Health physics society • 2018 affiliate members
No abstract available (Source: Health Physics)
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Health Physics Society Affiliate Members Source Type: research

THE HEALTH PHYSICS SOCIETY: An Affiliate of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)
No abstract available (Source: Health Physics)
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Health Physics Society Prospectus Source Type: research

Deployment of the DosiKit System Under Operational Conditions: Experience From a French Defense National Nuclear Exercise
Estimation of the dose received by accidentally irradiated victims is based on a tripod: clinical, biological, and physical dosimetry. The DosiKit system is an operational and mobile biodosimetry device allowing the measurement of external irradiation directly on the site of a radiological accident. This tool is based on capillary blood sample and hair follicle collection. The aim is to obtain a whole-body and local-surface dose assessment. This paper is about the technical evaluation of the DosiKit; the analytical process and scientific validation are briefly described. The Toulon exercise scenario was based on a major ac...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Note Source Type: research

French Policies for Victim Management During Mass Radiological Accidents/Attacks
In the current international context, emergency medical services have to be prepared for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events. Emergency response to radiological or nuclear events requires coordination between many components: the fire brigade, emergency medical services (including nurses and physicians), police, hospitals, etc. To optimize efficiency, victim management in France is governed by specific policies and planned responses. This plan for radiological/nuclear event response is inspired by military chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear victim management in the operational theatre and is...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Operational Topic Source Type: research

Old Data—New Concepts: Integrating “Indirect Effects” Into Radiation Protection
Conclusion: Nontargeted effects need to be considered, and modeling, experimental, and epidemiological approaches could all be used to determine the impact of nontargeted effects on the currently used linear nonthreshold model in radiation protection. (Source: Health Physics)
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Papers Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Late Health Effects in Ukrainian Chornobyl Cleanup Workers
This article summarizes the results of 30 y of follow-up of cancer and noncancer effects in Ukrainian cleanup workers after the Chornobyl accident. The number of power plant employees and first responders with acute radiation syndrome under follow-up by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine decreased from 179 in 1986–1991 to 105 in 2011–2015. Cancers and leukemia (19) and cardiovascular diseases (21) were the main causes of deaths among acute radiation syndrome survivors (54) during the postaccident period. Increased radiation risks of leukemia in the Ukrainian cohort of 110,645 cleanup workers ex...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Papers Source Type: research

Exome Sequencing Discloses Ionizing-radiation-induced DNA Variants in the Genome of Human Gingiva Fibroblasts
Ionizing radiation can induce genomic lesions such as DNA double-strand breaks whose incomplete or faulty repair can result in mutations, which in turn can influence cellular functions and alter the fate of affected cells and organ systems. Ionizing-radiation-induced sequence alterations/mutations occur in a stochastic manner, which contributes to an increased cancer risk in irradiated individuals. Ionizing radiation exposure, and particularly acute doses at high dose rates (as often observed in radiation accidents), induce alterations in the genome that in part will reflect specific characteristics of the DNA damage respo...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

Developments in Biodosimetry Methods for Triage With a Focus on X-band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance In Vivo Fingernail Dosimetry
Instrumentation and application methodologies for rapidly and accurately estimating individual ionizing radiation dose are needed for on-site triage in a radiological/nuclear event. One such methodology is an in vivo X-band, electron paramagnetic resonance, physically based dosimetry method to directly measure the radiation-induced signal in fingernails. The primary components under development are key instrument features, such as resonators with unique geometries that allow for large sampling volumes but limit radiation-induced signal measurements to the nail plate, and methodological approaches for addressing interfering...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

Genotoxic Effects in Human Fibroblasts Exposed to Microwave Radiation
In the last decades, technological development has led to an increasing use of devices and systems based on microwave radiation. The increased employment of these devices has elicited questions about the potential long-term health consequences associated with microwave radiation exposure. From this perspective, biological effects of microwave radiation have been the focus of many studies, but the reported scientific data are unclear and contradictory. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential genotoxic and cellular effects associated with in vitro exposure of human fetal and adult fibroblasts to microwave radiatio...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

Predicting the Public Health Consequences of a Nuclear Terrorism Attack: Drawing on The Experiences of Hiroshima and Fukushima
The increasing threat of nuclear terrorism warrants consideration of the health consequences of a terrorist incident should preventive measures fail. Although there has not yet been a nuclear terrorist attack of any kind, experiences with the aftermath of the bombing of Hiroshima and the core meltdowns at Fukushima can provide useful insight and allow some inferences to be made regarding the types of casualties that might be sustained and the rescue efforts that might be required. There are many parallels between the events at Hiroshima and what might be expected from an improvised nuclear device, and there are parallels b...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

Liquid Biopsy Using Whole Blood from Testis Tumor and Colon Cancer Patients—A New and Simple Way?
Tumor cells shed exosomes, which are released to the blood. Detecting tumor-derived exosomes containing RNA in plasma (liquid biopsy) is currently being investigated for early identification of occult metastases or relapses. Isolation of exosomes is laborious, resulting in low RNA yields. As a more robust (but less sensitive) alternative, the authors examined whether whole blood can be used as well. Tumor samples from nonmetastasized seminoma (n = 5) and colon cancer patients (n = 6) were taken during surgery. Whole-blood samples were taken before and 5–7 d after surgery. A whole genome mRNA microarray screening was ...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

Immunological Markers of Chronic Occupational Radiation Exposure
This study aimed to identify immunological biomarkers for prolonged occupational radiation exposure and thus studied a random sample of the Mayak Production Association worker cohort (91 individuals). The control group included 43 local individuals never employed at the Mayak Production Association. To identify biomarkers, two groups of workers were formed: the first one included workers chronically exposed to external gamma rays at cumulative doses of 0.5–3.0 Gy (14 individuals); the second one included workers exposed to combined radiation—external gamma rays at doses ranging from 0.7 to 5.1 Gy and internal a...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

NHEJ Contributes to the Fast Repair of Radiation-induced DNA Double-strand Breaks at Late Prophase I Telomeres
Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation induces DNA double-strand breaks. To repair double-strand breaks correctly, cells must distinguish between the ends of chromosomes (telomeres) and DNA double-strand breaks within chromosomes. Double-strand breaks in telomeric DNA may lead to telomere shortening and mutagenesis. Eukaryotic cells repair double-strand breaks primarily by two mechanisms: error-free homologous recombination and error-prone nonhomologous end joining, of which homologous recombination is used in early meiotic prophase I to create recombined haploid gametes by two meiotic cell divisions lacking an intervenin...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

Influence of Confounding Factors on Radiation Dose Estimation Using In Vivo Validated Transcriptional Biomarkers
In conclusion, several confounding factors tested in this study can indeed modulate the transcriptional response of CCNG1 and PHPT1 and consequently can affect radiation exposure dose estimations but not to a level which should prevent the biomarkers’ use for triage purposes. (Source: Health Physics)
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

Investigation of Spatial Organization of Chromosome Territories in Chromosome Exchange Aberrations After Ionizing Radiation Exposure
Higher-order organization of the human genome is well established with chromosomes occupying distinct domains or territories in the interphase nucleus. Spatial organization of chromosome territories in the interphase nucleus occurs in a cell-type-specific manner. Since both stable and unstable aberrations induced by ionizing radiation involve the exchange of material between two or more chromosomes, this study investigated the role of spatial organization of chromosome domains in ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome translocation events. Using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization, the study characterized the posi...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

PEGylated IL‐11 (BBT‐059): A Novel Radiation Countermeasure for Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome
Interleukin-11 was developed to reduce chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia; however, its clinical use was limited by severe adverse effects in humans. PEGylated interleukin‐11 (BBT‐059), developed by Bolder Biotechnology, Inc., exhibited a longer half-life in rodents and induced longer-lasting increases in hematopoietic cells than interleukin‐11. A single dose of 1.2 mg kg−1 of BBT‐059, administered subcutaneously to CD2F1 mice (12–14 wk, male) was found to be safe in a 14 d toxicity study. The drug demonstrated its efficacy both as a prophylactic countermeasure and a mitigator in CD2F1 mice exposed t...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

Rapid Response, Dose Assessment, and Clinical Management of a Plutonium-contaminated Puncture Wound
Internalization of radionuclides occurs not only by inhalation, ingestion, parenteral injection (i.e., administration of radioactive material for a medical purpose), and direct transdermal absorption, but also by contaminated wounds. In June 2010, a glove-box operator at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site sustained a puncture wound while venting canisters containing legacy materials contaminated with 238Pu. To indicate the canisters had been vented, a flag was inserted into the vent hole. The shaft of the flag penetrated the protective gloves worn by the operator. Initial monitoring performed with a ...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

Successful Teaching of Radiobiology Students in the Medical Management of Acute Radiation Effects From Real Case Histories Using Clinical Signs and Symptoms and Taking Advantage of Recently Developed Software Tools
In 2015, the Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology organized a North Atlantic Treaty Organization exercise to examine the significance of clinical signs and symptoms for the prediction of late-occurring acute radiation syndrome. Cases were generated using either the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims (METREPOL, n = 167) system or using real-case descriptions extracted from a database system for evaluation and archiving of radiation accidents based on case histories (SEARCH, n = 24). The cases ranged from unexposed [response category 0 (RC 0, n = 89)] to mild (RC 1, n = 45), moderate (RC 2, n = 19), s...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

First Insights Into the M2 Inflammatory Response After Adipose-Tissue-Derived Stem Cell Injections in Radiation-Injured Muscles
The cutaneous radiation syndrome is the clinical consequence of local high-dose irradiation. It is characterized by extensive inflammation, necrosis, and poor revascularization of the skin, resulting in muscle inflammation and fibrosis. Based on these physiopathological processes, subcutaneous injections of adipose-tissue-derived stem/stromal cells have shown favorable effects on skin-wound healing in a minipig model of cutaneous radiation syndrome, in which muscle fibrosis persisted. Since fibrosis is mainly due to the inflammatory processes that often affect underlying tissues as well, the beneficial effects of intramusc...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

Use of Proteomic and Hematology Biomarkers for Prediction of Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity in Baboon Radiation Models
Use of plasma proteomic and hematological biomarkers represents a promising approach to provide useful diagnostic information for assessment of the severity of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. Eighteen baboons were evaluated in a radiation model that underwent total-body and partial-body irradiations at doses of 60Co gamma rays from 2.5 to 15 Gy at dose rates of 6.25 cGy min-1 and 32 cGy min-1. Hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome severity levels determined by an analysis of blood count changes measured up to 60 d after irradiation were used to gauge overall hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome severity classifi...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

Impact of Ionizing Radiation on Electrophysiological Behavior of Human-induced Ipsc-derived Cardiomyocytes on Multielectrode Arrays
In this study, the authors employed multielectrode arrays to investigate the short-term effects of x-ray radiation on the electrophysiological behavior of cardiomyocytes derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. These cardiomyocytes with spontaneous pacemaker activity were cultured on single-well multielectrode arrays. After exposure to 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 Gy x-ray radiation, electrical activity was measured at time points ranging from 10 min to 96 h. RNA sequencing was employed to verify the expression of genes specifically involved in cardiomyocyte differentiation and function. A decrease in beating rate was obs...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

Actinide-contaminated Skin: Comparing Decontamination Efficacy of Water, Cleansing Gels, and DTPA Gels
This study investigated skin fixation and efficacy of decontamination products for these actinide forms using viable pig skin in the Franz cell diffusion system. Commonly used or recommended decontamination products such as water, cleansing gel, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, or octadentate hydroxypyridinone compound 3,4,3‐LI(1,2‐HOPO), as well as diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid hydrogel formulations, were tested after a 2‐h contact time with the contaminant. Analysis of skin samples demonstrated that more plutonium nitrate is bound to skin as compared to plutonium-tributyl phosphate, and fixation of americ...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

A Metabolomic Serum Signature from Nonhuman Primates Treated with a Radiation Countermeasure, Gamma-tocotrienol, and Exposed to Ionizing Radiation
In this study, global metabolomic changes were analyzed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The pilot study using 16 nonhuman primates (8 nonhuman primates each in gamma-tocotrienol- and vehicle-treated groups), with samples obtained from gamma-tocotrienol-treated and irradiated nonhuman primates, demonstrates several metabolites that are altered after irradiation, including compounds involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation, purine catabolism, and amino acid metabolism. The machine-learning algorithm, Random Forest, separated control, irradiated gamma-tocotrienol‐treate...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research

Conrad—Global Conference on Radiation Topics: Preparedness, Response, Protection, and Research, Munich, 8–11 May 2017
No abstract available (Source: Health Physics)
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Introduction Source Type: research

Conrad-Global Conference on Radiation Topics: Preparedness, Response, Protection, and Research, Munich, 8-11 May 2017.
PMID: 29787424 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Health Physics)
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Port M Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

A Metabolomic Serum Signature from Nonhuman Primates Treated with a Radiation Countermeasure, Gamma-tocotrienol, and Exposed to Ionizing Radiation.
In this study, global metabolomic changes were analyzed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The pilot study using 16 nonhuman primates (8 nonhuman primates each in gamma-tocotrienol- and vehicle-treated groups), with samples obtained from gamma-tocotrienol-treated and irradiated nonhuman primates, demonstrates several metabolites that are altered after irradiation, including compounds involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation, purine catabolism, and amino acid metabolism. The machine-learning algorithm, Random Forest, separated control, irradiated gamma-tocotrienol-treated,...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Pannkuk EL, Laiakis EC, Fornace AJ, Fatanmi OO, Singh VK Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Actinide-contaminated Skin: Comparing Decontamination Efficacy of Water, Cleansing Gels, and DTPA Gels.
This study investigated skin fixation and efficacy of decontamination products for these actinide forms using viable pig skin in the Franz cell diffusion system. Commonly used or recommended decontamination products such as water, cleansing gel, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, or octadentate hydroxypyridinone compound 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), as well as diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid hydrogel formulations, were tested after a 2-h contact time with the contaminant. Analysis of skin samples demonstrated that more plutonium nitrate is bound to skin as compared to plutonium-tributyl phosphate, and fixation of americium to...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Tazrart A, Bolzinger MA, Lamart S, Coudert S, Angulo JF, Jandard V, Briançon S, Griffiths NM Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Impact of Ionizing Radiation on Electrophysiological Behavior of Human-induced Ipsc-derived Cardiomyocytes on Multielectrode Arrays.
In this study, the authors employed multielectrode arrays to investigate the short-term effects of x-ray radiation on the electrophysiological behavior of cardiomyocytes derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. These cardiomyocytes with spontaneous pacemaker activity were cultured on single-well multielectrode arrays. After exposure to 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 Gy x-ray radiation, electrical activity was measured at time points ranging from 10 min to 96 h. RNA sequencing was employed to verify the expression of genes specifically involved in cardiomyocyte differentiation and function. A decrease in beating rate was obs...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Becker BV, Seeger T, Beiert T, Antwerpen M, Palnek A, Port M, Ullmann R Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Use of Proteomic and Hematology Biomarkers for Prediction of Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity in Baboon Radiation Models.
din F Abstract Use of plasma proteomic and hematological biomarkers represents a promising approach to provide useful diagnostic information for assessment of the severity of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. Eighteen baboons were evaluated in a radiation model that underwent total-body and partial-body irradiations at doses of Co gamma rays from 2.5 to 15 Gy at dose rates of 6.25 cGy min and 32 cGy min. Hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome severity levels determined by an analysis of blood count changes measured up to 60 d after irradiation were used to gauge overall hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Blakely WF, Bolduc DL, Debad J, Sigal G, Port M, Abend M, Valente M, Drouet M, Hérodin F Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

First Insights Into the M2 Inflammatory Response After Adipose-Tissue-Derived Stem Cell Injections in Radiation-Injured Muscles.
uet M Abstract The cutaneous radiation syndrome is the clinical consequence of local high-dose irradiation. It is characterized by extensive inflammation, necrosis, and poor revascularization of the skin, resulting in muscle inflammation and fibrosis. Based on these physiopathological processes, subcutaneous injections of adipose-tissue-derived stem/stromal cells have shown favorable effects on skin-wound healing in a minipig model of cutaneous radiation syndrome, in which muscle fibrosis persisted. Since fibrosis is mainly due to the inflammatory processes that often affect underlying tissues as well, the benefic...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Riccobono D, Nikovics K, François S, Favier AL, Jullien N, Schrock G, Scherthan H, Drouet M Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Successful Teaching of Radiobiology Students in the Medical Management of Acute Radiation Effects From Real Case Histories Using Clinical Signs and Symptoms and Taking Advantage of Recently Developed Software Tools.
Abstract In 2015, the Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology organized a North Atlantic Treaty Organization exercise to examine the significance of clinical signs and symptoms for the prediction of late-occurring acute radiation syndrome. Cases were generated using either the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims (METREPOL, n = 167) system or using real-case descriptions extracted from a database system for evaluation and archiving of radiation accidents based on case histories (SEARCH, n = 24). The cases ranged from unexposed [response category 0 (RC 0, n = 89)] to mild (RC 1, n = 45), moderate...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Majewski M, Combs SE, Trott KR, Abend M, Port M Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Rapid Response, Dose Assessment, and Clinical Management of a Plutonium-contaminated Puncture Wound.
Abstract Internalization of radionuclides occurs not only by inhalation, ingestion, parenteral injection (i.e., administration of radioactive material for a medical purpose), and direct transdermal absorption, but also by contaminated wounds. In June 2010, a glove-box operator at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site sustained a puncture wound while venting canisters containing legacy materials contaminated with Pu. To indicate the canisters had been vented, a flag was inserted into the vent hole. The shaft of the flag penetrated the protective gloves worn by the operator. Initial monitoring performe...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Sugarman SL, Findley WM, Toohey RE, Dainiak N Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

PEGylated IL-11 (BBT-059): A Novel Radiation Countermeasure for Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome.
Abstract Interleukin-11 was developed to reduce chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia; however, its clinical use was limited by severe adverse effects in humans. PEGylated interleukin-11 (BBT-059), developed by Bolder Biotechnology, Inc., exhibited a longer half-life in rodents and induced longer-lasting increases in hematopoietic cells than interleukin-11. A single dose of 1.2 mg kg of BBT-059, administered subcutaneously to CD2F1 mice (12-14 wk, male) was found to be safe in a 14 d toxicity study. The drug demonstrated its efficacy both as a prophylactic countermeasure and a mitigator in CD2F1 mice exposed to Co...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Kumar VP, Biswas S, Sharma NK, Stone S, Fam CM, Cox GN, Ghosh SP Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Investigation of Spatial Organization of Chromosome Territories in Chromosome Exchange Aberrations After Ionizing Radiation Exposure.
Abstract Higher-order organization of the human genome is well established with chromosomes occupying distinct domains or territories in the interphase nucleus. Spatial organization of chromosome territories in the interphase nucleus occurs in a cell-type-specific manner. Since both stable and unstable aberrations induced by ionizing radiation involve the exchange of material between two or more chromosomes, this study investigated the role of spatial organization of chromosome domains in ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome translocation events. Using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization, the study char...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Balajee AS, Sanders JT, Golloshi R, Shuryak I, McCord RP, Dainiak N Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Influence of Confounding Factors on Radiation Dose Estimation Using In Vivo Validated Transcriptional Biomarkers.
In conclusion, several confounding factors tested in this study can indeed modulate the transcriptional response of CCNG1 and PHPT1 and consequently can affect radiation exposure dose estimations but not to a level which should prevent the biomarkers' use for triage purposes. PMID: 29787434 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Health Physics)
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Cruz-Garcia L, O'Brien G, Donovan E, Gothard L, Boyle S, Laval A, Testard I, Ponge L, Woźniak G, Miszczyk L, Candéias SM, Ainsbury E, Widlak P, Somaiah N, Badie C Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

NHEJ Contributes to the Fast Repair of Radiation-induced DNA Double-strand Breaks at Late Prophase I Telomeres.
Abstract Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation induces DNA double-strand breaks. To repair double-strand breaks correctly, cells must distinguish between the ends of chromosomes (telomeres) and DNA double-strand breaks within chromosomes. Double-strand breaks in telomeric DNA may lead to telomere shortening and mutagenesis. Eukaryotic cells repair double-strand breaks primarily by two mechanisms: error-free homologous recombination and error-prone nonhomologous end joining, of which homologous recombination is used in early meiotic prophase I to create recombined haploid gametes by two meiotic cell divisions lac...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Ahmed EA, Rosemann M, Scherthan H Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Immunological Markers of Chronic Occupational Radiation Exposure.
This study aimed to identify immunological biomarkers for prolonged occupational radiation exposure and thus studied a random sample of the Mayak Production Association worker cohort (91 individuals). The control group included 43 local individuals never employed at the Mayak Production Association. To identify biomarkers, two groups of workers were formed: the first one included workers chronically exposed to external gamma rays at cumulative doses of 0.5-3.0 Gy (14 individuals); the second one included workers exposed to combined radiation-external gamma rays at doses ranging from 0.7 to 5.1 Gy and internal alpha radiati...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Rybkina VL, Bannikova MV, Adamova GV, Dörr H, Scherthan H, Azizova TV Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Liquid Biopsy Using Whole Blood from Testis Tumor and Colon Cancer Patients-A New and Simple Way?
d M Abstract Tumor cells shed exosomes, which are released to the blood. Detecting tumor-derived exosomes containing RNA in plasma (liquid biopsy) is currently being investigated for early identification of occult metastases or relapses. Isolation of exosomes is laborious, resulting in low RNA yields. As a more robust (but less sensitive) alternative, the authors examined whether whole blood can be used as well. Tumor samples from nonmetastasized seminoma (n = 5) and colon cancer patients (n = 6) were taken during surgery. Whole-blood samples were taken before and 5-7 d after surgery. A whole genome mRNA microarra...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Majewski M, Nestler T, Kägler S, Richardsen I, Ruf CG, Matthies C, Willms A, Schmelz HU, Wagner W, Schwab R, Abend M Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Predicting the Public Health Consequences of a Nuclear Terrorism Attack: Drawing on The Experiences of Hiroshima and Fukushima.
Abstract The increasing threat of nuclear terrorism warrants consideration of the health consequences of a terrorist incident should preventive measures fail. Although there has not yet been a nuclear terrorist attack of any kind, experiences with the aftermath of the bombing of Hiroshima and the core meltdowns at Fukushima can provide useful insight and allow some inferences to be made regarding the types of casualties that might be sustained and the rescue efforts that might be required. There are many parallels between the events at Hiroshima and what might be expected from an improvised nuclear device, and the...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Jorgensen TJ Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Genotoxic Effects in Human Fibroblasts Exposed to Microwave Radiation.
Abstract In the last decades, technological development has led to an increasing use of devices and systems based on microwave radiation. The increased employment of these devices has elicited questions about the potential long-term health consequences associated with microwave radiation exposure. From this perspective, biological effects of microwave radiation have been the focus of many studies, but the reported scientific data are unclear and contradictory. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential genotoxic and cellular effects associated with in vitro exposure of human fetal and adult fibroblasts to ...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Franchini V, Regalbuto E, De Amicis A, De Sanctis S, Di Cristofaro S, Coluzzi E, Marinaccio J, Sgura A, Ceccuzzi S, Doria A, Gallerano GP, Giovenale E, Ravera GL, Bei R, Benvenuto M, Modesti A, Masuelli L, Lista F Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Developments in Biodosimetry Methods for Triage With a Focus on X-band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance In Vivo Fingernail Dosimetry.
Abstract Instrumentation and application methodologies for rapidly and accurately estimating individual ionizing radiation dose are needed for on-site triage in a radiological/nuclear event. One such methodology is an in vivo X-band, electron paramagnetic resonance, physically based dosimetry method to directly measure the radiation-induced signal in fingernails. The primary components under development are key instrument features, such as resonators with unique geometries that allow for large sampling volumes but limit radiation-induced signal measurements to the nail plate, and methodological approaches for addr...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Swarts SG, Sidabras JW, Grinberg O, Tipikin DS, Kmiec MM, Petryakov SV, Schreiber W, Wood VA, Williams BB, Flood AB, Swartz HM Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Exome Sequencing Discloses Ionizing-radiation-induced DNA Variants in the Genome of Human Gingiva Fibroblasts.
AW Abstract Ionizing radiation can induce genomic lesions such as DNA double-strand breaks whose incomplete or faulty repair can result in mutations, which in turn can influence cellular functions and alter the fate of affected cells and organ systems. Ionizing-radiation-induced sequence alterations/mutations occur in a stochastic manner, which contributes to an increased cancer risk in irradiated individuals. Ionizing radiation exposure, and particularly acute doses at high dose rates (as often observed in radiation accidents), induce alterations in the genome that in part will reflect specific characteristics o...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Nath N, Esche J, Müller J, Jensen LR, Port M, Stanke M, Kaderali L, Scherthan H, Kuss AW Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Late Health Effects in Ukrainian Chornobyl Cleanup Workers.
This article summarizes the results of 30 y of follow-up of cancer and noncancer effects in Ukrainian cleanup workers after the Chornobyl accident. The number of power plant employees and first responders with acute radiation syndrome under follow-up by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine decreased from 179 in 1986-1991 to 105 in 2011-2015. Cancers and leukemia (19) and cardiovascular diseases (21) were the main causes of deaths among acute radiation syndrome survivors (54) during the postaccident period. Increased radiation risks of leukemia in the Ukrainian cohort of 110,645 cleanup workers exposed to low...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Bazyka D, Prysyazhnyuk A, Gudzenko N, Dyagil I, Belyi D, Chumak V, Buzunov V Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Old Data-New Concepts: Integrating "Indirect Effects" Into Radiation Protection.
CONCLUSION: Nontargeted effects need to be considered, and modeling, experimental, and epidemiological approaches could all be used to determine the impact of nontargeted effects on the currently used linear nonthreshold model in radiation protection. PMID: 29787443 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Health Physics)
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Mothersill C, Seymour C Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

French Policies for Victim Management During Mass Radiological Accidents/Attacks.
Abstract In the current international context, emergency medical services have to be prepared for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events. Emergency response to radiological or nuclear events requires coordination between many components: the fire brigade, emergency medical services (including nurses and physicians), police, hospitals, etc. To optimize efficiency, victim management in France is governed by specific policies and planned responses. This plan for radiological/nuclear event response is inspired by military chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear victim management in the operatio...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Riccobono D, Valente M, Drouet M, Calamai F, Abriat A Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Deployment of the DosiKit System Under Operational Conditions: Experience From a French Defense National Nuclear Exercise.
Abstract Estimation of the dose received by accidentally irradiated victims is based on a tripod: clinical, biological, and physical dosimetry. The DosiKit system is an operational and mobile biodosimetry device allowing the measurement of external irradiation directly on the site of a radiological accident. This tool is based on capillary blood sample and hair follicle collection. The aim is to obtain a whole-body and local-surface dose assessment. This paper is about the technical evaluation of the DosiKit; the analytical process and scientific validation are briefly described. The Toulon exercise scenario was b...
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Entine F, Bensimon Etzol J, Bettencourt C, Dondey M, Michel X, Gagna G, Gellie G, Corre Y, Ugolin N, Chevillard S, Amabile JC Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Health physics society • 2018 affiliate members.
HEALTH PHYSICS SOCIETY • 2018 AFFILIATE MEMBERS. Health Phys. 2018 Jul;115(1):193 Authors: PMID: 29787447 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Health Physics)
Source: Health Physics - May 23, 2018 Category: Physics Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Climate risk index for Italy.
This article is part of the theme issue 'Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'. PMID: 29712797 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Health Physics)
Source: Health Physics - May 3, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Mysiak J, Torresan S, Bosello F, Mistry M, Amadio M, Marzi S, Furlan E, Sperotto A Tags: Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci Source Type: research

Establishing Radiological Screening Levels for Defense-related Uranium Mine (DRUM) Sites on BLM Land Using a Recreational Future-use Scenario.
Abstract Thousands of former uranium mining sites in the United States, primarily in the southwestern states of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah, are being identified and evaluated to assess their potential for causing public and environmental impacts. The common radiological contaminant of concern that characterizes these sites is naturally occurring uranium ore and associated wastes that may have been left behind postmining. The majority of these sites were abandoned and in general, are referred to as abandoned uranium mines, regardless of the government authority currently managing the land or i...
Source: Health Physics - April 27, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Brown SH, Edge R, Elmer J, McDonald M Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research

Probability Distribution of Dose and Dose-Rate Effectiveness Factor for use in Estimating Risks of Solid Cancers From Exposure to Low-Let Radiation.
Abstract This paper presents an analysis to develop a subjective state-of-knowledge probability distribution of a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor for use in estimating risks of solid cancers from exposure to low linear energy transfer radiation (photons or electrons) whenever linear dose responses from acute and chronic exposure are assumed. A dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor represents an assumption that the risk of a solid cancer per Gy at low acute doses or low dose rates of low linear energy transfer radiation, RL, differs from the risk per Gy at higher acute doses, RH; RL is estimated as RH div...
Source: Health Physics - April 27, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: Kocher DC, Apostoaei AI, Hoffman FO, Trabalka JR Tags: Health Phys Source Type: research