7% identity; polyprotein, 99.7% identity). The CVYV full-length cDNA clone was introduced by electroporation intoRhizobium radiobacter and infiltrated into the cotyledons ofCucumis sativus plantlets, resulting in symptoms resembling those of the wild-type virus. Transmission of the infectious CVYV full-length clone by the whiteflyBemisia t...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete nucleotide sequence of an alphaendornavirus isolated from common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum)
AbstractA double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of approximately 16 kbp was isolated from symptomless common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) plants. The size of the dsRNA suggested that it was the replicative form of an endornavirus. The dsRNA was sequenced, and it consisted of 15,677 nt, containing a single open reading frame that potentially encoded a polyprotein of 5190 aa. The polyprotein contained conserved domains for a viral methyltransferase, viral RNA helicase 1, MSCRAMM family adhesion SdrC, UDP-glycosyltransferase, and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2. A site-specific nick in the plus strand was detected near the 5' ...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization of a new mitovirus infecting the phytopathogenic fungus Microdochium albescens
AbstractA novel mycovirus was identified infecting the phytopathogenic fungusMicrodochium albescens. The characterized dsRNA segment, corresponding to the replicative intermediate of the mitovirus genome, is 2,562 base pairs (bp) in length, with an A+U content of 62.3%. A single open reading frame (ORF) was identified, encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of 706 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this virus should be classified as a member of a new species in the genusMitovirus, familyMitoviridae, for which we propose the name"Mitovirus gaucho". This is the first report of a mycovir...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A quadruple recombination event discovered in hepatitis E virus
AbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) can infect humans, pigs, and many other animals, but recombination in HEV has rarely been reported. In the present study, phylogenetic and recombination analysis was performed on 557 complete HEV genome sequences from the GenBank database. A potentially significant quadruple recombination event was identified by recombination detection analysis. The recombinant progeny virus, HEV_32_Manchester_301214, was produced by inter-genotype recombination between the major parent HEPAC-44 and the minor parent HE-JA15-1335. HEV_32_Manchester_301214 and HEPAC-44 belong to genotype 3, while HE-JA15-1335 ...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a putative novel ilarvirus isolated from Eleocharis dulcis
AbstractThe complete genomic sequence of a novel ilarvirus fromEleocharis dulcis, tentatively named"water chestnut virus A" (WCVA), was determined using next-generation sequencing (NGS) combined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. The three genomic RNA components of WCVA were 3578 (RNA1), 2873 (RNA2), and 2073 (RNA3) nucleotides long, with four predicted open reading frames containing conserved domains and motifs typical of ilarviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of each predicted protein consistently placed WCVA in subgroup 4 of the genusIlarv...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of Codonopsis torradovirus A, a novel torradovirus infecting Codonopsis lanceolata in South Korea
AbstractWe herein present the complete genome sequence of codonopsis torradovirus A (CoTVA), which was isolated fromCodonopsis lanceolata (deodeok) in Gangwon-do, South Korea. The CoTVA genome contains two positive-sense RNA segments, namely RNA1 (6922 nucleotides), which encodes a predicted polyprotein, and RNA2 (4613 nucleotides), which encodes a movement protein and coat proteins (CPs). The proteinase-polymerase (Pro-Pol) and CP amino acid sequences were 75% and 54% identical, respectively, to those of motherwort yellow mosaic virus. Pairwise comparisons of the Pro-Pol and CP sequences revealed that the virus described ...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification and molecular characterization of a novel carlavirus infecting rose plants (Rosa chinensis Jacq.)
AbstractIn the present study, the genome sequence of a potential novel virus, tentatively named"rose virus C" (RVC), was mined from publically available transcriptomic data from aRosa chinensis plant. The complete genome sequence of RVC consists of 8,386 nt, excluding a 3 ′ poly(A) tail, and contains five ORFs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RVC clustered with members of the genusCarlavirus, familyBetaflexiviridae. The replicase gene had 48.8-52.1% nt sequence identity to those of other carlaviruses, while the CP gene had 40.4-45.9% nt sequence identity, which is far below the species demarcation cutoff ...
Source: Archives of Virology - December 1, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research