Innate immune response in astrocytes infected with herpes simplex virus 1
AbstractHerpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), a double-stranded DNA virus, infects epithelial surfaces and establishes latency in the central nervous system, where astrocytes are a major immune cell type. Here, we report changes that occur in the expression of pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, DNA and RNA sensors, interferons, and interferon-stimulated genes, when astrocytes are infected with HSV-1 strain F. We observed upregulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 6 and 9, MDA5, and DAI along with an increase in the expression of type I interferons and interferon-stimulated genes such as IFIT1, IFIT3 and RNa...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genomic characterization of a novel recombinant porcine astrovirus isolated in northeastern China
In this study, a novel type 4 porcine astrovirus strain (designated as PAstV4/Tianjin/2018) was identified in a fecal sample from a diarrheal piglet in Tianjin, China and its complete genomic sequence was determined by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that this strain had a capsid protein with a highly variable C-terminal domain, a typical ribosomal frameshifting signal, and a conserved subgenomic promoter sequence. Recombination analysis indicated that PAstV4/Tianjin/2018 was a novel recombinant strain, and a recombination breakpoint was identified at nt position 4220 of the genome. The novel recombinant porcine astroviru...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Hepatitis C virus core protein interacts with cellular metastasis suppressor Nm23-H1 and promotes cell migration and invasion
This study provides evidence that the HCV core protein is a pro-metastatic protein that can interact directly with and modulate the functions of cellular metastasis suppressor Nm23-H1. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - March 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

New variants of canine parvovirus in dogs in southern Brazil
This study analyzed the complete VP2 coding sequence of 38 CPV-2 isolates obtained from dogs with clinical parvovirosis in southern Brazil. Amplicons encompassing the whole VP2 coding region were subjected to nucleotide sequencing, and predicted amino acid sequences were analyzed to identify molecular markers of viral variants. Viral variants were classified as CPV-2a, -2b or -2c based on the presence of the amino acid Asn, Asp or Glu, respectively, at VP2 residue 426. Amino acid sequence analysis identified 20 CPV-2c and four CPV-2b isolates. Eleven viruses were identified as New CPV-2a, two as New CPV-2b, and one resembl...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

High genetic diversity of noroviruses in children from a community-based study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2014-2018
We report on the occurrence and diversity of noroviruses in children (younger than 5 years old of age) from a low-income urban area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sixty-one stool specimens collected from children between 1 and 4 years old with acute diarrhoeic episodes (ADE) and non-ADE were investigated. RT-qPCR and sequencing of PCR products after conventional RT-PCR analysis were performed. Noroviruses were detected in 29 (47.5%) samples: 21 (46.7%) from cases with ADE and 8 (50%) from non-ADE cases. Molecular characterization showed 10 different genotypes circulating in this community between November 2014 and April 2018. ...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Biological characterization and pathogenicity of a newly isolated Chinese highly virulent genotype GIIa porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain
AbstractSince 2010, continual outbreaks of highly virulent variants of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) belonging to genotype GII have led to serious economic losses for the Chinese swine industry. To better understand the biological characteristics and pathogenicity of the current prevalent Chinese PEDV field strains, in this study, a highly virulent Chinese genotype GIIa PEDV strain, CH/HBXT/2018, was isolated and serially propagated using Vero cells. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that strain CH/HBXT/2018 contained novel insertion and deletion mutations in the S gene region relative to the classical s...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Polymorphisms in the APOBEC3G gene of Chinese rhesus macaques affect resistance to ubiquitination and degradation mediated by HIV-2 Vif
In this study, we therefore genotypedAPOBEC3G in 35 Chinese rhesus macaques. We identified a novel transcript and 27APOBEC3G polymorphisms, including 20 non-synonymous variants and 7 synonymous mutation sites, of which 10 were novel. According to the predicted structure of the A3G protein, we predicted that the E88K and G212D mutations, both on the surface of the A3G protein, would have a significant effect on Vif-induced A3G degradation. However, anin vitro overexpression assay showed that these mutations did not influence HIV-2-Vif-mediated degradation of APOBEC3G. Unexpectedly, another polymorphism L71R, conferred resis...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Novel bird ’s-foot trefoil RNA viruses provide insights into a clade of legume-associated enamoviruses and rhabdoviruses
AbstractHere, we report the identification and characterization of two novel viruses associated with bird ’s-foot trefoil. Virus sequences related to those of enamoviruses (ssRNA (+);Luteoviridae; Enamovirus) and nucleorhabdoviruses (ssRNA (-);Rhabdoviridae; Nucleorhabdovirus) were detected inLotus corniculatus transcriptome data. The genome of the tentatively named “bird’s-foot trefoil-associated virus 1” (BFTV-1) is a 13,626-nt-long negative-sense ssRNA. BFTV-1 encodes six predicted gene products in the antigenome orientation in the canonical order 3′-N-P-P3-M-G-L-5′. The genome of the...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Two novel reassortant H11N8 avian influenza viruses occur in wild birds found in East Dongting Lake, China
AbstractDuring the surveillance of avian influenza viruses in East Dongting Lake, China (2014 –2015), two H11N8 avian influenza viruses were detected in the bean goose (Anser fabalis) and the falcated teal (Anas falcata). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two novel reassortant H11N8 avian influenza viruses contain genes from poultry and wild birds. This is the first report detecting the H11N8 subtype influenza virus from wild birds in Asia. These findings indicate a dissemination of avian influenza virus along the East Asian-Australian flyway. In addition, the interaction between poultry and wild birds was addr...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 8, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

L233P mutation in the bovine leukemia virus Tax protein depresses endothelial cell recruitment and tumorigenesis in athymic nude mice
AbstractBovine leukemia virus (BLV) can be divided into two categories based on the amino acid at position 233 in the Tax protein, which probably plays a crucial role in leukemogenesis. We show here that a rat fibroblast cell line stably expressing L233-Tax formed significantly larger tumors than P233-Tax-expressing cells in a murine xenograft study. Although the microvessel density was comparable in both tumors, visible blood vessel invasion was observed only on tumors from L233-Tax-expressing cells. Endothelial cell tube formation assays using human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed no significant difference in ang...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 8, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a new botybirnavirus that infects Botrytis cinerea
AbstractEight different double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules were found in the wild-type fungal strainBotrytis cinerea CCg427. The electrophoretic profile displayed molecules with approximate sizes of 1, 1.3, 1.6, 1.8, 3.3, 4.1, 6.5, and 12 kbp. Sequences analysis of the molecules in the 6.5-kbp band revealed the presence of two different dsRNA molecules (dsRNA-1 and dsRNA-2) of 6192 and 5567 bp. Each molecule contained a unique ORF (5487 and 4836 nucleotides in dsRNA-1 and dsRNA-2, respectively). The ORF of dsRNA-1 encodes a 205-kDa polypeptide that shares 58% amino acid sequence identity with the RNA-dependent RNA polym...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 8, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of bovine noroviruses and neboviruses in Turkey: detection of recombinant strains
This study is thus the first to reveal the presence of the BoNoV GIII.1 genotype and recombinant strains of BoNoV and neboviruses in Turkey. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - March 8, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Epidemiological trends and virological traits of hepatitis B virus infection in pregnant women and neonates
In conclusion, we found that HBeAg positivity and high HBV loads are strong risk factors for MTCT of HBV and that the HBV DNA titer in the UC is a good predictor for HBV MTCT. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - March 8, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization and complete genomic analysis of two Salmonella phages, SenALZ1 and SenASZ3, new members of the genus Cba120virus
AbstractSalmonella phages SenALZ1 and SenASZ3, two novel phages infectingSalmonella enterica, were isolated and analyzed. The genomes of these two phages consist of 154,811 and 157,630 base pairs (bp), with G+C contents of 44.56% and 44.74%, respectively. Fifty-nine of 199 open reading frames (ORFs) in the SenALZ1 genome, and 60 of the 204 in the SenASZ3 genome show similarity to reference sequences in the NCBI nr database that encode putative phage proteins with predicted functions. Based on the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination, complete genome sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis, and ge...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 8, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of the virus isolate vB_BthM-Goe5 infecting Bacillus thuringiensis
AbstractBacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is non-pathogenic for humans and serves as a biological control agent in agriculture. Understanding its phages will help to prevent industrial production loss of Bt products and will lead to a better understanding of phages in general. The complete genome of the newB. thuringiensis phage isolate vB_BthM-Goe5 (Goe5) was sequenced, revealing a linear 157,804-bp-long dsDNA chromosome flanked by 2579-bp-long terminal repeats. It contains two tRNAs and 272 protein coding regions, 69 of which could be assigned with an annotation. Morphological investigation, using transmission electron microsc...
Source: Archives of Virology - March 8, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Coinfection of a lingual lesion with bovine papular stomatitis virus and bovine papillomavirus
AbstractTo date, there have been no reports of coinfection with bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and bovine papillomavirus (BPV) in the same lesion. In the present study, one lingual papilloma-like sample was collected at an abattoir from the tongue of a 31-month-old Japanese black cow. Coinfection with BPSV and BPV was confirmed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, PCR and RT-PCR. The evidence for coinfection with BPSV and BPV in the same lesion and an association of BPV with lingual papillomatosis will contribute to future epidemiological studies of these two viruses. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - March 7, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular surveillance of coxsackievirus A16 reveals the emergence of a new clade in mainland China
AbstractCoxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) of the genotypes B1a and B1b have co-circulated in mainland China in the past decades. From 2013 to 2017, a total of 3,008 specimens from 3,008 patients with mild hand, foot, and mouth disease were collected in the present study. Viral RNA was tested for CV-A16 by a real-time RT-PCR method, and complete VP1 sequences and full-length genome sequences of CV-A16 strains from this study were determined by RT-PCR and sequencing. Sequences were analyzed using a series of bioinformatics programs. The detection rate for CV-A16 was 4.1%, 25.9%, 10.6%, 28.1% and 12.9% in 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 24, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of a novel Bacillus subtilis -infecting phage, BSP38, possibly belonging to a new genus in the subfamily Spounavirinae
AbstractBacillus subtilis-infecting phage BSP38 was isolated from a sewage sample. Morphologically, BSP38 was found to be similar to members of the subfamilySpounavirinae, familyMyoviridae. Its genome is 153,268 bp long with 41.8% G+C content and 254 putative open reading frames (ORFs) as well as six tRNAs. A distinguishing feature for this phage among the reportedB. subtilis-infecting phages is the presence of an encoding ORF, putative tRNAHis guanylyltransferase-like protein. Genomic comparisons with the other reported phages strongly suggest that BSP38 should be considered a member of a new genus in the subfamilySpounav...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 24, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of anti-dengue activity of Carica papaya aqueous leaf extract and its role in platelet augmentation
AbstractDengue disease is characterized by a marked decrease in platelet count, which is life threatening. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of an aqueous extract ofCarica papaya leaves (PLE) against dengue virus (DENV) and its effect on platelet augmentation. The anti-dengue activity of PLE in DENV-infected THP-1 cells was examined by immunoblotting and flow cytometry. The effect of PLE on erythrocyte damage was investigated using hemolytic and anti-hemolytic assays. Virus-infected THP-1 cells were assayed for IFN- α secretion. The effect of PLE on platelet augmentation in rats with cyclop...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 21, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Multiplex one-step real-time PCR assay for rapid simultaneous detection of velogenic and mesogenic Newcastle disease virus and H5-subtype avian influenza virus
In this study, a multiplex real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) detection method for six H5 AIV clades, three v-NDV subtypes, and one mesogenic NDV subtype was successfully established. The detection limit of our multiplex NDV and H5 AIV RRT-PCR was five copies per reaction for each pathogen, with good linearity and efficiency (y = −3.194x + 38.427 for H5 AIV and y = −3.32x + 38.042 for NDV). Multiplex PCR showed good intra- and inter-assay reproducibility, with coefficient of variance (CV) less than 1%. Furthermore, using the RRT-PCR method, H5 AIV and NDV detection rates in clinical samples were higher overall than tho...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 21, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification and molecular characterization of Serratia marcescens phages vB_SmaA_2050H1 and vB_SmaM_2050HW
In this study, twoS. marcescens-specific bacteriophages, vB_SmaA_2050H1 and vB_SmaM_2050HW, were isolated from two different waste samples in China. Phage plaque assays, transmission electron microscopy, host-range determination, and one-step growth curve analyses were performed for both phages. vB_SmaA_2050H1 was classified as belonging to the familyAckermannviridae, and vB_SmaM_2050HW was classified as belonging to the familyMyoviridae. One-step growth curve analysis showed that the latent and rise period of vB_SmaA_2050H1 were 80 min and 50 min, respectively, with a burst size of approximately 103 phage particles per in...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Viral metagenomics reveals significant viruses in the genital tract of apparently healthy dairy cows
AbstractThe virome in genital tract secretion samples collected from 80 dairy  cattle in Shanghai, China, was characterized. Viruses detected included members of the familiesPapillomaviridae, Polyomaviridae, Hepeviridae, Parvoviridae, Astroviridae, Picornaviridae, and Picobirnaviridae. A member of a new species within the genusDyoxipapillomavirus and six circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (CRESS-DNA) viral genomes were fully sequenced  and phylogenetically analyzed. The prevalence of bovine polyomaviruses 1 and 2 was measured by PCR to be 10% (8/80) and 6.25% (5/80), respectively. PCR screenin...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 19, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Invasion of a murine in vitro blood-brain barrier co-culture model by dengue virus serotypes 1 to 4
In conclusion, the hyperpermeability and breaching mechanism of BBB by DENV are primarily due to direct consequences of viral infection of ECs, as shown in thisin vitro study. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 19, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Prokaryotic expression, purification and evaluation of goatpox virus ORF117 protein as a diagnostic antigen in indirect ELISA to detect goatpox
This study describes the prokaryotic expression of the GTPV ORF117 protein, a homologue of vaccinia virus A27L, and evaluation of its diagnostic potential in ELISA. The GTPV ORF117 gene was cloned into the pET32a vector to express recombinant ORF117 protein (rA27L) inE. coli BL21-CodonPlus (DE3)-RIPL. The bacterial expression of the protein was confirmed by western blot analysis using anti-GTPV polyclonal antibodies that detected rA27L, which is ~ 35 kDa in size. rA27L was affinity purified under native conditions and used to assess the antibody response in an optimized indirect ELISA. The purified antigen specifically rea...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 18, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The complete genome sequence of Escherichia phage SRT7, a novel T7-like phage
In this study, we isolated a novel virulentEscherichia phage, SRT7. Its genome is a double-stranded linear DNA molecule containing 39,883  bp. Direct terminal repeats with a length of 175 bp, are present at both ends of the genome. The G+C content is 50.54%. Forty-seven putative protein coding genes were identified. No tRNA or rRNA genes were identified. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that phage SRT7 is a novel member of the T7-like phage cluster, but it forms a singleton subcluster. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 14, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete nucleotide sequence of a novel mycovirus from Trichoderma harzianum in China
AbstractA new mycovirus was identified inTrichoderma harzianum strain 137 isolated in Xinjiang province, China. The whole genome sequence of the mycovirus was determined by metagenomic sequencing, RT-PCR, and RACE cloning. The mycovirus contained two genomic segments. The first segment was 2088  bp long and contained a single ORF (ORF1) encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) (72.26 kDa). The second segment was 1634 bp long and also contained a single ORF (ORF2) encoding a hypothetical protein of 37.472 kDa. We named this novel mycovirus “Trichoderma harzianum bipartite myco virus 1&rdquo...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 12, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genetic evolutionary analysis of soybean mosaic virus populations from three geographic locations in China based on the P1 and CP genes
In this study, 29 SMV isolates were obtained  from Sichuan Province, and the genomic regions encoding the first protein (P1) and coat protein (CP) were sequenced. Combined with SMV isolates from the southeastern and northeastern regions of China, the genetic and molecular evolution of SMV was studied. Recombination analysis revealed that intr aspecific and interspecific recombination had occurred in the SMV population. A phylogenetic tree based on the P1 gene reflected the geographic origin of the non-interspecific recombinant SMV (SMV-NI), while a tree based on the CP gene did not. Though frequent gene flow of the SM...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Phylogenomic characterization of red seabream iridovirus from Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus maricultured in the Caribbean Sea
AbstractBetween 2010 and 2016, six mortality events were observed in Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) maricultured in the Dominican Republic. Histopathological examination and  conventional PCR confirmed a megalocytivirus (MCV) infection in each case. Subsequently, next-generation sequencing and phylogenomic analyses confirmed that MCV DNA was present in the infected pompano tissue samples from 2010, 2014, and 2016, and each was determined to be red seabream iridovir us (RSIV). Annotation of the RSIV genome sequences identified 121 open reading frames, and BLASTN analysis revealed the highes...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Detection of adenovirus, papillomavirus and parvovirus in Brazilian bats of the species Artibeus lituratus and Sturnira lilium
AbstractBats play a significant role in maintaining their ecosystems through pollination, dispersal of seeds, and control of insect populations, but they are also known to host many microorganisms and have been described as natural reservoirs for viruses with zoonotic potential. The diversity of viruses in these animals remains largely unknown, however, because studies are limited by species, location, virus target, or sample type. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect fragments of viral genomes in bat samples. We performed high-throughput sequencing analysis and specific PCR and RT-PCR on pools of anal and oropha...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Analysis of the efficacy of an adjuvant-based inactivated pandemic H5N1 influenza virus vaccine
This study showed that the candidate vaccine is safe and elicits an antigen-dose-dependent serum antibody response. In summary, we determined the optimum antigen dose in a Kazfluvac® adjuvant formulation required for induction of heightened immunogenicity and protective efficacy to mitigate H5N1 disease in experimental animals, suggesting its readiness for clinical studies in humans. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular analysis of small-ruminant lentiviruses in Polish flocks reveals the existence of a novel subtype in sheep
AbstractSmall-ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infections are widespread in Poland, and circulation of subtypes A1, A12, A13, A16, A17, B1 and B2 has been documented. The aim of this study was to characterize the SRLV strains circulating in sheep and goats in mixed flocks in the Malopolska region, where the highest seroprevalence has been detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the isolates from sheep belonged to subtype A13, suggesting that this subtype may be predominant in the Malopolska region. Furthermore, the existence of a new subtype, tentatively designated as A18, was described for the first time. This wor...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Assessment of resistance to rice tungro disease in popular rice varieties in India by introgression of a transgene against Rice tungro bacilliform virus
AbstractRice crops in South and Southeast Asian countries suffer critical yield losses due to rice tungro disease caused by joint infection with rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). Previously, for generating RNA interference-based transgenic resistance against tungro viruses, RTBV ORF IV was used as a transgene to develop RTBV resistance in a popular high-yielding scented rice variety. The transgene from this line was then introgressed into five popular high-yielding but tungro-susceptible rice varieties by marker-assisted backcross breeding with a view to combine the resistant trai...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 8, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Construction and characterization of porcine single-chain fragment variable antibodies that neutralize transmissible gastroenteritis virus in vitro
In this study, a recombinant scFv antibody phage display library was constructed from peripheral blood lymphocytes of piglets infected with TGEV. The library was screened with four rounds of biopanning using purified TGEV antigen, and scFv antibodies that bound to TGEV were obtained. The scFv gene was subcloned into the pET-28a(+), and the constituted plasmid was introduced intoEscherichia coli BL21 (DE3) for protein expression. All three scFv clones identified had neutralizing activity against TGEV. An immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis demonstrated that two scFv antibodies reacted with the spike protein o...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 7, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Detection and characterization of type B influenza virus from influenza-like illness cases during the 2017 –2018 winter influenza season in Beijing, China
AbstractIn the winter of 2017-2018, there was significant influenza activity in China, resulting in unprecedented usage of influenza rapid antigen tests (IRAT) and neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). The aim of this study was to characterize the most prevalent influenza virus type in a clinical setting with respect to diagnosis and concomitant NAI treatment. From Dec 2017 to Jan 2018, 3257 patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) were screened using IRAT. We summarized and compared the results with the last influenza season. Subtyping of influenza B viruses and identification of NAI drug resistance mutations were carried ou...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 7, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genome sequences of chikungunya virus isolates circulating in midwestern Brazil
In this study, six CHIKV isolates circulating in midwestern Brazil (Mato Grosso state) were isolated from patient sera, and their complete genomes were sequenced using a high-throughput sequencing platform. All of these isolates shared high nucleotide sequence similarity with CHIKV isolates from northeastern Brazil and were found to belong to the ECSA lineage. These CHIKV isolates did not contain the A226V or L210Q mutations that are associated with increased transmissibility byA. albopictus, suggesting that the CHIKV isolates circulating in midwestern Brazil are predominantly transmitted byA. aegypti. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 7, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Yellow fever virus modulates cytokine mRNA expression and induces activation of caspase 3/7 in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2
AbstractYellow fever virus (YFV) penetrates the skin through the bite of a vector mosquito and spreads to various organs, mainly the liver, where it causes lesions and induces necrosis and apoptosis. We evaluated the mRNA expression of various cytokines and the activation of caspases in HepG2 cells infected with YFV. We observed that interferon- α (IFN-α) expression decreased and IFN-β, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β IIIR, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 expression increased in cells infected with genotype 1. In contrast, TNF-α expression increased in cells infected with genotype 2 but not with...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 6, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Re-emergence of a coxsackievirus A24 variant causing acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Brazil from 2017 to 2018
AbstractA large outbreak (over 200,000 cases) of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) took place in Brazil during the summer of 2017/2018, seven years after a nationwide epidemic, which occurred in 2011. To identify the etiological agent, 80 conjunctival swabs from patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of AHC were analyzed at the national enterovirus laboratory. Real-time RT-PCR for human enteroviruses was performed, and enterovirus RNA was detected in 91.25% (73/80) of the specimens. Twenty-nine swab fluids were used to inoculate cell cultures (RD and Hep2C), and 72.4% (21/29) yielded a cytopathic effect. Gen...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 6, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characteristics of a novel recombinant of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus
In this study, we analyzed the complete genome sequence of the recently sequenced isolate PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008. A recombination event in S gene of PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008 was detected. Pairwise identity analysis of the whole genome sequences revealed that PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008 is an intermediate between PEDV and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) strains. These results can be used for further analysis of the evolutionary variability, prevalence, and epidemiology of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 6, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Interaction of the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the sesbania mosaic virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase with the viral protein P10 in vitro : modulation of the oligomeric state and polymerase activity
AbstractThe RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of sesbania mosaic virus (SeMV) was previously shown to interact with the viral protein P10, which led to enhanced polymerase activity. In the present investigation, the equilibrium dissociation constant for the interaction between the two proteins was determined to be 0.09 µM using surface plasmon resonance, and the disordered C-terminal domain of RdRp was shown to be essential for binding to P10. The association with P10 brought about a change in the oligomeric state of RdRp, resulting in reduced aggregation and increased polymerase activity. Interestingly, unlike t h...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 5, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Ferret badger rabies in Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Taiwan, China
AbstractFerret badger (FB,Melogale moschata) rabies is an increasing public health threat to humans, with FBs being a major reservoir and vector of rabies in China. Based on 152 published nucleotide sequences of the FB rabies virus (RABV) nucleoprotein, phylogenetic analysis revealed them to be clustered into six FB-related lineages, FB-I to FB-VI. The genetic features of members of lineage FB-VI suggest that cross-species transmission occurs between FBs and dogs. Here, we describe the phylogenetic relationships between FB-RABVs, their geographic segregation, and their evolutionary dynamics in epizootic regions. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 1, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Sequence analysis and genomic organization of a novel chuvirus, T àiyuán leafhopper virus
AbstractA novel unsegmented chuvirus was found in a leafhopper (Psammotettix alienus) and tentatively named “Tàiyuán leafhopper virus” (TYLeV). The full genome of TYLeV is 14,670 nucleotides in length and includes four ORFs encoding glycoprotein, nucleocapsid protein, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and an uncharacterized protein, respectively. These genomic features are similar to those of the chuviru s Scaldis River bee virus, but the virus is highly divergent from known chuviruses and other members in the orderMononegavirales, with amino acid sequence identities of only 13.6 –33% for the RNA...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 1, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome analysis of a novel phage GW1 lysing Cronobacter
AbstractA newly identified lyticCronobacter phage, GW1, was isolated from the Pearl River of Guangzhou, China. GW1 had a double-stranded DNA genome of 39,695 nucleotides with an average GC content of 53.18 %. Among the 49 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, genes for rRNA, tRNA, antibiotic resistance, and virulence factors were not found in the phage genome. The morphology, genomic features, and phylogenetic position of GW1 revealed that it represents a new species in the genusT7virus. This novel lyticCronobacter phage may provide an alternative for phage therapy and biocontrol againstCronobacter. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 1, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Discovery of a novel Tymoviridae -like virus in mosquitoes from Mexico
AbstractA novelTymoviridae-like virus, designated Ek Balam virus, was isolated from maleCulex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected in Yucatan, Mexico. The genome was fully sequenced and shown to have no more than 69% nt sequence identity to its closest known relative. Mosquito cells were permissive to Ek Balam virus replication, but mammalian and avian cells were refractory, suggesting that vertebrates are not involved in the maintenance of the virus in nature. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - February 1, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Discovery of three RNA viruses using ant transcriptomic datasets
AbstractThree novel RNA viruses, named Formica fusca virus 1 (GenBank accession no. MH477287), Lasius neglectus virus 2 (MH477288) and Myrmica scabrinodis virus 2 (MH477289), were discovered in ants collected in Cambridge, UK. The proposed virus names were given based on the hosts in which they were identified. The genome sequences were obtained usingde novo transcriptome assembly of high-throughput RNA sequencing reads and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Formica fusca virus 1 grouped within the familyNyamiviridae, Lasius neglectus virus 2 grouped within the familyRhabdoviridae and Myrmica...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 1, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization of the L genome segment of an orthohantavirus isolated from Niviventer confucianus
AbstractWe sequenced and analyzed the L segment of the RNA genome of Hantaan virus (HTNV) strain NC167. This segment is 6,533 nucleotides in length and contains a single open reading frame (ORF) of 6,456 nucleotides in the antigenome sense that encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is 2,153 amino acids long with a predicted molecular mass of 246 kDa. The 5 ′ terminus of the viral RNA was found to contain the expected sequences that are conserved in orthohantaviruses. According to the phylogenetics and levels of sequence similarity, the L segment of HTNV NC167 is similar to but clearly distinct from th...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 1, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification and characterization of novel double zinc fingers encoded by putative proteins in genome of white spot syndrome virus
In this study, we report two proteins encoded by the WSSV genome to harbor a double zinc finger domain, one each in its N- and C-terminal region. Sequence and structural analysis of the two domains showed the N- and C-terminal domains to be similar to known RING1 and RING2 domains of eukaryotic RBR (RING-between-RING) ligases respectively. This is the first report wherein genes within WSSV are shown to encode for double RING domains, which could pave way in understanding further, the function of these proteins and their role in the pathogenic mechanisms of the virus. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - January 28, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Examining pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of eleven analogues of saquinavir for HIV protease inhibition
AbstractHIV is one of the most lethal viral diseases in the human population. Patients often suffer from drug resistance, which hampers HIV therapy. Eleven different structural analogues of saquinavir (SQV), designed using ChemSketch ™ and named S1 through S11, were compared with SQV with respect to their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. Pharmacokinetic predictions were carried out using AutoDock, and molecular docking between macromolecule HIV protease (PDB ID: 3IXO) and analogues S1 – S11 as ligands was perf ormed. Analogues S1, S3, S4, S9 and S11 had lower binding scores when compared with saq...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 24, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

An amino acid duplication/insertion in the Bm126 gene of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus alters viral gene expression as shown by differential gene expression analysis
This study indicates that the amino acid duplication/insertion in theBm126 gene has a biological function related to the regulation of viral gene expression and serves as a basis for further characterization ofBm126 gene function. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - January 24, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A major-capsid-protein-based multiplex PCR assay for rapid identification of selected virulent bacteriophage types
AbstractBacteriophages represent a promising alternative for controlling pathogenic bacteria. They are ubiquitous in the environment, and their isolation is usually simple and fast. However, not every phage is suitable for biocontrol applications. It must be virulent (i.e., strictly lytic), non-transducing, and safe. We have developed a method for identifying selected types of virulent phages at an early stage of the isolation process to simplify the search for suitable candidates. Using the major capsid protein (MCP) as a phylogenetic marker, we designed degenerate primers for the identification of Felix O1-, GJ1-, N4-, S...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 23, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Recombinant baculovirus vaccine expressing hemagglutinin of H7N9 avian influenza virus confers full protection against lethal highly pathogenic H7N9 virus infection in chickens
In this study, we constructed a baculovirus vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) of H7N9 strain A/Chicken/Jiaxing/148/2014 (JX148). The recombinant baculovirus (rBac-JX148HA) generated in this study showed good growth in insect cells and good safety, and it stably expressed the HA protein. We compared the immunogenicity and efficacy of the inactivated whole-virus vaccine JX148 and rBac-JX148HA. One chicken in the JX148-treated group died on day 4 post-challenge, and three chickens had typical clinical symptoms (survival rate, 90%; morbidity, 40%). However, no chickens immunized with rBac-JX148HA showed clinical signs ...
Source: Archives of Virology - January 22, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research