Surgical outcomes of early-stage primary vaginal nonsquamous cell carcinoma
ConclusionFive-year local control and disease-specific survival rates of patients surgically treated for vaginal non-SCC were favorable. Therefore, surgery could be a safe and reasonable option for early-stage primary vaginal non-SCC. (Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - March 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 798: External Beam Radiation Therapy and Enadenotucirev: Inhibition of the DDR and Mechanisms of Radiation-Mediated Virus Increase
gins Len W. Seymour Janet Lei-Rossmann Ionising radiation causes cell death through the induction of DNA damage, particularly double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks. Evidence suggests that adenoviruses inhibit proteins involved in the DNA damage response (DDR) to prevent recognition of double-stranded viral DNA genomes as cellular dsDNA breaks. We hypothesise that combining adenovirus treatment with radiotherapy has the potential for enhancing tumour-specific cytotoxicity through inhibition of the DDR and augmentation of virus production. We show that EnAd, an Ad3/Ad11p chimeric oncolytic adenovirus currently being tri...
Source: Cancers - March 26, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tzveta D. Pokrovska Egon J. Jacobus Rathi Puliyadi Remko Prevo Sally Frost Arthur Dyer Richard Baugh Gonzalo Rodriguez-Berriguete Kerry Fisher Giovanna Granata Katharine Herbert William K. Taverner Brian R. Champion Geoff S. Higgins Len W. Seymour Janet L Tags: Article Source Type: research

Technological quality requirements for stereotactic radiotherapy
AbstractThis review details and discusses the technological quality requirements to ensure the desired quality for stereotactic radiotherapy using photon external beam radiotherapy as defined by the DEGRO Working Group Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy and the DGMP Working Group for Physics and Technology in Stereotactic Radiotherapy. The covered aspects of this review are 1)  imaging for target volume definition, 2) patient positioning and target volume localization, 3) motion management, 4) collimation of the irradiation and beam directions, 5) dose calculation, 6) treatment unit ac...
Source: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie - March 24, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Long-term biochemical control and cause-specific survival in men with Gleason grade Group 4 and 5 prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy and external beam irradiation
Men with Gleason grade Group (GG) 4 and 5 prostate cancer have high failure rates when treated by conventional therapy. We investigated the effect of higher radiation doses on freedom from biochemical failure (FBF) and prostate cancer mortality (cause-specific survival [CSS]) in men treated with a combination of permanent implant and external beam irradiation (EBRT). (Source: Brachytherapy)
Source: Brachytherapy - March 23, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nelson N. Stone, Vassilios Skouteris, Richard G. Stock Source Type: research

A phase IB clinical trial of 15  Gy HDR brachytherapy followed by hypofractionated/SBRT in the management of intermediate-risk prostate cancer
High dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is commonly administered as a boost to external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Our purpose was to compare toxicity with increasingly hypofractionated EBRT in combination with a single 15  Gy HDR boost for men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. (Source: Brachytherapy)
Source: Brachytherapy - March 23, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Robert B. Den, Jacob Greenspan, Laura A. Doyle, Amy S. Harrison, Cheng Peng, Noelle L. Williams, Costas D. Lallas, Edouard J. Trabulsi, Leonard G. Gomella, Mark D. Hurwitz, Benjamin Leiby, Adam P. Dicker Source Type: research

Textiloma Mimicking a Recurrent High-Grade Astrocytoma: A Case Report
Conclusion After treatment of a neoplasm, if unexpected clinical or imaging evidence of recurrence is present, a foreign body reaction to hemostatic material used during the initial surgery should be included in the differential diagnosis. [...] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  open access Full text (Source: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports)
Source: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports - March 22, 2020 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Jaramillo-Jim énez, Esteban Gupta, Manu Snipes, George Cheek, Brennen S. Michael, Christopher B. Navarro-Montoya, Ana M. G ómez-Escobar, Tatiana Jim énez-Villegas, Juliana Rodr íguez-Márquez, Iader Melguizo-Gavilanes, Isaac Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

External Validation of PATHFx Version 3.0 in Patients Treated Surgically and Nonsurgically for Symptomatic Skeletal Metastases.
Abstract BACKGROUND: PATHFx is a clinical decision-support tool based on machine learning capable of estimating the likelihood of survival after surgery for patients with skeletal metastases. The applicability of any machine-learning tool depends not only on successful external validation in unique patient populations but also on remaining relevant as more effective systemic treatments are introduced. With advancements in the treatment of metastatic disease, it is our responsibility to patients to ensure clinical support tools remain contemporary and accurate. QUESTION/PURPOSES: Therefore, we sought to (1) ge...
Source: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research - March 21, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Anderson AB, Wedin R, Fabbri N, Boland P, Healey J, Forsberg JA Tags: Clin Orthop Relat Res Source Type: research

Combined interstitial and surface high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the hand.
Conclusions: The first interstitial and surface HDR brachytherapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of a finger interspace for hand function preservation is presented. The initial experience revealed that brachytherapy was tolerated but with notable acute and late side effects. Treatment did result in tumor shrinkage with organ preservation and function of two rays. A larger cohort of patients will be required for additional conclusions related to long-term clinical benefits in patients who refuse ray amputation. PMID: 32190070 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy)
Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy - March 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Contemp Brachytherapy Source Type: research

Dosimetric comparison of two different applicators and rectal retraction methods used in inverse optimization-based intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer.
Authors: Biltekin F, Gultekin M, Yilmaz MT, Yildiz F Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric differences between two different applicators and rectal-retraction methods used in image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Material and methods: Ten patients with LACC treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy and inverse optimization-based IGBT were included in this study. In each patient, at least one fraction of IGBT was performed using tandem-ovoids (TO) with vaginal gauze packing (VGP) or tandem-ring (TR) with rectal-retractor (RR). High-ris...
Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy - March 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Contemp Brachytherapy Source Type: research

The value of hybrid interstitial tandem and ring applicators for organ at risk dose reduction in small volume cervical cancer.
Authors: Crossley N, Tipton C, Meier T, Sudhoff M, Kharofa J Abstract Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided adaptive brachytherapy is the standard of care for cervical cancer. Hybrid intracavitary/interstitial applicators for bulky tumor (high-risk clinical target volume [HR-CTV]> 30 cc) dose escalation is recommended in the EMBRACE II trial. The value of hybrid applicators for smaller HR-CTV (
Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy - March 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Contemp Brachytherapy Source Type: research

Clinical outcomes of low-dose-rate brachytherapy based radiotherapy for intermediate risk prostate cancer.
Conclusions: This study highlights excellent outcomes for intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients, including unfavorable intermediate-risk cases, treated with BED ≥ 200 Gy radiotherapy using LDR brachytherapy. LDR alone with a BED of 200 Gy may be an optimal treatment for both favorable and unfavorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients, although a longer follow-up is mandatory to confirm the present findings. PMID: 32190064 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy)
Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy - March 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Contemp Brachytherapy Source Type: research

A history of transurethral resection of the prostate should not be a contra-indication for low-dose-rate 125I prostate brachytherapy: results of a prospective Uro-GEC phase-II trial.
Conclusions: The excellent long-term results and low morbidity presented as well as many advantages of prostate brachytherapy over other treatments demonstrates that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with transurethral resection and organ-confined prostate cancer. PMID: 32190063 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy)
Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy - March 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Contemp Brachytherapy Source Type: research

Could a Personalized Strategy Using Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation be an Advantage for Elderly Patients? A Systematic Review of the Literature and Multidisciplinary Opinion.
Conclusion: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) results in a safe and effective substitute for the adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in selected elderly early-stage breast cancer patients. Based on the relatively low toxicity, APBI should be advised in selected patients with life expectancies larger than 5-10 years. PMID: 32190051 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - March 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

A Comparison of a Moderately Hypofractionated IMRT Planning Technique Used in a Randomised UK External Beam Radiotherapy Trial with an in-house technique for Localised Prostate Cancer
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2020Source: Reports of Practical Oncology & RadiotherapyAuthor(s): Gleeson Ian (Source: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy)
Source: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy - March 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Glaucoma as the presenting sign of intraocular tumors: beware of the masquerading sign
ConclusionUnilateral raised intraocular pressure, iris neovascularization, or both may be the presenting features of intraocular tumors. High degree of suspicion and a thorough examination reveals the definitive diagnosis. (Source: International Ophthalmology)
Source: International Ophthalmology - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Difficulty in distinguishing radiation-induced prostate sarcoma from radiation mucositis in a patient with persistent urinary retention and hematuria after prostate cancer radiotherapy
AbstractUrinary retention and hematuria owing to radiation-induced mucositis are occasional late adverse events in patients with prostate cancer. Moreover, radiation-induced secondary malignancies are late adverse events, although they are extremely rare. Herein, we describe a case of radiation-induced secondary malignancy of the prostate that was initially difficult to distinguish from radiation mucositis. A 74-year-old man with prostate cancer underwent brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy 9 years ago. Twenty-eight months after irradiation, he presented with urinary retention and hematuria owing to radiation muco...
Source: International Cancer Conference Journal - March 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Termination rates and histological reclassification of active surveillance patients with low- and early intermediate-risk prostate cancer: results of the PREFERE trial
ConclusionIn this prospectively analyzed subcohort of patients with AS and conventional staging within a randomized trial, the 2-year histological reclassification rates were higher than those previously reported. Active surveillance may not be based on conventional staging alone, and patients with grade group 2 cancers may be recommended for active surveillance in carefully controlled trials only. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - March 18, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Determination of consensus k_Q values for megavoltage photon beams for the update of IAEA TRS-398.
ijande J, Zink K Abstract The IAEA is currently coordinating a multi-year project to update the TRS-398 Code of Practice for the dosimetry of external beam radiotherapy based on standards of absorbed dose to water. One major aspect of the project is the determination of new beam quality correction factors, k_Q, for megavoltage photon beams consistent with developments in radiotherapy dosimetry and technology since the publication of TRS-398 in 2000. Specifically, all values must be based on, or consistent with, the key data of ICRU Report 90. Data sets obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) calculations by advanced users ...
Source: Physics in Medicine and Biology - March 17, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Andreo P, Burns DT, Kapsch RP, McEwen MR, Vatnitsky S, Andersen CE, Ballester F, Borbinha J, Delaunay F, Francescon P, Hanlon M, Mirzakhanian L, Muir BR, Ojala J, Oliver CP, Pimpinella M, Pinto M, de Prez LA, Seuntjens J, Sommier L, Teles P, Tikkanen JS, Tags: Phys Med Biol Source Type: research

A method of high-resolution radiotherapy delivery fluences with a pair of fields with orthogonal collimator settings: A study on ten head-and-neck cancer patients
Conclusions: At the time of writing of this study, there were more than 12,000 medical linear accelerators in clinical use, and XMLC can prove itself useful wherever linac is equipped with MLC but cannot delivery latest techniques, such as volumetric modulated arc therapy. (Source: Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Journal of Medical Physics - March 13, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Stipe Galic Marin Kovacevic Ivan Lasic Hrvoje Brkic Dario Faj Source Type: research

Choroidal lymphoma diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction-based clonality assessment.
CONCLUSION: Polymerase chain reaction-based clonality testing can be a valuable tool to confirm a choroidal lymphoproliferative process. PMID: 32164465 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: European Journal of Ophthalmology - March 13, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hernández-Pons A, Gómez-Beltrán E, Fernández-Zarzoso M, Albert-Fort M, Martínez-Costa L Tags: Eur J Ophthalmol Source Type: research

Nodal recurrence patterns on PET/CT after RTOG-based nodal radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
Conclusions: Current RT with RTOG-based nodal fields for PCN+ provides good in-field tumour control, but frequent out-field nodal recurrences suggest missed microscopic locations. Expanding elective fields to include the aorta bifurcation may prolong recurrence-free survival. Future research must address whether the potential benefits of this strategy outbalance additional toxicity. PMID: 32154392 [PubMed] (Source: Clinical Prostate Cancer)
Source: Clinical Prostate Cancer - March 12, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Liskamp CP, Donswijk ML, van der Poel HG, Schaake EE, Vogel WV Tags: Clin Transl Radiat Oncol Source Type: research

Use of Post-Operative External Beam Radiation Therapy in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
The incidence of thyroid cancer has been on the rise in recent decades with approximately 90% of these being differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) (including papillary and follicular). The majority of DTCs have a good prognosis and are potentially curable with standard treatment, the cornerstone of which is thyroidectomy. Commonly, patients may also receive adjuvant thyroid stimulating hormone suppression or radioactive iodine-131 (RAI). Due to a lack of randomized clinical trials, the role of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in DTC is not well-established. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Onco...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - March 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: A. Brown, A. Kellogg, Z. Mirza, T. Sears, G.A. Krempl, C. Henson Tags: Non-squamous Cell Malignancies of the Head and Neck: thyroid, sarcomas, skin cancers, salivary gland and sinus cancers Source Type: research

The Advanced Alternative Payment Model: Catalyst for Prostate Brachytherapy Adoption?
The impending implementation of the Radiation Oncology Alternative Payment Model (APM) is poised to initiate dramatic disruption in the financial incentives associated with radiation oncology practice, reversing previous incentives for increased fractionation and moving toward incentivizing brevity of care.1 Such incentivization theoretically favors treatment modalities such as hypofractionation and stereotactic body radiation therapy over traditional external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), provided they can yield comparable outcomes to EBRT. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - March 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Shearwood McClelland, Daniel G. Petereit Tags: Brief Opinion Source Type: research

Post-mastectomy immediate breast reconstruction and adjuvant radiotherapy: long term results of a mono institutional experience
ConclusionThis study underlines that the type of reconstruction does not influence late toxicity rate. Moreover, IBR followed by adjuvant radiotherapy, has showed acceptable late toxicity profile and no influence on OS. (Source: La Radiologia Medica)
Source: La Radiologia Medica - March 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A Cost-Utility Analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) Guided Brachytherapy versus Two Dimensional and Computed Tomography (CT) Guided Brachytherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer
and Purpose: The standard treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer is external beam radiotherapy and concurrent cisplatin followed by brachytherapy. Traditionally, two-dimensional (2DBT) or computed tomography guided (CTgBT) brachytherapy has been used, but magnetic resonance guided brachytherapy (MRgBT) improves clinical outcomes and has become the new standard of care. This cost-utility analysis (CUA) was undertaken to compare MRgBT to CTgBT and 2DBT. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - March 10, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: J. Perdrizet, D. D ’Souza, J. Skliarenko, M. Ang, L. Barbera, E. Gutierrez, A. Ravi, K. Tanderup, P. Warde, K.K.W. Chan, W. Isaranuwatchai, M. Milosevic Source Type: research

Locally unresectable differentiated thyroid cancer: outcomes and perspectives
ConclusionsClinical trials and approved treatments are lacking for unresectable DTC. TKI treatment may allow prolonged disease control with acceptable toxicity. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - March 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Solitary Penile Metastasis of Prostate Cancer on 18F-Fluciclovine PET/CT Imaging in a Patient With PSA of 1 ng/mL.
Abstract An 85-year-old asymptomatic man with suspected biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer underwent an F-fluciclovine PET/CT scan, which revealed a solitary suspicious tracer uptake in the dorsal right corporal body of the proximal pendulous penis. The patient underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the penile lesion, which revealed metastatic prostate cancer. The patient had definitive external beam radiation therapy 3 years before the examination. At the time of scan, the prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) was only 1.0 ng/mL, although the PSA doubling time was 2.6 months. It is unusual to det...
Source: Clinical Prostate Cancer - March 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Salavati A, Schik AN, Koksel Y, Gencturk M, Froelich JW Tags: Clin Nucl Med Source Type: research

UK audit of target volume and organ at risk delineation and dose optimisation for cervix radiotherapy treatments.
CONCLUSIONS: Brachytherapy target volume delineations are varied due to differences in contouring guidelines and protocols used. PTV delineations are varied due to the uncertainties surrounding the extent of parametrial involvement. Dosimetric optimisation is sufficient across all centres to satisfy EMBRACE II planning aims despite significant variation in protocols used. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Previous multi-institutional audits of cervical cancer radiotherapy practices have been performed in Europe and the US. This study is the first of its kind to be performed in the UK. PMID: 32142373 [PubMed - as supplied by...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - March 6, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Cannon J, Bownes P, Mason J, Cooper R Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Destructive thyroiditis presenting as thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism during lenvatinib therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abstract Hypothyroidism is a common adverse event of lenvatinib therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), whereas thyrotoxicosis has rarely been reported in clinical trials. A 74-year-old man complaining of abdominal pain was found to have liver tumors and paraaortic lymphadenopathy. The intrahepatic lesions were diagnosed as HCC by angiography and treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. Although localized prostate cancer was discovered incidentally, the etiology of paraaortic lymphadenopathy was assumed to be metastatic HCC. Lenvatinib 12 mg/day was started when his thyroid function tests we...
Source: Clinical Prostate Cancer - March 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Suoh M, Fujii H, Nagata Y, Kotani K, Hagihara A, Enomoto M, Tamori A, Inaba M, Kawada N Tags: Clin J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer: patterns of care in Sweden 1998-2016.
This study reports patterns of radical radiotherapy for PCa in Sweden over the past two decades.Materials and methods: All men with non-metastatic PCa (1998-2016) who received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or high or low dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT/LDR-BT) were identified in PCBaSe. Analyses included: trends in radiation techniques, fractionation patterns and total doses over time; PCa-specific survival comparing treatment in 2007-2017 with 1998-2006; and regional variation in type of primary radiotherapy.Results: About 20,876 men underwent primary radiotherapy. The main treatment modalities include conventionally ...
Source: Acta Oncologica - March 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Beckmann K, Garmo H, Nilsson P, Franck Lissbrant I, Widmark A, Stattin P Tags: Acta Oncol Source Type: research

Pseudoprogression of Metastatic Melanoma to the Orbit With Pembrolizumab
The management of metastatic melanoma to the orbit may involve a variety of therapeutic modalities including external-beam radiation, chemotherapy, and varying degrees of surgical resection or debulking. Pembrolizumab is an immunotherapeutic agent that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. The authors present a case of metastatic melanoma to the orbit demonstrating profound pseudoprogression within hours of beginning pembrolizumab therapy, with associated mass effect and vision loss. Systemic corticosteroids, orbital external-beam radiation therapy, and a brief interruption in pembrolizumab hal...
Source: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - March 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Clinical Outcomes of Dose-escalated Radiotherapy for Localised Prostate Cancer: A Single-institution Experience
Background/Aim: To report the outcomes of patients with prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated radiotherapy over a 15-year period at our Institution. Patients and Methods: Patients with biopsy-proven cT1-4N0M0 disease who received radical external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) were reviewed. The endpoints were 5-year overall survival (OS), freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) and late treatment toxicities. Results: A total of 236 patients were eligible. Median follow-up was 70 months. Low-, intermediate- and high-risk disease was found in 9%; 29% and 62% of patients, respectively. The median radiation dose was 73.8 Gy. ...
Source: In Vivo - February 28, 2020 Category: Research Authors: MENG, K., LIM, K., LEE, C. C., CHIA, D., OOI, K. H., SOON, Y. Y., TEY, J. Tags: Clinical Studies Source Type: research

Variation in Inter-institutional Plan Quality When Adopting A Hypofractionated Protocol for Prostate Cancer External Beam Radiation Therapy
This study quantified plan quality differences across the four cancer centers in XXX(blinded for review) for plans that followed the PROstate Fractionated Irradiation Trial (PROFIT) protocol. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - February 26, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Lingyue Sun, Wendy Smith, Charles Kirkby Source Type: research

Variation in Interinstitutional Plan Quality When Adopting a Hypofractionated Protocol for Prostate Cancer External Beam Radiation Therapy
This study quantified plan quality differences across the 4 cancer centers in Alberta, Canada for plans that followed the PROstate Fractionated Irradiation Trial protocol. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - February 26, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Lingyue Sun, Wendy Smith, Charles Kirkby Tags: Physics Contribution Source Type: research

Treatment Intensification in High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Lessons From the TROG 03.04 RADAR Trial
Thousands of men across the world have participated in randomized clinical trials testing the role of hormone therapy in the curative treatment of localized, high-risk prostate cancer. Over several decades, we have established that long-term hormone therapy improves survival, even in the setting of dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT).1 Recently reported clinical trials suggest that for some men 18 months of hormone therapy may be a suitable duration that balances treatment efficacy with quality-of-life preservation. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - February 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Robert T. Dess Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The role of external beam radiation therapy for retinoblastoma after failure of combined chemoreduction and focal consolidation therapy.
Conclusion: Eyes with retinoblastoma that failed chemotherapy followed by focal therapy were controlled with EBRT. However, the presence of vitreous seeds, stage migration during the course of chemotherapy, as well as good vision in the other eye may not justify the known risks of EBRT. PMID: 32072842 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ophthalmic Genetics)
Source: Ophthalmic Genetics - February 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Ophthalmic Genet Source Type: research

3:18 PM Abstract No. 24 Improved tumor response in patients undergoing yttrium-90 radioembolization segmentectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma while on metformin
The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of Yttrium-90 radioembolization segmentectomy (Y90-RS) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who were concurrently taking metformin versus those who were not. (Source: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology : JVIR)
Source: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology : JVIR - February 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: W. Wagstaff, A. Villalobos, M. Elsayed, J. Zhang, A. Chary, R. Ermentrout, Z. Bercu, W. O ’Connell, B. Majdalany, M. Akce, N. Kokabi Tags: Scientific Session 3 Source Type: research

Post-HIFU locally relapsed prostate cancer: high-dose salvage radiotherapy guided by molecular imaging
ConclusionsOur data confirm the feasibility and the low toxicity of salvage EBRT with both schedules of treatment after HIFU failure. The findings of low acute toxicity and good biochemical control rates are encouraging, but a larger number of patients and a longer follow-up are needed to confirm these results. (Source: La Radiologia Medica)
Source: La Radiologia Medica - February 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for radiation-induced urethral strictures: an evaluation using the extended Urethral Stricture Surgery Patient-Reported Outcome Measure (USS PROM)
ConclusionThe success rate and functional outcome after BMGU for radiation-induced strictures were reasonable. However, compared to existing long-term data on non-irradiated patients, the outcome is impaired and patients should be counseled accordingly. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - February 18, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Impact of multidisciplinary tumor board discussion on palliation of patients with esophageal or gastro-esophageal junction cancer: a population-based study.
Conclusion: Our study shows that MDT discussion of patients with esophageal or GEJ cancer resulted in more patients treated with initial palliative radiotherapy and chemotherapy compared with patients not discussed by the MDT. Moreover, MDT discussion may have a positive effect on survival, highlighting the importance of MDT meetings at all stages of treatment. PMID: 32067535 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Oncologica)
Source: Acta Oncologica - February 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Vermeulen BD, Bruggeman L, Bac DJ, Schrauwen RWM, Epping LSM, Scheffer RCH, Tan ACITL, Groenen MJM, Verhoeven RHA, Siersema PD Tags: Acta Oncol Source Type: research

Maximizing gynecologic brachytherapy experience during radiation oncology residency training
Brachytherapy plays an integral role in the management of gynecologic malignancies. The use of brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiation has been correlated with an improvement in both local control and survival in patients with advanced stage cancers of the cervix and endometrium (1 –4). The widespread adoption of image-guided adaptive brachytherapy over the past decade has allowed treatment techniques, including the use of various applicators and interstitial needles, to become increasingly more complex and individualized. (Source: Brachytherapy)
Source: Brachytherapy - February 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jill S. Remick, Sushil Beriwal Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: changing trends of treatment strategies and associated overall survival
ConclusionConcurrent radio- and/or chemotherapy in combination with surgery seems to result in improved survival in stage IVA/B ATC, whereas this is not the case in patients with stage IVC tumors. Novel treatment regimens are urgently needed to improve the dismal prognosis of ATC. (Source: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology)
Source: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - February 14, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Palliative External Beam Radiation Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma With Right Atrial Tumor Thrombus
We describe a case of a patient with a symptomatic HCC RA tumor thrombus who achieved a durable and effective symptomatic response to palliative radiotherapy. We also report our institution’s experience treating 10 HCC patients with RA tumor thrombus with palliative radiotherapy to a median biological effective dose (α/β = 10) of 50.6 Gy (range, 29.3-71.2 Gy). Median follow-up was 5 months. Palliative radiotherapy was well-tolerated, with no grade ≥ 3 acute toxicities. Only one patient experienced in-field progression. Seven patients were alive at least 3 months following radiotherapy, and median overal...
Source: Practical Radiation Oncology - February 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Patterns and Outcomes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with Portal Vein Invasion: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study
ConclusionsHCC patients with PVI comprise a heterogeneous population and are treated with various treatment modalities with diverse clinical outcomes in clinical practice. Subclassification of HCC patients with PVI is required to minimize heterogeneity and should be considered for the selection of treatment modalities and future clinical trials. (Source: Digestive Diseases and Sciences)
Source: Digestive Diseases and Sciences - February 13, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Long-term (20-year) real-world outcomes of intravenous chemotherapy (chemoreduction) for retinoblastoma in 964 eyes of 554 patients at a single centre.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) remains an important globe salvage therapy for retinoblastoma. METHODS: Evaluation of long-term globe salvage at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years following frontline IVC for retinoblastoma. RESULTS: Of 994 eyes, comparison by International Classification of Retinoblastoma group (A vs B vs C vs D vs E) revealed more advanced group with older mean age at presentation (8 vs 7 vs 10 vs 11 vs 15 months, p
Source: The British Journal of Ophthalmology - February 12, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Shields CL, Bas Z, Tadepalli S, Dalvin LA, Rao R, Schwendeman R, Lally SE, Shields JA, Shah A, Leahey A Tags: Br J Ophthalmol Source Type: research

A Cost-Effectiveness and Quality of Life Analysis of Different Approaches to the Management and Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer
The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of active monitoring (AM), radical prostatectomy (PR), and external-beam radiotherapy with neoadjuvant hormone therapy (RT) for localized prostate cancer. Microsimulations of radical prostatectomy, 3D-conformal radiotherapy, or active monitoring were performed using Medicare reimbursement schedules and clinical trial results for a target population of men aged 50–69 years with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer (T1-T2, NX, M0) over a time horizon of 10 years. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs were as...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 11, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Moderately HRT vs. CRT for localized prostate cancer using image-guided VMAT with SIB: evaluation of acute and late toxicities
AbstractPurposeThis retrospective study aims at investigating the effects of moderately hypofractionated radiation therapy (HRT) on acute and late toxicities as well as on early biochemical control and therapeutic efficiency compared to conventional radiation therapy (CRT) in prostate cancer.Patients and methodsWe analyzed 55  HRT patients irradiated with the total dose of 60 Gy in 20 fractions delivered over 4 weeks. These patients were compared to a control group of 55 patients who received CRT with a total of
Source: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie - February 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Comparing efficacy of high-dose rate brachytherapy versus helical tomotherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: HT boost treatment showed comparable disease outcomes with those observed with conventional BT in patients with advanced cervical cancer. HT could be a complementary boost protocol as a single modality or hybrid with BT in selected patients. Further studies with longer follow-up periods are warranted to confirm long-term outcomes. PMID: 32026658 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology)
Source: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology - February 8, 2020 Category: OBGYN Tags: J Gynecol Oncol Source Type: research

Learning in 360 Degrees: A Pilot Study on the Use of Virtual Reality for Radiation Therapy Patient Education
Patient education for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is traditionally delivered in verbal and/or written form, which may not provide a full picture of the complex, technical aspects of treatment. The purpose of this pilot study was to create and evaluate a prototype 360-degree virtual reality (VR) video outlining the technical aspects of EBRT to the pelvis as a supplement to traditional education methods. (Source: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences)
Source: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences - February 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kalaina Johnson, Brian Liszewski, Krista Dawdy, Yannie Lai, Merrylee McGuffin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

99mTc-HDP Bone Scintigraphy, SPECT/CT, and 18F-FDG PET/CT Diagnosis Imaging of Incidental Pleural Mesothelioma in a Patient With Biochemical Recurrences of Prostate Cancer: Is it Really a Coincidence?
We present the case of a 69-year-old man with history of prostate carcinoma treated with prostatectomy and subsequently with external beam radiotherapy and hormone therapy because of biochemical recurrences. More than 10 years after the diagnosis, follow-up 99mTc-HDP bone scans and SPECT/CT images demonstrated an incidental diagnosis of osteoblastic pleural plaques that quickly evolve to mesothelioma. PET/CT achieved the definitive diagnosis by guiding the biopsy to the highest and most accessible focus of glucidic hypermetabolism. Our case report raises the association between prostate cancer patients treated with externa...
Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine - February 7, 2020 Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Interesting Images Source Type: research