Vaccines to Prevent Infectious Diseases in the Older Population: Immunological Challenges and Future Perspectives

Infectious diseases are a major cause for morbidity and mortality in the older population. Demographic changes will lead to increasing numbers of older persons over the next decades. Prevention of infections becomes increasingly important to ensure healthy aging for the individual, and to alleviate the socio-economic burden for societies. Undoubtedly, vaccines are the most efficient health care measure to prevent infections. Age-associated changes of the immune system are responsible for decreased immunogenicity and clinical efficacy of most currently used vaccines in older age. Efficacy of standard influenza vaccines is only 30–50% in the older population. Several approaches, such as higher antigen dose, use of MF59 as adjuvant and intradermal administration have been implemented in order to specifically target the aged immune system. The use of a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae has been amended by a 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine originally developed for young children several years ago to overcome at least some of the limitations of the T cell-independent polysaccharide antigens, but still is only approximately 50% protective against pneumonia. A live-attenuated vaccine against herpes zoster, which has been available for several years, demonstrated efficacy of 51% against herpes zoster and 67% against post-herpetic neuralgia. Protection was lower in the very old and decreased several years after vaccination. Recently, a re...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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ConclusionsVaccination rates among Canadian patients with RA are suboptimal.
Source: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
In conclusion, our results suggest a previously unknown mechanism whereby the canonical NF-κB cascade and a mitochondrial fission pathway interdependently regulate endothelial inflammation. Lin28 as a Target for Nerve Regeneration https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/05/lin28-as-a-target-for-nerve-regeneration/ Researchers here show that the gene Lin28 regulates axon regrowth. In mice, raised levels of Lin28 produce greater regeneration of nerve injuries. Past research has investigated Lin28 from the standpoint of producing a more general improvement in regenerative capacity. It improves mitoch...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
The paper here offers a good overview of recent research and development aimed at improving the effectiveness of vaccines in old people. Vaccines are only poorly effective in the old because of the age-related decline of the immune system. A great deal of effort, with only some success, has gone into trying to improve vaccine effectiveness in older populations. Even if tinkering with vaccines boosts the percentage of patients who exhibit an immune response, however, that response is always going to be more anemic than that of a younger person, given the effects of aging on the immune system. This time and funding would per...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Authors: Di Pierro F, Bertuccioli A, Cavecchia I Abstract The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) is currently, March 2020, affecting more than 100000 people worldwide and, according to the WHO (World Health Organization), a pandemic is shortly expected. The virus infects the lower respiratory tract and causes severe pneumonia and mortality in approximately 10% and 3-5%, respectively, of cases, mainly among the elderly and/or people affected by other diseases. AHCC is an α-glucan-based standardized mushroom extract that has been extensively investigated as an immunostimulant both in animals and/or in hu...
Source: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol Source Type: research
In this study, we aim to analyze the current evidence and findings associated with influenza and other emergent viral infections, namely, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV).Among medical conditions, community-acquired respiratory infections are the most frequent reason for ventilatory support in ICUs. Community-acquired pneumonia in a severe form including the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and/or vasopressors is associated with high mortality rates. However, after the pandemic that occurred in 2009 by H1N1 influenza, the number of cases being admitted to ICUs ...
Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Abstract The human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common viral pathogens that affects the lower respiratory tract and could be a reason of bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. Currently, there are no available effective ways of treating the RSV infection. Attempts to develop preventive vaccine have been unsuccessful. The only therapeutic agent used for RSV treatment is virazole (ribavirin); however, it induces adverse effects. Medications based on neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, such as IGIV (Respigam), palivizumab (Synagis), and MEDI-524 (Numab), are under clinical trials; however, their use ...
Source: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Biol (Mosk) Source Type: research
Discussion Facial nerve palsy has been known for centuries, but in 1821 unilateral facial nerve paralysis was described by Sir Charles Bell. Bell’s palsy (BP) is a unilateral, acute facial paralysis that is clinically diagnosed after other etiologies have been excluded by appropriate history, physical examination and/or laboratory testing or imaging. Symptoms include abnormal movement of facial nerve. It can be associated with changes in facial sensation, hearing, taste or excessive tearing. The right and left sides are equally affected but bilateral BP is rare (0.3%). Paralysis can be complete or incomplete at prese...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
In conclusion, our results showed that CMV infection may play a role in the initiation or amplification of inflammatory responses in AOSD. Introduction Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare but clinically well-known systemic inflammatory disease. It is typically characterized by a high spiking fever, evanescent skin rash, arthralgia, sore throat and neutrophilia (1–3). Even though the etiology of AOSD remains unknown, there is evidence that it's triggered by environmental factors with genetic predisposition (4). It has long been suspected that viral infections might contribute to the on...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Older adults in Latin America are at an increased risk of hospitalisation, ill health, catastrophic disability and death due to vaccine-preventable diseases such as influenza, herpes zoster, and pneumonia. The Latin American Adult Immunisation Advocacy Summit, held in Mexico City, gathered 40 experts in health, ageing and immunisation from 12 Latin American countries to explore good practices of adult vaccination, key country and regional barriers, and strategies to overcome these barriers. The Summit comprised of introductory lectures, plenary panels and breakout sessions with the overarching goal of imp...
Source: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tags: Aging Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
AbstractAlthough neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) has occasionally been reported to be associated with reactivated herpes zoster, their associated risk remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of developing NA following preceding herpes zoster. The authors used the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan to select 41,548 patients with newly diagnosed herpes zoster during the period 2000 to 2010 and randomly extracted 166,192 matched control subjects. All participants in the study and control groups were followed for 3  months after the diagnosis to identify those who developed NA. Cox propo...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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