COVID-19 vaccination rates of medical physicists throughout Europe
The European Matters committee has designed a survey on Covid-19 vaccination among medical physicists in Europe. The survey was initiated by the President of EFOMP (Paddy Gilligan) and the Secretary General (Efi Koutsouveli), and was prepared with the assistance of the Past Secretary General (Jaroslav Pt áček). (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - February 24, 2021 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

A patient-specific approach for quantitative and automatic analysis of computed tomography images in lung disease: application to COVID-19 patients
COVID-19 is a complex infectious disease characterized by common and non-specific symptoms, such as fever, cough, shortness of breath and fatigue, and a broad spectrum of clinical manifestation, ranging from asymptomatic infection to respiratory failure requiring oxygen support or invasive ventilation[1]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 28, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: L. Berta, C. De Mattia, F. Rizzetto, S. Carrazza, P.E. Colombo, R. Fumagalli, T. Langer, D. Lizio, A. Vanzulli, A. Torresin Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

New Editor-in-Chief
Eight years after taking over the responsibility of leading the Journal, Paolo Russo is joining Fridtjof N üsslin as Past Editor-in-Chief and Iuliana Toma-Dasu is stepping on as the new Editor-in-Chief of Physica Medica – European Journal of Medical Physics (EJMP), from 1st January 2021. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 27, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Paolo Russo, Iuliana Toma-Dasu Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

A novel fast kilovoltage switching dual-energy CT with deep learning: Accuracy of CT number on virtual monochromatic imaging and iodine quantification
Recent advances in scanner technology have led to the increased clinical use of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). For DECT, material density images (i.e., iodine density image) are reconstructed from low- and high-energy images. The iodine density image can provide physiological information that can be helpful in diagnosis [1 –5]. Moreover, virtual monochromatic images (VMIs) at a specified photon energy level can be generated from the processing of material-density image data by calculating the linear attenuation coefficient. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 25, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Tsukasa Kojima, Takashi Shirasaka, Masatoshi Kondo, Toyoyuki Kato, Akihiro Nishie, Kousei Ishigami, Hidetake Yabuuchi Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Evaluation of intrafractional head motion for intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery with a thermoplastic frameless mask and ceiling-floor-mounted image guidance device
Intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a popular technique used to deliver an ablative dose to a target in either a single or multiple treatments. Accurate patient positioning and stable immobilization are essential for the treatment of intracranial lesions with high precision [1]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 21, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Yusuke Tsuruta, Manabu Nakata, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Megumi Uto, Keiichi Takehana, Hideaki Hirashima, Takahiro Fujimoto, Takashi Mizowaki Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Proof of concept image artifact reduction by energy-modulated proton computed tomography (EMpCT)
Particle therapy treatment planning requires a precise volumetric knowledge of the patient ’s stopping power relative to water (RSP). In current clinical practice, this quantity is typically calculated using a calibration from images of the photon attenuation coefficient using single- or dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (CT) [1]. This calibration-based approach typically introduces errors in the proton beam range between 1% and up to 3% [2], which need to be considered as additional margins to the therapeutic dose. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jannis Dickmann, Christina Sarosiek, Victor Rykalin, Mark Pankuch, George Coutrakon, Robert P. Johnson, Vladimir Bashkirov, Reinhard W. Schulte, Katia Parodi, Guillaume Landry, George Dedes Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

EPID-based 3D dosimetry for pre-treatment FFF VMAT stereotactic body radiotherapy plan verification using dosimetry CheckTM
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment is a radiotherapy technique in which very high dose is delivered in a short fractionation scheme with steep dose gradients and the use of small fields. The use of photon flattening filter free (FFF) beams has grown over recent years, especially for SBRT. Higher dose rates with a higher dose per pulse reduce delivery time with benefits in terms of patient discomfort and potential intra-fraction motion. Moreover, FFF beams showed decreases in the head scatter and dose outside the field [1,2]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Agnese Chendi, Andrea Botti, Matteo Orlandi, Roberto Sghedoni, Mauro Iori, Elisabetta Cagni Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Experimental validation of the ANTS2 code for modelling optical photon transport in monolithic LYSO crystals
Scintillator light collection plays a central role in the development and optimization of radiation detectors based on scintillator crystals for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications [1,2]. Since its discovery, there has been growing interest on the use of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) or lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) scintillators in PET scanners coupled to position-sensitive photodetectors to transform the deposited energy by 511  keV annihilation photons into electronic signals. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: V íctor Manuel Lara-Camacho, Edgar Marcial Hernández-Acevedo, Héctor Alva-Sánchez, Tirso Murrieta-Rodríguez, Arnulfo Martínez-Dávalos, Mario Moranchel, Mercedes Rodríguez-Villafuerte Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Near real-time magnetic particle imaging for visual assessment of vascular stenosis in a phantom model
This study aimed to investigate the potential of magnetic particle imaging (MPI) to quantify artificial stenoses in vessel phantoms in near real-time. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 18, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Philipp Dietrich, Patrick Vogel, Thomas Kampf, Martin A. R ückert, Volker C. Behr, Thorsten A. Bley, Stefan Herz Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Steerable3D: An ImageJ plugin for neurovascular enhancement in 3-D segmentation
The segmentation of vascular networks (VNs) in the central nervous system (CNS) is of crucial importance for clinical and pre-clinical image processing applications (see, e.g., [1] for a review on this subject). In particular, the three-dimensional (3-D) analysis (determination of crucial parameters such as density, distribution and continuity of vessels) of the VN (including its smallest capillaries), is one of the key issues in neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis [2 –4], where pathologic neurovascular alterations have been regarded as a key process [2,3]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 17, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Paolo Miocchi, Alejandra Sierra, Laura Maugeri, Eleonora Stefanutti, Ali Abdollahzadeh, Fabio Mangini, Marta Moraschi, Inna Bukreeva, Lorenzo Massimi, Francesco Brun, Jussi Tohka, Olli Gr öhn, Alberto Mittone, Alberto Bravin, Charles Nicaise, Federico Gi Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

MOSFET dose measurements for proton SOBP beam
Solid detectors, such as diodes [1,2], silicon arrays [3], diamonds [4] and metal –oxidesemiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) [5–8], have been widely used for in vivo photon and electron beam dose verification. These detectors possess key features, including mechanical strength, small size, high sensitivity, electronic response, and a linear and stable dose respons e, that are required for in vivo dosimetry. A recent review [9] contained a detailed discussion of the operational principles and applications of semiconductor dosimeters used in external radiotherapy. (Source: Physica Medica: European Jou...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 16, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Chun-Hui Hsing, Luu Dang Hoang Oanh, Tsi-Chian Chao, Chung-Chi Lee, Ji-Hong Hong, Chun-Chi Cheng, Chien-Kai Tseng, Chuan-Jong Tung Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

In vivo dosimetry in low-voltage IORT breast treatments with XR-RV3 radiochromic film
Radiotherapy is an essential part of conservative treatment of breast cancer [1]. Given that 85% of recurrences in the breast occur adjacent to the primary tumor, there is growing interest in partial irradiation [2]. These techniques aim to reach effective doses of radiation in the tumor bed and to reduce the incidence of the adverse effects that result from irradiation of the whole breast. Partial irradiation techniques include intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), which tries to improve local control of the disease by means of a single dose of ionizing radiation applied directly over the tumor bed during surgery [3]. (Sour...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 16, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sergio Lozares, Jose A. Font, Almudena Gand ía, Arantxa Campos, Sonia Flamarique, Reyes Ibáñez, David Villa, Verónica Alba, Sara Jiménez, Mónica Hernández, Carmen Casamayor, Isabel Vicente, Ernesto Hernando, Patricia Rubio Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Skin dose assessment in interventional radiology
For long and complex procedures in interventional radiology (IR) or in interventional cardiology (IC), the skin dose can be high and induce skin injuries such as radiodermatitis or alopecia [1 –3]. To improve patient follow-up, the ICRP Committee 3 recommends locating and measuring the peak skin dose (PSD) [4]. This issue constitutes a major challenge in patient radiation protection for medical physicists and many studies on this subject have been published over the last decade. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 16, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jo ël Greffier, Djamel Dabli, Julien Frandon, Jean Paul Beregi Tags: Invited commentary Source Type: research

On skin dose estimation software in interventional radiology
The role of Fluoroscopically Guided Intervention (FGI) is expanding in many and diverse medical areas. From the early vascular cardiology to the vascular and abdominal oncology and to neurological procedures, the role of diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous procedures is increasingly relevant. A proof of this trend is the spread of Hybrid Operating Rooms in several institutions for interventional cardiology with percutaneous valve approach – such as Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR or TAVI) – or other surgical procedures with radiological support, e.g. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 16, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: P.E. Colombo, M. Felisi, S. Riga, A. Torresin Tags: Invited commentary Source Type: research

Field output factors for small fields: A large multicentre study
Small field dosimetry remains a challenging discipline and determination of field output factors is essential when implementing stereotactic radiotherapy. In 2017, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published Technical Reports Series no. 483 (IAEA TRS-483) [1] providing recommendations for small field measurements and values of correction factors (kQclin,Qmsrfclin,fmsr) to apply to the ratio of detector readings (MQclinfclinMQmsrfmsr) which allow the determination of the field output factor ( ΩQclin,Qmsrfclin,fmsr). (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 16, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: S. Dufreneix, J. Bellec, S. Josset, L. Vieillevigne Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Dosimetric response of a glass dosimeter in proton beams: LET-dependence and correction factor
In recent years, both active scanning proton beam and passive proton beam have been widely used in the treatment of various types of tumors [1,2]. Several physical characteristics of a proton beam, such as a beam energy-dependent Bragg peak and a beam range, render dosimetric advantages to proton beams over the conventional photon therapy. Similar to the implementation of photon therapy, accurate commissioning, dosimetric verification of the treatment planning system (TPS), and quality assurance are fundamental for implementing high-quality proton therapy [3 –5]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 15, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Keisuke Yasui, Chihiro Omachi, Junya Nagata, Toshiyuki Toshito, Hidetoshi Shimizu, Takahiro Aoyama, Naoki Hayashi Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Selection of optimal cardiac phases for ECG-triggered coronary CT angiography in pediatrics
Coronary CT Angiography (CCTA) has been increasingly used in pediatric cardiology over the last decade, and has progressively replaced cardiac catheterization in nearly all situations involving coronary arteries among children with congenital heart diseases (CHD), such as abnormal left or right coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery, suspected interarterial or intramural coronary artery, coronary artery branch crossing the infundibulum before surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot, and follow-up after surgical reimplantation of coronary arteries [1]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 15, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Julien Le Roy, Benoit Azais, Hamid Zarqane, Helene Vernhet Kovacsik, Thibault Mura, Alain Lacampagne, Pascal Amedro Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Development of patient-specific 3D models from histopathological samples for applications in radiation therapy
The biological effect of ionizing irradiation on living tissues is typically quantified through the physical quantity of absorbed dose. While absorbed dose is correlated with biological outcomes it does not uniquely determine the biological effectiveness of an irradiation. In radiation therapy, knowledge of cancer pathology, local oxygenation, radiation quality, and numerous other factors are required to determine the relationship between absorbed dose and a biological outcome such as tumor control probability [1,2]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 15, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Joseph M. DeCunha, Christopher M. Poole, Martin Valli ères, Jose Torres, Sophie Camilleri-Broët, Roni F. Rayes, Jonathan D. Spicer, Shirin A. Enger Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence in the medical physics community: An international survey
In the last decade, widespread applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) have found their ways into our daily life. AI is fundamentally changing various aspects of human existence, ranging in difficulty from the lock system for our mobile phones, to major decision-making tasks for space ships, and healthcare is not an exception to this influence [1,2]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 13, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Oliver Diaz, Gabriele Guidi, Oleksandra Ivashchenko, Niall Colgan, Federica Zanca Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

A new cone-beam computed tomography dosimetry method providing optimal measurement positions: A Monte Carlo study
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an essential tool that is used in medical applications such as interventional radiology and image-guided radiation therapy. Similar to X-ray CT scanning, an X-ray tube rotates around a patient to produce a wide longitudinal beam with partial angle irradiation (e.g., 210 °) during CBCT scanning. For many years, dose evaluation of CT examination has been performed using the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), which is based on the weighted CTDI (CTDIw) and CTDI100 parameters [1]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 13, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Tomonobu Haba, Keisuke Yasui, Yasunori Saito, Masanao Kobayashi, Shuji Koyama Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Deep learning-based reconstruction in ultra-high-resolution computed tomography: Can image noise caused by high definition detector and the miniaturization of matrix element size be improved?
In recent years, an ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (UHRCT) scanner, which uses a smaller detector element and large reconstruction matrix than the conventional multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) scanner, has been developed and applied in clinical practice.[1-4] The UHRCT provides high spatial resolution by the high definition of the detector and matrix element size. Several studies have demonstrated the resulting clinical utility of the higher spatial resolution.[2,4-6] However, the higher definition of the detector and smaller matrix element size can cause an increase in photon noise, which would requ...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 13, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Atsushi Urikura, Tsukasa Yoshida, Yoshihiro Nakaya, Eiji Nishimaru, Takanori Hara, Masahiro Endo Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Skin dose in radiation treatment of the left breast: Analysis in the context of prone versus supine treatment technique
Most women with early-stage breast cancer undergo combined treatment with radiation as part of their cancer management [1,2]. Treatment for breast cancer includes surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy. Radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery is associated with improvement in local control and is equivalent to mastectomy in terms of overall survival [1 –5]. This combined multimodality treatment has improved the outcome for early-stage breast cancer to its highest level. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 12, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Amitpal Singh Saini, Indra J. Das, Catherine S. Hwang, Matthew C. Biagioli, William E. Lee Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Assessment of daily dose accumulation for robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy treatment of prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is the second most frequent cause of cancer death among men in the United States, and the leading cause of cancer death among men in 46 countries [1 –3]. Radiotherapy for prostate cancer can be delivered using either photons or protons. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) are advanced radiotherapy techniques that can deliver a highly conformal dose to the tumor while sparing organs at risk (OARs) [4,5]. Proton therapy plans have the potential to improve target coverage and OAR sparing, due to the physical property of proton based dose deposition k...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 11, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Yihang Xu, Tejan Diwanji, Nellie Brovold, Michael Butkus, Kyle R. Padgett, Ryder M. Schmidt, Adam King, Alan Dal Pra, Matt Abramowitz, Alan Pollack, Nesrin Dogan Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Prediction of multi-criteria optimization (MCO) parameter efficiency in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment planning using machine learning (ML)
Application of machine-learning (ML) techniques has spread over virtually all fields of technology in the past years [1,2], and computer aided radiation therapy (RT) planning is not an exception to this process. ML techniques are used in organ contouring, toxicity and outcome prediction [3,4], as well as for patient- and indication specific prediction of dose-volume histogram (DVH) graphs [5 –8]. Recently, promising attempts have been made in the ML based prediction of dose distributions [9,10] and potential delivery errors [11]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 11, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Christian Harrer, Wolfgang Ullrich, Jan J. Wilkens Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Preserving image texture while reducing radiation dose with a deep learning image reconstruction algorithm in chest CT: A phantom study
Computed Tomography (CT) is the major dose contributor of all radiographic procedures [1]. Nevertheless, over the past two decades, the advancements in CT technology, protocol optimizations, and scanning routines led to a significant reduction in CT dose. In the clinical routine, radiation exposure is optimized and reduced by adjusting the tube current, however when decreasing the tube current, the image noise proportionally increases. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 11, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Caro Franck, Guozhi Zhang, Paul Deak, Federica Zanca Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Predicting the required thickness of custom shielding materials in kilovoltage radiotherapy beams
Kilovoltage (kV) radiotherapy techniques, including superficial and orthovoltage radiotherapy (SXRT and DXRT), are widely used for treating superficial lesions such as basal cell and squamous cell skin carcinomas [1]. kV therapy is particularly useful for achieving tumour control for challenging anatomical sites, such as around the ears, nose and eyes, while avoiding the dosimetric and cosmetic disadvantages of electron radiotherapy and surgery [1,2]. The planning and delivery of patient-specific kV treatments with beams that are shaped to conform to specific targets requires the use of applicators of various sizes in comb...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 11, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Scott B. Crowe, Paul H. Charles, Naasiha Cassim, Sarah K. Maxwell, Steven R. Sylvander, Jye G. Smith, Tanya Kairn Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Implementation of the microdosimetric kinetic model using analytical microdosimetry in a treatment planning system for proton therapy
Increased biological effectiveness for hadron radiotherapy is one of the main advantages for this type of cancer treatment [1,2]. While for carbon ions and other heavy particles it is essential to consider a variable effectiveness along the beam [3], in proton therapy a single value of 1.1 is traditionally considered to quantify the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) at any depth [4]. However, multiple pre-clinical studies pointing towards variable RBE with linear energy transfer (LET) have challenged this traditional approach [5 –13]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 10, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: A. Bertolet, M.A. Cort és-Giraldo, A. Carabe-Fernandez Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Tridimensional dose evaluation of the respiratory motion influence on breast radiotherapy treatments using conformal radiotherapy, forward IMRT, and inverse IMRT planning techniques
Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women and the second most common cancer overall [1,2]. Its standard treatment for the early staged disease is breast-conserving management using conservative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) [3]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 10, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: J éssica Caroline Lizar, Karina Cristina Volpato, Fernanda Calixto Brandão, Flávio da Silva Guimarães, Gustavo Viani Arruda, Juliana Fernandes Pavoni Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Utility of fast non-local means (FNLM) filter for detection of pulmonary nodules in chest CT for pediatric patient
Computed tomography (CT) have a greater capability of detecting pulmonary nodules than other imaging modalities. Advancement in multi-detector CT could increase the quality of chest CT images, which subsequently improved the sensitivity of detecting small pulmonary nodules[1 –7]. This advancement of CT technology enabled the detection of even millimetric nodule[8], and thus the removal of pulmonary metastases that are caused by Wilms’ tumors and have a direct correlation with the mortality[9], using CT-based thoracoscopic surgery. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 10, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jina Shim, Myonggeun Yoon, Mi-Jung Lee, Youngjin Lee Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Aims & Scope & Editorial Board
(Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - January 1, 2021 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

A comparative study of prostate PTV margins for patients using hydrogel spacer or rectal balloon in proton therapy
Prostate cancer is the second-leading cause of death in American men diagnosed with cancer [1]. 1 in 9 men will be diagnosed of prostate cancer in their lifetime. Thus, it is crucial to develop prostate cancer treatment regimens in its management. Radiotherapy is one of the important treatment modalities for prostate cancer. For low-risk and some intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients, radiotherapy is a treatment that provides effective disease control and good quality of life [2]. Proton therapy is one of these radiotherapy modalities. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 27, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Zhong Su, Randal Henderson, Romaine Nichols, Curtis Bryant, Bradford Hoppe, William Mendenhall, Nancy Mendenhall Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Comparison of DCE-MRI of murine model cancers with a low dose and high dose of contrast agent
Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI is routinely used clinically for detection and diagnosis of breast cancers, as well as evaluating response to cancer therapies [1 –5]. DCE-MRI is usually acquired with a rapid T1-weighted (T1w) gradient echo sequence before, during and after IV bolus injection of Gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCAs) [6]. Normally, a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg of the body weight GBCA is given to patients. During cancer treatment, DCE-MRI may be performed multiple times for evaluation of treatment response [1,5,7]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 26, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Xueyan Zhou, Xiaobing Fan, Devkumar Mustafi, Federico Pineda, Erica Markiewicz, Marta Zamora, Deepa Sheth, Olufunmilayo I. Olopade, Aytekin Oto, Gregory S. Karczmar Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Conversion factors for effective dose and organ doses with the air Kerma area product in hysterosalpingography
Histerosalpingography (HSG) is a frequently employed x-ray procedure used to evaluate the shape of the uterus and to check whether the fallopian tubes are open for the investigation of infertility in young women. HSG involved the use of a combination of fluoroscopy and a series of radiographic images taken at different projections. A typical examination includes a preliminary fluoroscopic view of the pelvis, followed by subsequent radiographic images that demonstrate uterine endometrial contour, filled Fallopian tubes and bilateral intraperitoneal spill of contrast, to establish tubal patency [1]. (Source: Physica Medica: ...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 26, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Andrea D'Alessio, Barbara Cannillo, Giuseppe Guzzardi, Massimiliano Cernigliaro, Alessandro Carriero, Marco Brambilla Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Optimization of synchrotron based ion beam therapy facilities for treatment time reduction, options and the MedAustron development roadmap
According to www.ptcog.ch, already more than 200 thousand patients worldwide have benefited from the superior physical dose distribution of proton beam therapy. Additionally more than 30 thousand patients have been treated worldwide with carbon beams, which also offer some biological advantages over photons and protons. The proton and ion therapy field is widely expanding thanks to the encouraging results of the past few decades [1 –7], with more than 40 new centers under construction and as many as another 28 under planning1 worldwide. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 22, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Andrea De Franco, Claus Schmitzer, Nadia Gambino, Thomas Glatzl, Szymon Myalski, Mauro Pivi Source Type: research

Rapid effective dose calculation for raster-scanning 4He ion therapy with the modified microdosimetric kinetic model (mMKM)
With favorable depth dose deposition for a high precision tumor targeting, particle therapy has become increasingly available. Over the last decade, the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) has treated>5000 patients using protons (p) and carbon ion (12C) beams [1] with additional helium (4He) and oxygen ion (16O) beams for physics and biological in vitro and in vivo research. Since initial experimentation and clinical application at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during the last century, 4He ion beams have remained clinically dormant. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 19, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: B. Kopp, S. Mein, T. Tessonnier, J. Besuglow, S. Harrabi, E. Heim, A. Abdollahi, T. Haberer, J. Debus, A. Mairani Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

The influence of Acuros XB on dose volume histogram metrics and tumour control probability modelling in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer
Calculated dose distributions for lung cancer radiotherapy plans are sensitive to the dose calculation algorithm used due to the presence of electronic disequilibrium at the interfaces between tumour and lung tissue, the increased range of secondary electrons in low density media and the way the algorithm handles lateral electron transport. Selection of an appropriate, accurate dose calculation algorithm is therefore important when evaluating dose response relationships and dose volume constraints (DVCs), as different algorithms may yield different results for the same treatment plan parameters and can influence derived me...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 19, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Cathy Fleming, Serena O'Keeffe, Ronan McDermott, Mary Dunne, Brendan McClean, Luis Le ón Vintró Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

X-ray dose reduction using additional copper filtration for dental cone beam CT
In recent years, dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has become a vital and established diagnostic imaging modality in the field of dentomaxillofacial [1 –3]. Compared with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), dental CBCT offers advantages such as higher spatial resolution, lower radiation dose, and cost effectiveness [4,5]. In particular, the exposure dose, technical innovations, and development of CBCT detectors have resulted in a considerab le patient dose reduction compared with that reported in previous reports [6]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 18, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Taku Kuramoto, Shinya Takarabe, Kenshi Shiotsuki, Yusuke Shibayama, Hiroshi Hamasaki, Hiroshi Akamine, Kazutoshi Okamura, Toru Chikui, Toyoyuki Kato, Kazunori Yoshiura Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

X-ray dark-field phase-contrast imaging: Origins of the concept to practical implementation and applications
Wilhelm R öntgen discovered X-rays in late 1895 and published an X-ray image of his wife in early 1896, thereby opening the field of medical imaging. This great achievement was a step forward in medicine. Commemorating the 125th anniversary of this significant advancement, in this article we present a focuse d review of X-ray dark-field imaging (XDFI), a novel phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique. We review the past 20 years of development of this modality from its inception to its current form. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 17, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Masami Ando, Rajiv Gupta, Akari Iwakoshi, Jong-Ki Kim, Daisuke Shimao, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Naoki Sunaguchi, Tetsuya Yuasa, Shu Ichihara Source Type: research

Validation of low-dose lung cancer PET-CT protocol and PET image improvement using machine learning
Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide with 2.09 million cases in 2018 [1]. As early lung cancer is typically asymptomatic, it is often diagnosed only at an advanced stage [2,3]. The systematic screening of subjects at risk using low-dose (LD) computed tomography (CT) can potentially lead to a reduction in lung cancer mortality by about 20% as demonstrated in large screening trials [3,4]. However, screening using CT has high sensitivity for detecting small cancerous lesions [4] but at the cost of false-positive rates over 90% [5]. (Source: Physica Medica: European ...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 16, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Ying-Hwey Nai, Josh Schaefferkoetter, Daniel Fakhry-Darian, Sophie O'Doherty, John J. Totman, Maurizio Conti, David W. Townsend, Arvind K. Sinha, Teng-Hwee Tan, Ivan Tham, Daniel C. Alexander, Anthonin Reilhac Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Optimized method for in vivo dosimetry with small films in pelvic IOERT for rectal cancer
Intra-Operative Electron Radiation Therapy (IOERT) uses high energy electron beams during a surgical intervention, to deliver a high radiation dose to the tumour while healthy structures are moved away from the beam [1,2]. Treatment planning for IOERT is limited to manual calculations based on data acquired in reference conditions [2]. The radiation oncologist chooses the applicator (diameter and bevel angle) best suited to the anatomy of the irradiated area, and the electron energy depending on the thickness to be irradiated. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 15, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Joana Santos, Sofia Silva, Sandra Sarmento Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Effective dose and image quality for intraoperative imaging with a cone-beam CT and a mobile multi-slice CT in spinal surgery: A phantom study
The evolution of minimally invasive surgical techniques has increased the role of intraoperative imaging in spinal surgery. In the particular case of placements of pedicle screws in the lumbar spine, intraoperative-CT (i-CT) scans are required for navigation during surgery in three –dimensions (3D) and for the assessment of the accurate position of the titanium screw inside the cortical wall of the pedicles. Indeed, studies on navigation techniques coupled with 3D imaging have shown an increased accuracy of pedicle screw placement and patient safety compared to freehand or c onventional techniques [1–4]. (Sourc...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 9, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Margherita Casiraghi, Pietro Scarone, Luca Bellesi, Maria Antonietta Piliero, Francesco Pupillo, Diego Gaudino, Giulia Fumagalli, Filippo Del Grande, Stefano Presilla Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Response of the ArcCHECK ® device at 6 MV and 15 MV for VMAT and IMRT quality control
In recent years, the use of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) techniques has become increasingly widespread. This is due to the fact that they imply an improvement in conforming the dose distribution in the volumes to be treated with respect to the capabilities of the three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. This advantage entails, however, a greater complexity of the treatments, making a verification of their quality necessary in order to guarantee the safety of the patients. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 9, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Miguel Jim énez-Melguizo, Miguel Espinosa, Joaquín Montes, Damián Guirado, Antonio M. Lallena Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Editorial
Prof. Wilhelm Conrad R öntgen (1845–1923) discovered the X-rays on the 8th November 1895 at the Institute of Physics of the University of Würzburg. This was a major milestone for medical diagnosis. The importance of this discovery was immediately understood by the medical world: “Seeing is believing”. The discipli ne of Radiology was born and grew up rapidly. Phosphor screens were introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century; in the ‘70s, image intensifiers were introduced; in the ‘80s, radiography became digital and the CT was invented. (Source: Physica Medica: European Jour...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 7, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Alberto Del Guerra, Fridtjof N üsslin Source Type: research

Monte Carlo assessment of low energy electron range in liquid water and dosimetry effects
High energy ionizing radiations, such as γ-rays, X-rays etc., interact with matter resulting in production of low energy electrons [1]. These low energy electrons also known as secondary electrons may lead to severe damages at cellular and sub-cellular level causing biological effects in the human body [2,3]. Interactions of electrons wit h water molecules are popular and an important phenomena in nature [4]. Many researches have studied the slowing down and energy deposition of electrons in liquid water for different clinical applications [5–11]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 4, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Baljeet Seniwal, Bruno M. Mendes, Francisco Malano, Pedro P érez, Mauro Valente, Telma C.F. Fonseca Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Sparse-view CT reconstruction based on multi-level wavelet convolution neural network
Many researchers in the physical and engineering domains have attempted to solve the trade-off between image quality and radiation dose for X-ray or computed tomography (CT) imaging, both of which are widely used in clinical, industrial, and other applications [1 –4]. The widespread application of CT a clinical setting has directed attention toward the associated X-ray radiation dose, which may pose a lifetime risk of cancer [4]. Accordingly, researchers in this domain have aimed to achieve a radiation-dose-reduction technology in line with the principle o f “as low as reasonably achievable” [5]. (Source:...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 4, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Minjae Lee, Hyemi Kim, Hee-Joung Kim Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Assessment of single isocenter linear accelerator radiosurgery for metastases and base of skull lesions
Gamma Knife (GK) with a stereotactic frame has long been considered the standard in stereotactic radiosurgery treatments for its steep dose gradients, good conformity, and rigid fixation allowing for limited or no treatment margin [1]. The GK Perfexion system (Elekta Medical Systems, Stockholm, Sweden) divides 192 Cobalt-60 (Co-60) sources into eight sectors that can be individually collimated or blocked in order to create variously shaped dose distributions [2]. The GK Icon system (Elekta Medical Systems, Stockholm, Sweden) further extends the technology with the incorporation of both a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 3, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Elizabeth Bossart, Eric A. Mellon, Irene Monterroso, Nagy Elsayyad, Tejan Diwanji, Stuart Samuels, Nesrin Dogan Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Aims & Scope & Editorial Board
(Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 1, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Continual improvement of nasopharyngeal carcinoma segmentation with less labeling effort
Segmentation of the target volumes (TVs) and organs-at-risk is a necessary step before treatment planning for radiotherapy. However, manual delineation is often very time-consuming and prone to inter- and intra-observer variation [1 –3]. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) offer a promising method to automatic segmentation [4–5]. Many studies report that CNNs have outstanding performance in segmentation for several disease types [6–10]. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - December 1, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Kuo Men, Xinyuan Chen, Ji Zhu, Bining Yang, Ye Zhang, Junlin Yi, and Jianrong Dai Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

FLUKA simulation of target fragmentation in proton therapy
In the interaction with the biological tissues, protons lose energy mainly by means of electromagnetic Coulomb interactions with electrons. The rate of energy loss per unit mass increases with depth as particles slow down reaching a maximum known as Bragg peak. In addition, nuclear interactions can take place with the atomic nuclei of the target material. At therapeutic energies of proton beam (60 –250 MeV), only target fragmentation can occurs. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - November 30, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: A. Embriaco, A. Attili, E.V. Bellinzona, Y. Dong, L. Grzanka, I. Mattei, S. Muraro, E. Scifoni, F. Tommasino, S.M. Valle, G. Battistoni Tags: Original paper Source Type: research

Evaluation of ionization chamber stability checks using various sources
Regulatory bodies, such as the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and professional bodies, such as the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) recommend the calibration of ionization chambers at least once every two years [1 –3]. To ensure the chamber's stability between calibrations, regular, independent quality assurance (QA) checks should be performed. The Addendum to the AAPM Task Group 51 Report states that the use of 60Co irradiators is the best method for monitoring chamber stability [4]. (Source: Physica ...
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - November 26, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Autumn E. Walter, Jon B. Hansen, Larry A. DeWerd Tags: Technical note Source Type: research