Assembly of tomato blistering mosaic virus-like particles using a baculovirus expression vector system
AbstractThe expression of several structural proteins from a wide variety of viruses in heterologous cell culture systems results in the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs). These VLPs structurally resemble the wild-type virus particles and have been used to study viral assembly process and as antigens for diagnosis and/or vaccine development. Tomato blistering mosaic virus (ToBMV) is a tymovirus that has a 6.3-kb positive-sense ssRNA genome. We have employed the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) for the production of tymovirus-like particles (tVLPs) in insect cells. Two recombinant baculoviruses containing ...
Source: Archives of Virology - June 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genomic sequence of a Bohle iridovirus strain isolated from a diseased boreal toad ( Anaxyrus boreas boreas ) in a North American aquarium
AbstractGenomic sequence analysis of zoo ranavirus (ZRV) suggests it is a strain of Bohle iridovirus (BIV), a virus that was first detected in, and thought to be confined to, Australia. Furthermore, marked sequence similarity and genomic co-linearity among ZRV, BIV, and German gecko ranavirus (GGRV) are consistent with the view that all three are  strains  of Frog virus 3, the type species of the genusRanavirus, familyIridoviridae. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - June 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization and detection of a new badnavirus infecting Epiphyllum spp.
(Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - June 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A novel picornavirus in feces of a rainbow lorikeet ( Trichoglossus moluccanus ) shows a close relationship to members of the genus Avihepatovirus
AbstractA novel picornavirus, named “lorikeet picornavirus 1” (LoPV-1), was detected in a fecal sample from rainbow lorikeets using viral metagenomic analysis, and its complete genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The genome of LoPV-1 is 7862 nt long, including a 617-nt 5’ UTR, a type IV IRES 5’UTR with an ‘8-like’ motif, a 7032-nt polyprotein ORF, and a 213-nt 3’ UTR. Phylogenetic analysis and pairwise asequence comparisons based on the amino acid sequences of P1, P2, and P3 indicated that LoPV-1 showed the closest relationship to two picornaviruses that were isolated rece...
Source: Archives of Virology - June 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genome sequencing and characterization of three Bacillus cereus -specific phages, DK1, DK2, and DK3
AbstractIn the study, threeBacillus cereus-specific phages, named DK1, DK2 and DK3, belonging to the familyPodoviridae, were isolated from Pearl River water and sludge in Guangzhou, China. The genomes of DK1, DK2 and DK3 were 27,180  bp, 26,357 bp, and 26,865 bp in length and contained 49, 45 and 46 open reading frames, respectively. Among the three phages, DK2 shared the highest genome sequence similarity (96% identity) with DK3. Genes encoding rRNA, tRNA, virulence factors and antibiotic resistance were absent in these pha ge genomes. In addition, comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis revealed that...
Source: Archives of Virology - June 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus isolated in Tunisia from 2015 to 2018
AbstractTwo distinct genotypes responsible for rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are reported, GI.1 (RHDV) and GI.2 (RHDV2). Vaccines based on these two genotypes are only partially cross-protective. Hence, knowing which genotype is circulating is important for appropriate control measures. We have investigated 25 field samples isolated between 2015 and 2018 from rabbits with clinical signs of RHD. Only GI.2 (RHDV2) is currently circulating in Tunisia. All Tunisian samples were grouped together with typical genotypic and phenotypic mutations. Therefore, we recommend initiating an extensive preventive vaccination program bas...
Source: Archives of Virology - June 8, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Nitric oxide production is downregulated during respiratory syncytial virus persistence by constitutive expression of arginase 1
In this study, we compared the levels of production of NO and expression of its regulatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS II) and arginase 1 (Arg-1), during acute and persistent RSV infection in a macrophage cell line to investigate their role in the control and maintenance of viral infection. We observed that NO and NOS II mRNA were induced at higher levels in acutely infected macrophages than in persistently infected macrophages, while the kinetics of NOS II protein expression were similar in both types of infected cultures, except that its disappearance was delayed during acute infection. Thus, NOS II was...
Source: Archives of Virology - June 8, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification and genetic characterization of a porcine hepe-astrovirus (bastrovirus) in the United States
AbstractHere we describe the identification and genetic characterization of a porcine hepe-astrovirus, or bastrovirus, obtained from feces from pigs in the United States. The genome of the new bastrovirus is 5,955 nt long and contains two open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a protein containing three domains, viral methyltransferase, RNA helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and is closely related to the RdRp of hepatitis E virus. The ORF2 protein shares similarities with the astrovirus capsid precursor protein. Although structural features of bastroviruses may resemble those of astroviruses, distinct char...
Source: Archives of Virology - June 7, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Role of conserved cysteine residues in the CAIC motif of the SU glycoprotein in the maturation and fusion activity of bovine leukaemia virus
AbstractThe surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) glycoproteins of many retroviruses are linked by disulphide bonds, and the interaction of SU with a cellular receptor results in disulphide bond isomerisation triggered by the CXXC motif in SU. This reaction leads to the fusion of viral and host cell membranes. In this work, we show that the cysteine at amino acid position 212 in the CAIC motif of the SU glycoprotein of bovine leukaemia virus has a free thiol group. A C-to-A mutation at position 212, either individually or in combination with a C-to-A mutation at position 215, was found to inhibit the maturation process, sugg...
Source: Archives of Virology - June 6, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular detection of canine bufaviruses in wild canids
In this study, by molecular screening of archival collections of faecal samples from wolves and foxes, we detected BuVs with a rate of 17.1% (7/41) and 10.5% (9/86), respectively. Sequence analysis of a portion of the ORF2 gene region of nine positive samples showed that the viruses in these samples were closely related to BuVs (97.5 –99.0% nucleotide sequence identity) found in domestic carnivores. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - June 6, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a previously undescribed badnavirus occurring in Polyscias fruticosa L. (Ming aralia)
AbstractA previously undescribed badnavirus was identified in plants ofPolyscias fruticosa (Ming aralia) showing symptoms of mild mosaic and leaf senescence. Characteristic bacilliform virions of thePolyscias badnavirus averaging 30  × 120 nm in size were observed by transmission electron microscopy in partially purified leaf tissue extracts from symptomatic but not asymptomatic plants collected in the USA and Nigeria. The isolate from the USA was complete sequenced. The genome is 7592 bp in length and contains three ope n reading frames with an arrangement similar to that of other members of ...
Source: Archives of Virology - June 5, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Full genome sequence of a new polymycovirus infecting Fusarium redolens
In this report, the full genome sequence of this new virus is presented along with a primary bioinformatics analysis. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - June 4, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genomic sequence and organization of a novel mycovirus from Phoma matteuccicola strain LG915
AbstractThe complete genome of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus, Phoma matteuccicola partitivirus 1 (PmPV1) was sequenced. It consists of two dsRNA segments, 1664 bp (dsRNA-1) and 1383 bp (dsRNA-2) in length, each containing a single open reading frame (ORF) potentially encoding a 46.78-kDa protein and a 40.92-kDa protein, respectively. dsRNA-1 encodes a putative polypeptide with a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain that shows sequence similarity to the corresponding proteins of partitiviruses. The protein encoded by dsRNA-2 has no significant similarity to the typical coat proteins (CPs) of partit...
Source: Archives of Virology - June 3, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Development and application of a monoclonal-antibody-based blocking ELISA for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus NS1 antibodies in swine
AbstractJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic pathogen transmitted byCulex mosquitoes and is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in humans. JEV infection of swine, which are the main amplifying hosts for JEV, can cause reproductive failure in sows; in boars it can cause testitis and infertility. The prevalence of JEV in swine is a continuous threat to human health. A practical diagnostic method for monitoring JEV infection in swine herds is essential for control of the disease in both swine and humans. Here, we have identified a high-affinity anti-JEV NS1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) by indirect ELISA and utiliz...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a divergent strain of Tibetan frog hepatitis B virus associated with a concave-eared torrent frog ( Odorrana tormota )
AbstractViruses of the familyHepadnaviridae are characterized by partially dsDNA circular genomes of approximately 3.2 kb, which are reverse transcribed from RNA intermediates. Hepadnaviruses have a broad host range, which includes humans (hepatitis B virus), other mammals (genusOrthohepadnavirus), and birds (genusAvihepadnavirus). The known host specificity of hepadnaviruses has been expanded by reports of new viruses infecting fish, amphibians, and reptiles. Tibetan frog hepatitis B virus (TFHBV) was recently discovered in a member of the speciesNanorana parkeri (family Dicroglossidae) from Tibet. To increase our underst...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization and genome annotation of a newly detected bacteriophage infecting multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
AbstractA novel virulent bacteriophage, φAbp2, infecting multidrug-resistant (MDR)Acinetobacter baumannii was isolated from the wastewater of a sewage management centre at Southwest Hospital, China. Transmission electron microscopy and phylogenetic analysis revealed that φAbp2 belongs to the subfamilyPeduovirinae. A one-step growth curve demonstrated that φAbp2 had a latent period of 15 min, a lysis period of 35 min, and a burst size of 222 particles per infected host cell. Moreover, φAbp2 showed a relatively broad host range in localA. baumannii, and it also exhibited tolerance over a wider range of t...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A single nucleotide change in the overlapping MP and CP reading frames results in differences in symptoms caused by two isolates of Youcai mosaic virus
AbstractTwo isolates of Youcai mosaic virus (YoMV) were obtained, and their full-length genomic sequences were determined. Full-length infectious cDNA clones of each isolate were generated in which the viral sequence was under the control of dual T7 and 35S promoters for bothin vitro transcript production and agro-infiltration. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences of the encoded proteins revealed only four differences between the isolates: three in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) (V383I and M492I in the 125-kDa protein and T1245M in the 182-kDa protein); and one in the overlapping region of the movement...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Norovirus and rotavirus infections in children less than five years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Indonesia
AbstractRotaviruses and noroviruses are the most important viral causes of acute gastroenteritis in children. While previous studies of acute gastroenteritis in Indonesia mainly focused on rotavirus, here, we investigated the burden and epidemiology of norovirus and rotavirus disease. Children less than five years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled in this study from January to December 2015 at three participating hospitals. Rotavirus was detected by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), followed by genotyping by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Norovirus genogroups were determined by TaqMan-based quantita...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a novel member of the family Potyviridae isolated from Phellodendron amurense Rupr. in Liaoning, China
AbstractIn September 2017,Phellodendron amurense Rupr. plants showing yellow ringspots on leaves were observed in Liaoning, China. Flexuous filamentous particles (~1000 × 13 nm) were observed in the sap prepared from symptomatic leaves. A virus was detected in the symptomatic leaves by sequencing small RNAs and assembling the genome sequence. The complete genomic RNA was found to be 10,457 nucleotides in length excluding the poly(A) tail and to have the closest ph ylogenetic relationship to rose yellow mosaic virus (RoYMV), the sole member of newly established genusRoymovirus in the familyPotyviridae. The coat protei...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The first complete genomic sequence of cardamom mosaic virus, a member of the genus Macluravirus (family Potyviridae )
AbstractThe complete genome sequence of the KS isolate of cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) was determined using transcriptome sequencing data from CdMV-infectedElettaria cardamomum as well as from overlapping cDNA clones made from RNA extracted from viral particles. The viral genome consists of 8249 nucleotides (nt) and encodes a large polyprotein of 2636 amino acids (aa). The polyprotein of CdMV shared 48.9%-67.4% aa sequence identity with other reported macluraviruses. Similar to the other members of genusMacluravirus, the genome of CdMV lacks the P1 coding region and the N-terminus of the HC-Pro coding region. The putative ...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Grapevine virus M, a novel vitivirus discovered in the American hybrid bunch grape cultivar Blanc du Bois in Texas
AbstractA novel ssRNA (+) virus with molecular properties typical of members of the genusVitivirus (familyBetaflexiviridae; subfamilyTrivirinae) was discovered by high-throughput sequencing in samples of the American hybrid bunch grape cultivar Blanc du Bois in Texas. The results were independently confirmed by Sanger sequencing of the virus isolate, whose genome length is 7,387 nt, excluding the polyA tail. The genome sequence contains five ORFs that are homologous and phylogenetically related to ORFs of grapevine-infecting vitiviruses. The name “grapevine virus M” is proposed for this new virus, whose sequenc...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

February 1939: the start of the first journal publishing research in virology
(Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characterisation of a putative new polerovirus infecting pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) in Kenya
AbstractNext-generation sequencing of RNA extracted from a pumpkin plant with mosaic symptoms in Kenya identified the presence of a polerovirus sequence closely related to pepo aphid-borne yellows virus (PABYV). The near-complete polerovirus sequence comprised 5,810 nucleotides and contained seven putative open reading frames (ORFs) with a genome organisation typical of poleroviruses. BLASTp analysis of the translated sequences of ORFs 0, 1 and 2 revealed that their amino acid sequences differed by more than 10% from the corresponding protein sequences of other poleroviruses. These results suggest that this virus is a puta...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Isolation and genetic analysis of a nidovirus from crucian carp ( Carassius auratus )
AbstractA nidovirus was isolated from crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The complete genome of the crucian carp nidovirus (CCNV) is 25,971 nt long and has five open reading frames, encoding the polyprotein 1ab (pp1ab), spike glycoprotein (S), membrane protein (M), and nucleocapsid protein (N). CCNV has the highest similarity to Chinook salmon nidovirus (CSNV). However, the CCNV HB93 pp1ab protein sequence has three long fragment deletions compared with the CSNV. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome sequence showed that CCNV HB93 clusters with CSNV, indicating that CCNV represents a second species in the new g...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

First detection and genotypic analysis of goat enzootic nasal tumor virus 2 in Chongqing, China
This report will enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of ENTV-2 in China. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Correction to: Intratype variants of the E2 protein from human papillomavirus type 18 induce different gene expression profiles associated with apoptosis and cell proliferation
The Given names of the author Alma Mariana Fuentes-Gonz ález was incorrectly tagged in original publication and corrected here. The original article has been corrected. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 18, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Expression of autophagy-modulating genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from familial clustering patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection
AbstractWe previously found that genetic factors are associated with a familial predisposition for developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma during chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Autophagy has been shown to play a role in HBV replication and the course of disease. More than 190 host genes have been identified that modify the process of autophagy, but which of these genes are involved in chronicity of HBV infection and how this occurs remains unclear. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were recruited to investigate the expression of autophagy-modulating genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

An isolate of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus from Brazil with a distinct genome organization
AbstractSweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; genusCrinivirus, familyClosteroviridae), is an economically important pathogen of sweet potato. In the present work, the nucleotide sequences of two RNA segments of SPCSV (isolate SPCSV-UNB-01) were determined by MiSeq Illumina sequencing of samples of sweet potato plants grafted ontoIpomoea setosa. A comparative analysis of the genome organization of SPCSV-UNB-01 and other SPCSV sequences showed that RNA1 was lacking p22, and p5.1 and that p5.2. was absent in RNA2, indicating a unique genomic pattern. SPCSV-UNB-01 contained longer p6 and p5 regions, with little similarity...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The analysis of clinical and laboratory data: a large outbreak of dengue fever in Chaozhou, Guangdong province, China
AbstractA large-scale dengue fever (DF) outbreak occurred in Chaozhou, Guangdong province, China 2015. In our study, 528 dengue-positive patient samples were collected for clinical and laboratory data analysis. 491 cases (93.0%) were primary dengue fever (PDF), 22 cases (4.2%) were dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 15 cases (2.8%) were diagnosed with severe dengue fever (SDF). All cases were infected by dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2), and the isolated strains belonged to cosmopolitan genotype, which were grouped closely with Malaysia strains from 2010 to 2014. Moreover, the study showed that laboratory indices have sign...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Pathological and molecular characterisation of peste des petits ruminants in Nubian ibex ( Capra nubiana ) in Israel
In this report, we describe a severe PPR outbreak in a zoo herd of Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), causing the deaths of 2/3 of the herd. The clinical onset was acute with morbid animals exhibiting lethargy and watery-to-bloody diarrhea and death usually within 48  h. The most consistent gross pathologic findings were hemorrhagic abomasitis and enteritis. Oral lesions and pulmonary lesions were rare. Histology revealed necrohemorrhagic enteritis and abomasitis with myriad nuclear and cytoplasmic viral inclusion bodies. Molecular examinations confirmed the di agnosis of PPR and determined that the causative agent belongs ...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 15, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genomic characterization of four novel Staphylococcus myoviruses
We report here the annotation of the complete genomes of four novel lyticStaphylococcus phages; Stab20, Stab21, Stab22 and Stab23. These phages have double-stranded DNA genomes ranging between 153,338 and 155,962 bp in size with terminal repeats of 10,814 –12,304 bp. The genome analysis suggests that they represent new phage species within the genusKayvirus in the subfamilyTwortvirinae of the familyHerelleviridae. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 15, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales : update 2019
This article presents the updated taxonomy of the orderMononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 14, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

In-depth proteomic profiling of the Singapore grouper iridovirus virion
AbstractSingapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is a lethal grouper virus containing 162 predicted ORFs. Previous proteomic studies led to identification of 73 SGIV structural proteins. Here, SDS-assisted tube-gel digestion and DOC-assisted in-solution digestion coupled with LC-ESI-MS/MS were applied to further profile the SGIV structural proteome. We identified a total of 90 SGIV structural proteins including 24 newly reported proteins. Additionally, several PTMs were identified, including 26  N-terminal acetylated proteins, three phosphorylated proteins, and one myristoylated protein. Importantly, 47 of the proteins tha...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evidence of zoonotic transmission of VP6 and NSP4 genes into human species A rotaviruses isolated in Pakistan in 2010
AbstractIntroduction of animal group A rotavirus (RVA) gene segments into the human RVA population is a major factor shaping the genetic landscape of human RVA strains. The VP6 and NSP4 genes of 74 G/P-genotyped RVA isolates collected in Rawalpindi during 2010 were analyzed, revealing the presence of VP6 genotypes I1 (60.8%) and I2 (39.2%) and NSP4 genotypes E1 (60.8%), E2 (28.3%) and E-untypable (10.8%) among the circulating human RVA strains. The typical human RVA combinations I1E1 and I2E2 were found in 59.4% and 24.3% of the cases, respectively, whereas 5.4% of the RVA strains were reassortants, i.e., either I1E2 or I2...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Identification of a novel nanovirus in parsley
AbstractUsing next-generation sequencing to characterize agents associated with a severe stunting disease of parsley from Germany, we identified a hitherto undescribed virus. We sequenced total RNA and rolling-circle-amplified DNA from diseased plants. The genome sequence of the virus shows that it is a member of the genusNanovirus, but it lacks DNA-U4. In addition to the seven genomic DNAs of the virus, we identified a second DNA-R and seven distinct alphasatellites associated with the disease. We propose the name “parsley severe stunt associated virus” (PSSaV) for this novel nanovirus. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Schmallenberg virus in Azerbaijan 2012 –2018
AbstractSchmallenberg virus is an orthobunyavirus that infects ruminants and can cause transient fever, diarrhea, reduced milk production, congenital malformations, and abortions. Following the first suspected cases in Azerbaijan, a surveillance study was launched to determine and follow the situation. Serum samples and fetal tissue were collected starting October 2012 and tested via ELISA and qPCR. A first wave of Schmallenberg virus infections was detected in 2012/2013 in, and was largely limited to, the southern part of the country. In the second and larger wave in 2013/2014, cases were found throughout most of the coun...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Adjuvant activity of multimolecular complexes based on Glycyrrhiza glabra saponins, lipids, and influenza virus glycoproteins
AbstractNumerous studies have shown that immunostimulatory complexes containing Quil-A saponin and various antigens are effective in stimulating the immune response and can be used as vaccine preparations for animals and humans. However, Quil-A saponin possesses toxicity and haemolytic activity. In the present work, a saponin-containing preparation named “Glabilox” was isolated from the roots of aGlycyrrhiza glabra L. plant by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that Glabilox has no toxicity or haemolytic activity and can form stable immunostimulatory complexes. Subcutaneous immuni...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A comparative phylogenomic analysis of avian avulavirus 1 isolated from non-avian hosts: conquering new frontiers of zoonotic potential among species
AbstractA number of avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV  1) isolates have been reported from avian and non-avian hosts worldwide with varying clinical consequences. In this regard, robust surveillance coupled with advanced diagnostics, genomic analysis, and disease modelling has provided insight into the molecular epidemiology and evolution of this viru s. The genomic and evolutionary characteristics of AAvV 1 isolates originating from avian hosts have been well studied, but those originating from non-avian hosts have not. Here, we report a comparative genomic and evolutionary analysis of so-far reported AAvV 1 isolate...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of a highly divergent carrot torradovirus 1 strain from Apium graveolens
AbstractA new virus was identified in a celery plant showing chlorotic rings, mosaic and strong yellowing symptoms, and its complete genome sequence was determined. The genomic organization of this novel virus is analogous to that of known members of the genusTorradovirus, consisting of two single-stranded RNAs of 6,823 (RNA1) and 4,263 nucleotides (RNA2), excluding the poly(A) tails. BLAST searches against the nucleotide and protein databases showed that this virus is closely related to but different from carrot torradovirus 1 (CaTV1). Comparisons between the two viruses demonstrated relatively low levels of nucleotide an...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization and detection of two carlaviruses infecting cactus
AbstractTwo large contigs with sequence similarities to different carlaviruses were identified by high-throughput sequencing in samples from a cactus plant. The complete genomes of the two viruses, tentatively named “cactus carlavirus 1” (CCV-1) and “cactus carlavirus 2” (CCV-2), were determined to be 8,441 and 8,396 nucleotides long, respectively, excluding the poly(A) tail. These viruses have the typical genomic organization of members of the genusCarlavirus. CCV-1 appears to be a cactus isolate of the carlavirus HSO-2016a, with 90.1% nucleotide sequence identity between the two virus genomes, whe...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Isolation and identification of Singapore grouper iridovirus Hainan strain (SGIV-HN) in China
AbstractIn recent years, with the rapid development of marine farming activities, outbreaks of viral diseases have affected the grouper aquaculture industry, causing heavy economic losses. Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is one of the most important viruses causing disease in fish. In the present study, we isolated and identified a virus from diseased groupers by coculturing the affected tissue cells with grouper spleen cells. The genome of the isolated virus shared 99.83% nucleotide sequence homology with those of SGIV reference strains in the GenBank database. The virus clustered with SGIV on an evolutionary tree con...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Determination of the complete genome sequence of European mountain ash ringspot-associated emaravirus from Sorbus intermedia reveals two additional genome segments
We report the complete genome sequence, comprising six single-stranded RNAs of negative orientation, of a European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV) isolate identified in a diseasedSorbus intermedia (Swedish whitebeam) tree exhibiting prominent chlorotic ringspots, mottle and line pattern on leaves. Since the first observation of EMARaV-like symptoms and detection of the virus in whitebeam in 2012, the tree displayed leaf symptoms every year in at least one third of its canopy, developed dieback symptoms, and showed signs of decline. Two previously unrecorded genome segments of the virus were identified, each...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 8, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Occurrence of putative endornaviruses in non-cultivated plant species in South Louisiana
AbstractExtraction and electrophoretic analysis of viral dsRNA from plants has been used successfully to detect infections by RNA viruses. We used this approach as an initial tool to test non-cultivated plant species for the presence of endornaviruses. Foliar samples were collected from symptomless plants in various locations within East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, USA, and tested for viral dsRNA. After testing 208 plant species belonging to 74 families, five (Geranium carolinianum,Hydrocotyle umbellata,H. prolifera, Sorghum halepense, andSisyrinchium atlanticum) yielded dsRNAs similar in size to the dsRNAs of members o...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 7, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Biological and molecular characterization of a bacteriophage infecting Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris , isolated from brassica fields
AbstractXanthomonas campestris pv.campestris (Xcc) is the causal agent of black rot of crucifers. Here, we report a virus that infects Xcc isolated from brassica fields in Brazil. Morphological, molecular and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolated virus is a new member of the genusPbunavirus, familyMyoviridae, and we propose the name “Xanthomonas virus XC 2” for this virus. The isolated virus has a narrow host range, infecting only Xcc isolates, and it did not infect unrelated bacteria. These results indicate that the isolated bacteriophage is highly specific for Xcc and may be a potential agent for ...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 7, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Hepatitis C virus 3b strains in injection drug users in Guangdong Province, China, may have originated in Yunnan Province
AbstractThe distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes/subtypes varies among different populations. Here, we investigated HCV infection and its genotype distribution in injection drug users (IDUs) in Guangdong Province of China. A total of 318 IDUs from two prisons were recruited. The genotypes/subtypes of HCV in IDUs were determined by phylogenetic analysis using E1 and/or NS5B gene sequences. Our previous data on blood donors (BDs) with no history of drug use were used as control population data for comparison. Our results showed that the prevalence of HCV 3b (20.9% vs. 3.6%,P = 3.4E-9) and 6a (57.0% vs. 39.8%,P =...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 7, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales : update 2019
This article presents the updated taxonomy of the orderBunyavirales now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 7, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Importance of tyrosine in the RNA-binding domain of human parainfluenza virus type 2 nucleoprotein for polymerase activity
We examined the importance of individual amino acids in the RNA-binding domain of hPIV2 NP for polymerase activity using a mini-replicon assay. We showed that substitution of tyrosine at amino acid position 260, located in the RNA-binding pocket of NP, severely reduced polymerase activity. The aromatic side-chain of Y260 may be required for the formation of stable contacts between nucleotides and basic amino acids, thereby affecting promoter recognition by the viral polymerase. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - May 4, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Development of a duplex reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay for respiratory syncytial virus incorporating an internal control
In this study, we developed a duplex reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification (duplex-rtRAA) assay containing an internal control in a single closed tube for the detection of human RSV. The internal control in the amplification effectively eliminated false-negative results and ensured the accuracy of the duplex-rtRAA system. We first developed and evaluated a universal singleplex-rtRAA assay for RSV. The sensitivity of this assay for RSV was determined as 4.4 copies per reaction, and the specificity was 100%. Next, a duplex-rtRAA assay with an internal control was established. The sensitivity of the duplex-rtR...
Source: Archives of Virology - May 3, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization of Dev-CD-23823 and Dev-CT57, new Autographivirinae bacteriophages infecting Cronobacter spp.
AbstractCronobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogenic bacteria responsible for severe infections in neonates. Powdered infant formula has been confirmed to be the source of infection in some cases. Bacteriophages offer a safe means for eliminating this pathogen. In the present study, we characterized two closely relatedCronobacter-specific bacteriophages of the proposed genus “GAP227virus”. The phages Dev-CD-23823 and Dev-CT57 possessed broad host specificity, as they infected 88% and 80% of theCronobacter strains tested. Genome sequence comparisons of phages Dev-CD-23823 and Dev-CT57 showed different levels of...
Source: Archives of Virology - April 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Establishment of a rescue system for porcine parvovirus using a seamless cloning method
In this study, we describe a novel and rapid method for the construction of a full-length infectious clone (pPPV). The constructed clone contained an engineered EcoRv site that served as a genetic marker and was shown to be infectious when transfected into a monolayer of PK-15 cells. The rescued virus (rPPV) of the infectious clone was found to be indistinguishable from wild-type virus BQ in terms of its biological properties. The generation of this PPV infectious clone provides a potentially powerful tool with which to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of PPV. (Source: Archives of Virology)
Source: Archives of Virology - April 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research