Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1568: Virus Infection Variability by Single-Cell Profiling

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1568: Virus Infection Variability by Single-Cell Profiling Viruses doi: 10.3390/v13081568 Authors: Maarit Suomalainen Urs F. Greber Cell-to-cell variability of infection has long been known, yet it has remained one of the least understood phenomena in infection research. It impacts on disease onset and development, yet only recently underlying mechanisms have been studied in clonal cell cultures by single-virion immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. In this review, we showcase how single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), single-molecule RNA-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (click) with alkynyl-tagged viral genomes dissect infection variability in human and mouse cells. We show how the combined use of scRNA-FISH and click-chemistry reveals highly variable onsets of adenoviral gene expression, and how single live cell plaques reveal lytic and nonlytic adenovirus transmissions. The review highlights how scRNA-seq profiling and scRNA-FISH of coxsackie, influenza, dengue, zika, and herpes simplex virus infections uncover transcriptional variability, and how the host interferon response tunes influenza and sendai virus infections. We introduce the concept of “cell state” in infection variability, and conclude with advances by single-cell simultaneous measurements of chromatin accessibility and mRNA counts at high-throughput. Such technology will further dissect the ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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