Clinicopathologic Significance of Inflammasome Activation in Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune diseases are characterized by dysregulated immune tolerance to self and inflammatory damage to tissues and organs. The development of inflammation involves multiple innate and adaptive immune pathways. Inflammasomes are multimeric cytosolic protein complexes that form to mediate host immune responses upon recognizing pathogen ‐ or damage‐associated molecular patterns via pattern‐recognition receptors (PRRs). The accelerating pace of inflammasome research has demonstrated important roles for inflammasome activation in many pathologic conditions, including infectious, metabolic, autoinflammatory, and autoimmune disea ses. The inflammasome generally comprises a PRR, procaspase 1, and an adaptor molecule connecting the PRR and procaspase 1. Upon inflammasome activation, procaspase 1 becomes active caspase 1 that converts pro–interleukin‐1β (proIL‐1β) and proIL‐18 into mature and active IL‐1β and IL‐ 18, respectively. The cytokines IL‐1β and IL‐18 have multipotent effects on immune and nonimmune cells and induce and promote systemic and local inflammatory responses. Human studies have shown increased levels of these cytokines, altered activation of inflammasome‐related molecules, and/or t he presence of inflammasome activators in rheumatic diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, crystal‐induced arthropathies, and Sjögren's syndrome. Such changes are found in the primary target organs,...
Source: Arthritis and Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: ADVANCES IN DISEASE MECHANISMS AND TRANSLATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES Source Type: research

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This article is categorized under: Biological Mechanisms> Metabolism Translational, Genomic, and Systems Medicine> Translational Medicine Physiology> Mammalian Physiology in Health and Disease
Source: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: ADVANCED REVIEW Source Type: research
Authors: Ingawale DK, Mandlik SK Abstract Inflammation is a physiological intrinsic host response to injury meant for removal of noxious stimuli and maintenance of homeostasis. It is a defensive body mechanism that involves immune cells, blood vessels and molecular mediators of inflammation. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroidal hormones responsible for regulation of homeostatic and metabolic functions of body. Synthetic GCs are the most useful anti-inflammatory drugs used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), allergies, multiple sclerosis, te...
Source: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol Source Type: research
e;zquiz Aguirre S, Sánchez Landa E Abstract INTRODUCTION: whether hypovitaminosis D is an overarching cause of increased mortality or a prognostic marker of poor health has not been well elucidated. OBJECTIVES: we sought to determine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)-D3] levels with the clinical biochemical parameters and mortality risk in chronic diseases. METHODS: we reviewed the clinical charts and collected the clinical biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with chronic conditions who had at least one 25-(OH)-D3 determination, with or without calcium and vitamin D su...
Source: Nutricion Hospitalaria - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Nutr Hosp Source Type: research
Abstract Oxidative stress is the off-balance of antioxidants and free radicals. All kinds of disease and disorders give rise to oxidative damage including autoimmune diseases. An autoimmune disorder is a pathological condition characterized by the breakdown of self-tolerance of the immune system in the body. Immunological processes against tissues and organs leading to enhanced oxidative stress and in turn, misbalance of oxidative stress aggravates the pathobiology of the disease. Highly reactive nature of free radicals, for example, hydroxyl, superoxide ions, alter DNA, protein, and lipids in the body which augme...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research
Abstract Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested a link between vitamin D deficiency and the development of various autoimmune diseases, including diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis or systemic lupus erythematosus. More recently, such a link has been also proposed for autoimmune bullous diseases (AIBD). This is a relatively rare and potentially life-threatening, organ-specific group of inflammatory skin diseases characterized by the presence of tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies against various molecules present in desmosomes (in pemphigu...
Source: Acta Biochim Pol - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Acta Biochim Pol Source Type: research
Abstract Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is a mechanism against ER stress, wherein unfolded/misfolded proteins accumulated in the ER are transported to the cytosol for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The ER resident E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1 has been identified as a key ERAD factor that directly catalyzes ubiquitin conjugation onto the unfolded or misfolded proteins for proteasomal degradation. The abnormally increased HRD1 expression was discovered in rheumatoid synovial cells, providing the first evidence for HRD1 dysregulation involved in human inflammatory pathogenesis. ...
Source: Journal of Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Autoimmun Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical RheumatologyAuthor(s): Maximilian F. KonigAbstractMicrobial contributions to the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune rheumatic diseases have been studied since the advent of germ theory in the 19th century. With the exception of Group A Streptococcus in rheumatic fever, early studies failed to establish causal relationships between specific pathobionts and rheumatic disease. Today, systemic autoimmune diseases are thought to result from a complex interplay of environmental factors, individual genetic risk, and stochastic events. Int...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Korean Medical Science - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Korean Med Sci Source Type: research
This article will give a new perspective on understanding immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases not only in animals but also in human. Emerging approaches to investigate cytokine regulation through gene modulation may be a potential approach for the tailored immunomodulation of some autoimmune diseases near in the future.
Source: Autoimmunity Reviews - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Choi The integration of computational techniques into drug development has led to a substantial increase in the knowledge of structural, chemical, and biological data. These techniques are useful for handling the big data generated by empirical and clinical studies. Over the last few years, computer-aided drug discovery methods such as virtual screening, pharmacophore modeling, quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis, and molecular docking have been employed by pharmaceutical companies and academic researchers for the development of pharmacologically active drugs. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a vital ...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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