X-ray sources: 125  years of developments of this intriguing technology
Pluecker, working in Bonn, Germany, had studied and published magnetically deflectable light effects in the partial vacuum of Geissler discharge tubes as early as in the summer of 1857, see [45,13]1. He noticed and reported in his 1858 publication a greenish fluorescence on the glass wall. This is characteristic evidence of electrons hitting the wall and X-ray generation by cathode rays. Johann Wilhelm Hittorf, who Pluecker had mentored as a PhD student in Bonn, continued ten years later, investigating shadowing of the fluorescence by objects. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - August 19, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Rolf Behling Tags: Review paper Source Type: research

Leadership and mentoring in medical physics: The experience of a medical physics international mentoring program
Mentoring is a system of support and guidance that helps individuals to achieve their goals. A mentoring relationship assists a less experienced person (the mentee) to benefit from a more experienced and senior person (the mentor), who can be defined as an influential individual in their work environment [1,2]. The mentorship system is recognized as a key factor in the development of specific job task skills as well as social and political skills [3]. For the mentees, higher quality mentoring relationships can also be associated with significantly higher leadership self-efficacy [4]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journ...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - August 3, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: J.C. Santos, L.F. Goulart, L. Giansante, Y.H. Lin, A.C.A. Sirico, A.H. Ng, V. Tsapaki, E. Bezak, K.H. Ng Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Mixed-beam approach for high-risk prostate cancer: Carbon-ion boost followed by photon intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Dosimetric and geometric evaluations (AIRC IG-14300)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common malignancy for men worldwide, second only to lung cancer in terms of mortality. More than 420,000 men are diagnosed with PCa in Europe each year, with more than half of cases occurring in men aged over 70  years [1]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - August 2, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Simone Giovanni Gugliandolo, Giulia Marvaso, Stefania Comi, Matteo Pepa, Chiara Roman ò, Dario Zerini, Matteo Augugliaro, Stefania Russo, Barbara Vischioni, Francesca Valvo, Tommaso Giandini, Barbara Avuzzi, Riccardo Valdagni, Delia Ciardo, Ottavio De Co Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Aims & Scope & Editorial Board
(Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - August 1, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

The SiFi-CC project – Feasibility study of a scintillation-fiber-based Compton camera for proton therapy monitoring
Over the last decade, proton therapy has become an important radiotherapy method, with new specialized therapy centers launched worldwide. It owes its growing popularity to the favorable energy deposition pattern of protons, with the Bragg peak at the end of their range in the patient ’s tissues. As a result, it provides conformality of deposited dose and allows to spare healthy tissues, which is its main advantage over conventional photon radiotherapy. However, due to various uncertainties, e.g. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 31, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jonas Kasper, Katarzyna Rusiecka, Ronja Hetzel, Majid Kazemi Kozani, Rafa ł Lalik, Andrzej Magiera, Achim Stahl, Aleksandra Wrońska Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Galileo Galilei Award
(Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 31, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

A modular dose delivery system for treating moving targets with scanned ion beams: Performance and safety characteristics, and preliminary tests
Longstanding impediments to performing clinical trials on the efficacy of proton and heavier ion beam therapies include treatment systems that are technologically diverse. These impediments make it difficult to accrue sufficient numbers of patients in clinical trials to elucidate the role of ion beam therapy in oncology [1]. Technological diversity of treatment systems may further introduce confounding factors that limit the power and utility of studies that are sensitive to details of the treatment techniques. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 31, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Michelle Lis, Marco Donetti, Wayne Newhauser, Marco Durante, Joyoni Dey, Ulrich Weber, Moritz Wolf, Timo Steinsberger, Christian Graeff Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Dosimetric uncertainties impact on cell survival curve with low energy proton
Proton therapy facilities are being constructed rapidly around the world due to the unique physical properties of the beam to deposit highly conformal dose, and sparing nearby normal tissues [1]. Three proton therapy centres are currently under construction in Singapore at the point of writing the manuscript. Despite this trend, radiobiology of proton therapy remains poorly understood compared to conventional X-rays [2 –4]. Hence, this provides the motivation for customising low energy experimental proton facilities to better understand the radiobiology of proton therapy [5–10]. (Source: Physica Medica: Europea...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 29, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Hong Qi Tan, Wei Yang Calvin Koh, Eugenia Li Ling Yeo, Khong Wei Ang, Dennis Jun Jie Poon, Chu Pek Lim, Saumitra K. Vajandar, Ce-Belle Chen, Minqin Ren, Thomas Osipowicz, Khee Chee Soo, Melvin Lee Kiang Chua, Sung Yong Park Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Personalized treatment planning in eye brachytherapy for ocular melanoma: Dosimetric analysis on ophthalmic structure at risk
Ocular melanomas are the second most common type of melanoma after the cutaneous form and the most common primary ocular malignancies with an incidence of two cases per million in Southern Europe [1]. Ocular melanomas typically appear as dome shaped mounds rising from the sclera shell of the eye. Currently, depending on tumor position and dimension several treatment options exist such as enucleation, charged particle irradiation, stereotactic photon radiotherapy and eye plaque brachytherapy (EPB) [2]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 29, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: F. Itta, R. Liuzzi, A. Farella, G. Porri, R. Pacelli, M. Conson, C. Oliviero, F. Buonanno, M.A. Breve, G. Cennamo, S. Clemente, L. Cella Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Machine learning in quantitative PET: A review of attenuation correction and low-count image reconstruction methods
Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used as a non-invasive functional imaging modality with a wide range of clinical applications. By providing the information of metabolic processes in the human body, it is utilized for various purposes including tumor staging and detection of metastases in oncology [1 –9], gross target volume definition in radiation oncology [10–12], myocardial perfusion in cardiology [13,14], and investigation of neurological disorders [15]. Among these applications, the accuracy of tracer uptake quantification has been less recognized than other characteristics of PET such as sensit...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 29, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Tonghe Wang, Yang Lei, Yabo Fu, Walter J. Curran, Tian Liu, Jonathon A. Nye, Xiaofeng Yang Tags: Review paper Source Type: research

A review of dose calculation approaches with cone beam CT in photon and proton therapy
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a volumetric imaging modality currently used for verification of patient positioning in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), and for assessing the potential need for adaptive radiotherapy (ART) [1,2]. In the patient treatment chain, kV systems mounted on linear accelerators (linacs) acquire images of the patient in the treatment position to verify the patient setup and hence enable adequate irradiation of the target. Geometrical variations of target volumes, organs at risk (OARs), weight changes (loss/gain), tumour regression and/or progression, which may occur during the overall t...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 28, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Valentina Giacometti, Alan R. Hounsell, Conor K. McGarry Tags: Review paper Source Type: research

Increased carcinoembryonic antigen expression on the surface of lung cancer cells using gold nanoparticles during radiotherapy
The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), also known as CD66, is an onco-fetal antigen expressed on some tissues during fetal development. After birth, CEA levels drop to very low concentrations but circulates in high concentrations in adult patients with certain malignancies [1]. In its first description in 1965, CEA was assumed to be a tumor-specific antigen for colon cancer [2]. Today it is known for being a tumor-associated antigen in a variety of other cancers including lung [3], breast [3], colorectal [4], and cervical [5]; which are predominantly epithelial tumors. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 28, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Romy Mueller, Sayeda Yasmin-Karim, Kaylie DeCosmo, Ana Vazquez-Pagan, Srinivas Sridhar, David Kozono, Juergen Hesser, Wilfred Ngwa Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Geometry optimisation of graphite energy degrader for proton therapy
Cyclotrons are the predominant accelerator source used today for proton therapy, and isochronous variants offer access to extracted protons up to around 250  MeV at extracted proton currents approaching 1 microampere, with reasonable emittance suitable for modern spot-scanning treatments. One limitation of modern cyclotron designs is that they effectively offer only a single extracted energy, and so the range of energies required for patient treatment must be obtained by degrading this maximum energy (although we note the proposed designs for variable-energy extraction using either stripping [1,2] or fixed massless se...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 25, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: E. Oponowicz, H.L. Owen, S. Psoroulas, D. Meer Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Measurement of the half-value layer for CT systems in a single-rotation technique: Reduction of stray radiation with lead apertures
The half-value layer (HVL) is the thickness of a material that decreases the intensity of X-rays passing through it to half of their original air-kerma (K ̇air) value. It is used to reveal the characteristics of X-ray beams. Aluminum is the most commonly used material in filtering X-ray intensity because it is inexpensive and has useful absorption properties at diagnostic X-ray energies [1]. Although the US Food and Drug Administration regulations pr ovide a minimum aluminum HVL for radiographic and fluoroscopic systems [2], routine verification of the minimum HVL is not common in computed tomography (CT) systems [3]. (So...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 25, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Atsushi Fukuda, Nao Ichikawa, Masami Tashiro, Tensho Yamao, Katsuhiko Murakami, Hitoshi Kubo Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Liver function quantification of patients with portal vein embolization using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for assessment of hepatocyte uptake and elimination
We evaluated pharmacokinetic models which quantify liver function including biliary elimination based on a dynamic Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique with sparse data collection feasible in clinical routine. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 22, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Stefan Hindel, Dominik Geisel, Ivana Aleri ć, Dorothea Theilig, Timm Denecke, Lutz Lüdemann Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

3D printed copper-plastic composite material for use as a radiotherapy bolus
This work describes a copper and copolymer--Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-plastic composite material (Copperfill, ColorFabb, Venlo Netherlands) for use as a radiation therapy bolus. The plastic composite material is composed of fine copper particles 70% by weight (via personal communication from the vendor). Boluses have been described that used Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic [1,2], PLA plastic [3,4], and constructed of silicone rubber formed from 3D printed casts [5]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 21, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Eric D. Ehler, David A. Sterling Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Accuracy of target delineation by positron emission tomography-based auto-segmentation methods after deformable image registration: A phantom study
Positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT)-guided radiation treatment planning can improve the accuracy of tumor delineation [1] and reduce inter-observer variability [2]. Moreover, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 211 (AAPM TG211) [3] has reported a large variety of PET auto-segmentation (PET-AS) methods to assist with definitive a gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation. Fixed threshold algorithms are based on a standardized uptake value (SUV) and the absolute threshold or the percentage of maximum SUV is used in the target delineation [4,5]. (Source: Physica Medica: European ...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 21, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Hiroki Katayama, Shigeo Takahashi, Yukito Maeda, Takuya Kobata, Akihiro Oishi, Yasuhiro Sasakawa, Toru Shibata Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Experimental benchmarking of RayStation proton dose calculation algorithms inside and outside the target region in heterogeneous phantom geometries
Dose calculation accuracy in the context of high precision radiotherapy, irrespective of beam quality, is one of the long-standing topics in medical physics research [1,2]. While pencil beam algorithms have become obsolete in high energy photon beam therapy for more than a decade, these algorithms are still widely used in particle beam therapy. Moreover, current clinical knowledge and experience is based on treatment planning with pencil beam algorithms [3]. Monte Carlo simulations serve as the gold standard in dose calculation since several decades. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 18, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sirinya Ruangchan, Barbara Kn äusl, Hermann Fuchs, Dietmar Georg, Monika Clausen Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Absorbed dose in the operator ’s brain in interventional radiology practices: evaluation through KAP value conversion factors
Concern over the possible long term effects of protracted exposure to ionizing radiation of the operator head ’s during interventional procedures was recently raised, after some publications revealed an increased mortality rate in physicians performing interventional radiology and cardiology procedures [1–3]. Notwithstanding that epidemiological studies have yet to confirm this [4,5], a better knowledge of the exposure conditions of the operator brain during such medical procedures is fundamental to guarantee proper radiation protection strategies. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 18, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Paolo Ferrari, Zoran Jovanovic, Elena Bakhanova, Frank Becker, Dragana Krstic, Jan Jansen, Sara Principi, Pedro Teles, Isabelle Clairand, Željka Knezevic Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Estimates of the number of patients with high cumulative doses through recurrent CT exams in 35 OECD countries
While acknowledging the immensely useful role computed tomography (CT) plays in diagnosis and management of patients, attention has frequently been drawn to radiation exposure of patients. This has resulted in lowering the patient radiation doses in large parts of the world both at the per exam level and the collective dose [1 –4]. A recent study reported that low-doseCThad no effect on humanDNAwhereas in the same setting,DNAdouble-strand breaks and chromosome aberrations were shown to increase after standard-doseCT [5]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 18, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Madan M. Rehani, Michael Hauptmann Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

The FLUKA Monte Carlo code coupled with an OER model for biologically weighted dose calculations in proton therapy of hypoxic tumors
Cells with partial oxygen pressure (pO2) lower than 8 –10 mmHg are generally termed hypoxic [1] and are more radioresistant than cells with normal oxygen levels (pO2 up to around 100 mmHg [1]). This effect may be quantified by the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), which is the ratio of the dose at a given oxygen pressure to that at a normal oxygen pr essure producing the same biological effect. The OER is comparable for photons and protons, but decreases at low proton energies where the linear energy transfer (LET) is higher [2]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 16, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Tordis Johnsen Dahle, Espen Rusten, Camilla Hanquist Stokkev åg, Antti Silvoniemi, Andrea Mairani, Lars Fredrik Fjæra, Eivind Rørvik, Helge Henjum, Pauliina Wright, Camilla Grindeland Boer, Sarita Forsback, Heikki Minn, Eirik Malinen, Kristian Smeland Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Enhancement of radiation exposure risk from β-emitter radionuclides due to Internal Bremsstrahlung effect: A Monte Carlo study of 90Y case
In recent years, a growing interest has been devoted to the study of Internal Bremsstrahlung, extensively studied for many decades in the past. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 15, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Antonio Italiano, Lucrezia Auditore, Ernesto Amato Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Determination of the R2* relaxation rate constant for estimating hepatic iron concentration: A customized approach that considers liver fat infiltration
Quantitative MRI has been used for evaluating tissue iron concentration for more than twenty years and has become the method of choice due to its robustness, its non-invasiveness, and the ease of data acquisition that is associated with it (from a single breath-hold to a few minutes, depending on the protocol). There are basically two distinct techniques to quantify tissue iron concentration with MRI [1]. The first one employs a multi-echo spin-echo sequence for determining the spin-spin relaxation rate, R2 (1/T2), and the second one involves a gradient-echo sequence for deducing the R2* (1/T2*) relaxation rate. (Source: P...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 14, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: D.E. Gkotsis, E.D. Gotsis, G. Lymperopoulou, P. Karaiskos, I. Seimenis Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Time and frequency to observe fiducial markers in MLC-modulated fields during prostate IMRT/VMAT beam delivery
In the practice of radiotherapy, the accuracy of target localization is very important for improving the local control rate of tumors and sparing nearby critical structures. With the development of radiotherapy and the widespread application of computer technology, advanced conformal radiotherapy has gradually replaced conventional radiotherapy with more precise and sophisticated delivery techniques, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated radiation therapy (VMAT). (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 14, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Qianqian Xu, Xu Tong, Muhan Lin, Xiaoming Chen, Ahmed ElDib, Teh Lin, Lili Chen, C-M Charlie Ma Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Typical values for pediatric interventional cardiology catheterizations: A standardized approach towards Diagnostic Reference Level establishment
The recent increase in the number of Interventional Cardiology (IC) procedures performed in children has raised interest in the monitoring of radiation dose related to fluoroscopy-guided procedures [1 –7]. Quantifying the magnitude of radiation exposure is crucial given the evidence of correlation between dose and the lifetime risk of cancer, especially for children [8–14]. Indeed, children exposed to ionizing radiation are more likely to experience stochastic effects than adults [15–17]. T herefore, exposure must be monitored and optimized in order to keep it as low as reasonably achievable without compr...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 14, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Francesca De Monte, Biagio Castaldi, Marco Branchini, Andrea Bettinelli, Ornella Milanesi, Marta Paiusco, Antonella Roggio Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Robustness of CT radiomic features against image discretization and interpolation in characterizing pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (panNEN) are relatively indolent in most cases and, despite still rare, their incidence [1] is rapidly growing. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative therapy [2] and, due to the lack of prediction tools [3,4], is widely applied with a likely overuse. Consequently, the assessment of image-based non-invasive biomarkers is becoming a relevant and topical field, including their potential in selecting patients that could avoid surgery [5]. PanNEN are usually well visible with contrast enhanced CT and show very high contouring agreement among observers [6], making radiomics a sui...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 13, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sara Loi, Martina Mori, Giulia Benedetti, Stefano Partelli, Sara Broggi, Giovanni Mauro Cattaneo, Diego Palumbo, Francesca Muffatti, Massimo Falconi, Francesco De Cobelli, Claudio Fiorino Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Phantom development for daily checks in electron intraoperative radiotherapy with a mobile linac
Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is currently applied to a wide variety of specific diseases in exclusive mode or combined with external radiotherapy, becoming a relevant option within the modalities of the state of the art in radiotherapy [1 –9]. For example, it is suitable for the treatment of several malignancies [2,10] such us: central nervous system, head and neck, breast, lung, gastric, pancreas, bile duct, gallbladder, colorectal, retroperitoneal, extremity and trunk soft-tissue, bone, gynaecologic, genitourinary and paediatrics . (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 13, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jos é Pérez-Calatayud, Enrique Sanchis-Sánchez, Javier Collado, Vicente González, I. Pérez-Calatayud, M.J. Pérez-Calatayud, José Chimeno, Vicente Carmona, José Luis Bonet-Sancho, Antonio J. García-Sánchez, Enrique Sanchis Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Experimental assessment of a phosphor model for estimating the relative extrinsic efficiency in radioluminescent detectors
Scintillators and phosphors are crucial detector materials in many dose and most x-ray imaging detectors. There are no generally accepted definitions distinguishing scintillators from phosphors. Both being (radio-) luminescent materials, one should be aware that they, with the introduction of new production techniques, can be of the same host material. The process of producing light, its subsequent transport and the spectral matching of the light detector, after X-rays have interacted in a scintillator, will determine the overall sensitivity of the detector system. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 13, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jan Lindstr öm, Gudrun Alm Carlsson, Erik Wåhlin, Åsa Carlsson Tedgren, Gavin Poludniowski Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Image quality comparison of a nonlinear image-based noise reduction technique with a hybrid-type iterative reconstruction for pediatric computed tomography
Compared to adults, pediatric patients are more sensitive to ionizing radiation and have greater risk of developing cancer [1]. To mitigate this issue, various techniques, such as automated tube current modulation and the bismuth breast shield, have been developed for dose reduction in pediatric computed tomography (CT) examinations [2,3]. In addition, vendors have recently developed iterative reconstruction (IR) techniques to suppress increased noise in low-dose CT images and can potentially reduce the radiation dose without compromising image quality [4 –6]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 6, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Shota Watanabe, Katsuhiro Ichikawa, Hiroki Kawashima, Yuki Kono, Hiroyuki Kosaka, Koji Yamada, Kazunari Ishii Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Cross-validation of a non-invasive positron detector to measure the arterial input function for pharmacokinetic modelling in dynamic positron emission tomography
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in clinical applications for dynamic positron emission tomography (dPET) [1 –6]. Welz et al. demonstrated a workflow where 18F-Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) dPET was used to identify hypoxic regions in head and neck tumors prior to radiotherapy treatment planning [6]. These hypoxic regions were prescribed a higher dose than the rest of the tumor to combat the radio-resistant nature of hypoxic tumor cells. Preliminary results were promising, showing an increase in local–regional control. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 2, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Liam Carroll, Etienne Croteau, Gustavo Kertzscher, Otman Sarrhini, Vincent Turgeon, Roger Lecomte, Shirin A. Enger Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Impact of a 1.5  T magnetic field on DNA damage in MRI-guided HDR brachytherapy
Due to the superior soft-tissue image quality that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides compared to other image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) modalities, recent developments in IGRT for cancer treatment have led to the development of commercial systems that integrate MRI with radiotherapy delivery. This in-room magnetic resonance image-guided radiotherapy (MR-IGRT) has been implemented in both external beam radiotherapy systems (e.g., Elekta Unity MR-Linac ® [1] and ViewRay’s MRIdian® MR-Cobalt) and brachytherapy [2–5] treatment modalities. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 2, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Mauro Tambasco, Geordi Pang, Loni Fuller, Erika L. Brescia, George Mardirossian Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Challenges of dosimetry of ultra-short pulsed very high energy electron beams” [Phys. Med. 42 (2017) 327–331]
The authors regret in the above-mentioned article, the evaluated bunch length values were incorrect. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - July 2, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Anna Subiel, Vadim Moskvin, Gregor H. Welsh, Silvia Cipiccia, David Reboredo, Colleen DesRosiers, Dino A. Jaroszynski Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Introduction of a surgical Black Box system in a hybrid angiosuite: Challenges and opportunities
Rapid technological evolution and innovation of surgical techniques, treatment devices and imaging modalities have enabled vascular surgeons to treat more patients with increasing complex pathology, using minimally invasive, endovascular approaches. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 29, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Bart Doyen, Lauren Gordon, Gilles Soenens, Klaus Bacher, Peter Vlerick, Frank Vermassen, Teodor Grantcharov, Isabelle Van Herzeele Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

PADC nuclear track detector for ion spectroscopy in laser-plasma acceleration
The transparent resin polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate (PADC, C12H18O7), more commonly referred to as CR-39, is a highly sensitive detector material for protons and ions. Particles with high linear energy transfer (LET) produce alterations of the molecular structure which can result in visible, microscopic tracks through a suitable etching procedure. During recent years CR-39 has become increasingly popular for applications which require the precise measurement of ion energies and particle fluence at low intensities. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 26, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: M. Seimetz, J. Pe ñas, J.J. Llerena, J. Benlliure, J. García López, M.A. Millán-Callado, J.M. Benlloch Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Survey of chest radiography systems: Any link between contrast detail measurements and visual grading analysis?
Digital chest radiography is one of the most frequently performed X-ray examinations [1]. Chest X-rays are a fast way to rule out cardiac or respiratory diseases [2]. Compared to other techniques like computed tomography, they are easily accessible, inexpensive and the dose delivered to the patient is relatively low [1,3]. The modality is still characterized by many innovations, such as new types of detectors [4]. Appropriate image quality can help in the improvement of their diagnosis accuracy. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 26, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sunay Rodr íguez Pérez, Nicholas W. Marshall, Joke Binst, Johan Coolen, Lara Struelens, Hilde Bosmans Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Present status of Medical Physics practice in Mexico: An occupational analysis
Medical Physics is the use of Physics principles, methods and techniques applied to Medicine, in order to prevent, diagnose and treat human diseases [1]. Despite having a wide range of applicability, it is mainly utilized in three major medical specialties: Radiation Therapy, Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology. In these fields, the use of ionizing radiation could compromise patients, medical personnel and general public wellness. Responsibility to assure the safe and effective delivery of radiation to achieve a diagnostic or therapeutic result as prescribed in patient care relies on qualified clin...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 25, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Diana Garc ía-Hernández, Xóchitl López-Rendón, Mariana Hernández-Bojórquez, José Alfredo Herrera-González, Orlando Enrique Soberanis-Domínguez, Suemi Alejandra González-Azcorra, Juan Pablo Cruz-Bastida Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Patient exposure data and operator dose in coronary interventional procedures: Impact of body-mass index and procedure complexity
Left: PKA values stratified per BMI classes for CA (1) and PCI (2) procedures. Right: Comparison of the Fluoroscopy Time per range of Complexity Index (CI) for the PCI procedures. Number of cases and median values are reported.One-Sentence Summary: Dose references levels for PKA and Fluoroscopy Time in interventional cardiology should be defined in function of BMI classes and Complexity Index. These could provide an additional tool for refining a facility ’s quality assurance and optimization processes. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 24, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Federica Zanca, Celine Collard, Nicolas Alexandre, Fr édéric Deprez, Jean Paul Salembier, Michel Henry, Emmanuel Rombaut, Pierre-Emmanuel Massart Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Glioblastomas and brain metastases differentiation following an MRI texture analysis-based radiomics approach
Primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and intracranial brain metastasis (BM) are the two more common and aggressive malignant brain tumors in adults. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 24, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Rafael Ortiz-Ram ón, Silvia Ruiz-España, Enrique Mollá-Olmos, David Moratal Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Task-based characterization of a deep learning image reconstruction and comparison with filtered back-projection and a partial model-based iterative reconstruction in abdominal CT: A phantom study
Computed tomography (CT) has evolved into an unrivaled diagnostic tool in many diseases and clinical scenarios, owing in particular to its wide availability, speed and diagnostic performance. In fact, almost a third of CT examinations involve the abdomen, and abdominal and pelvic CT has become a key player in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute abdominal pain [1]. However, its numerous benefits are overshadowed by constant radiation dose concerns – particularly in younger patients or those undergoing repeated CT scans [2,3] – considering that CT contributes more than half of the population&rsquo...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 20, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Damien Racine, Fabio Becce, Anais Viry, Pascal Monnin, Brian Thomsen, Francis R. Verdun, David C. Rotzinger Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Validation of 4D Monte Carlo dose calculations using a programmable deformable lung phantom
4D dose calculation methods account for the effect of respiratory motion on the delivered dose by taking into account all three impacts of respiratory motion, including dose blurring, dose deformations and interplay effects [1,2]. In a 4D dose calculation algorithm, dose is calculated on multiple respiratory states of the anatomy and mapped to a reference anatomy by use of deformation vector fields (DVFs) to yield cumulative dose distributions. Different dose mapping algorithms such as dose interpolation mapping (DIM) [3], energy mass congruent mapping (EMCM) [4,5] and the voxel warping method (VWM) [6] have been developed...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 19, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sara Gholampourkashi, Joanna E. Cygler, Bernie Lavigne, Emily Heath Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Large-scale dosimetric assessment of Monte Carlo recalculated doses for lung robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy.
For medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been demonstrated to be a promising treatment alternative. Indeed, as reported in multiple studies [1 –3], the 3-year local control rate of early-stage NSCLC patients treated with SBRT is over 90%. Specifically, increased dose prescribed to the tumor has been shown to be strongly correlated to better local control and survival rates [4]. For adequate lung cancer treatment, it is therefore imperati ve to deliver sufficient and accurate doses to the tumor. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 19, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Veng Jean Heng, Marc-Andr é Renaud, Karim Zerouali, Robert Doucet, André Diamant, Houda Bahig, François DeBlois, Jan Seuntjens Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Cancer risk after breast proton therapy considering physiological and radiobiological uncertainties
Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in women worldwide, with approximately 1.7 million new cases diagnosed in 2012, equivalent to about 12% of all new cancer cases and 25% of all cancers in women [1]. In the developed countries the total number of survivors at 5  years was about 3.2 million women [1]. Survival rates have improved in recent years partly due to diagnosis at an earlier and localized stage, which is the result of planed mammography screening for women of age above 40 years, and partly due to improved treatment methods (surgery, hormone/chemo therapy, radiotherapy) and follow-up examinat...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 19, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Apostolos Raptis, Jakob Ödén, Oscar Ardenfors, Anna M. Flejmer, Iuliana Toma-Dasu, Alexandru Dasu Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Aims & Scope & Editorial Board
(Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 18, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Artifact-free CT images for electron beam therapy using a patient-specific non metallic shield
Electron beam radiotherapy has distinct advantages to treat skin cancer because it delivers a uniform dose to the tumor while minimizing an unwanted dose to normal tissues below the tumor [1]. This characteristic is advantageous to apply for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC of the lower lip is a common malignant tumor comprising 25 –30% of oral cancers [2]. A thin layer of the lead shield is often applied to electron beam radiotherapy on the lip or buccal mucosa [3]. SCC of the eyelid also is treated by electron beam radiotherapy using a metallic shield [4,5]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Jour...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 16, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jong In Park, Sangmin Lee, Il Han Kim, Sung-Joon Ye Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

The impact of time-of-flight, resolution recovery, and noise modelling in reconstruction algorithms in non-solid-state detectors PET/CT scanners: – multi-centric comparison of activity recovery in a 68Ge phantom
The first clinical advance in reconstruction algorithm after iterative reconstruction, was the developments of time-of-flight [1]. This was possible thanks to the introduction of scintillators with optimal timing resolution and good stopping power, as lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) and lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO), coupled to fast photomultipliers tubes and improved electronics [2,3]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 16, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Stephane Chauvie, Fabrizio Bergesio, Elena De Ponti, Sabrina Morzenti, Adriano De Maggi, Matteo Ragazzoni, Carlo Chiesa, Roberta Matheoud Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Simulation and measurement of microbeam dose distribution in lung tissue
Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death in men and second in women and made up for around 12% of new cancer cases in the year 2018 [1]. The 5  year survival ranges between 10 and 20%. Radiation Therapy is a key component of interdisciplinary treatment. However, treatment with radiation therapy is often limited, especially in patients with large volume tumors or reduced pulmonary function, as normal lung tissue is extremely radiation sens itive in terms of dose and volume. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 16, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Gerrit Hombrink, Jan J. Wilkens, Stephanie E. Combs, Stefan Bartzsch Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Samarium doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles as theranostic agents in radiation therapy
Metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) are being studied for their potential application as dose enhancing agents in radiation therapy, that is as radiosensitisers [1]. Upon interaction with radiations, the atoms of NPs can emit photoelectrons, Compton electrons, Auger electrons, and fluorescent X-rays via physical processes, such as photoelectric absorption of X-rays and the Compton effect [2]. These electrons and photons can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) by radiolysis of water molecules, which causes more cellular damage and enhances the effects of radiations in cancer cells [3]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journ...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 13, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Masao Nakayama, Clare L. Smith, Bryce N. Feltis, Terrence J. Piva, Farnaz Tabatabaie, Peter D. Harty, Frank M. Gagliardi, Kirsten Platts, Sarah Otto, Anton Blencowe, Kenta Morita, Moshi Geso Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Dosimetric effect of intrafraction motion and different localization strategies in prostate SBRT
Due to proposed high fractionation sensitivity (low α/β-ratio) of prostate cancer [1,2] and technical advancements in radiotherapy (RT), the use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for treatment of localized prostate cancer has increased in recent years. Growing clinical evidence has proven the feasibility of prostate SBRT and suggests it as an appropriate treatment modality for low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer [3], and also for intermediate-to-high risk prostate cancer [4]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 12, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: A. Vanhanen, P. Poulsen, M. Kapanen Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

The 10th Annual scientific Meeting of the Irish Association of physicists in medicine (IAPM ASM 2019)
The Irish Association of Physicists in Medicine (IAPM) is an association of medical physicists in Ireland. The IAPM was founded in 2010 with the merger of the Association of Physical Scientists in Medicine (APSM) and the Irish Radiotherapy Physics Group (IRPG). The 10th Annual Scientific Meeting of the IAPM was held in Dublin on 23rd March 2019. This editorial summarises the proceedings of the day including invited speakers, diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy sessions, the Young Investigator Grant, the Early Careers bursary, joint session and poster presentations. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 10, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Emer Kenny, David Lavin, Niall Colgan, Brendan McClean, Sean Cournane Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Prejudice in science – Lessons from the coronavirus story
In the current pandemic times, medical physicists may not be aware that there is an interesting story on two significant discoveries related to the coronavirus. One is the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the other is the first electron microscopic observation and identification of the coronavirus. Both of them were disregarded by the reviewers and major journals declined to publish these discoveries. These days, PCR, for example, is a widespread method for analyzing DNA, having a profound effect on healthcare, especially now during the Covid-19 pandemic. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - June 10, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Kwan Hoong Ng, Eva Bezak Tags: Invited Commentary Source Type: research