Nephrotic syndrome: immunological mechanisms.

Nephrotic syndrome: immunological mechanisms. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2019 Sep-Oct;33(5 Suppl. 1):13-18 Authors: special issue: “Focus on pediatric nephrology”, Colavita L, Salpietro C, Cuppari C, Sallemi A, Di Benedetto V, Concolino D, Marseglia L, D'Angelo G, Gitto E, Betta P, Fede C, Conti G, Chimenz R Abstract Nephrotic Syndrome (NS) is a rare diseases (around 2-7 cases per 100.000 children per year) characterized by proteinuria ≥50 mg/kg/day (or ≥40 mg/m2/h) or a proteinuria/creatininuria ratio>2 (mg/mg); hypoalbuminaemia less than 25 g/l and edema. The protein leakage, with the consequent hypoalbunaemia and edema, due to podocyte alterations may be caused by genetic diseases, immunological mechanisms, infections, toxins or malignancy. However, most commonly the exact etiology is unknow. The idiopathic NS may be classified based on response to corticosteroid therapy or the hytological appearance. The first classification identifies steroid-resistant NS (no response after 4 weeks of steroid therapy); frequently relapsing NS (≥ 2 relapses in first 6 months or ≥4 relapses in 1-year); steroid dependent NS (relapses during steroid decalage or within 2 weeks from steroid therapy interruption). The hystological classification is based on light and electron microscopy after renal biopsy, which is indicated in case of onset disease before 1 year or after 12 years of age. Macroscopic hematuria: persistent hypertension and/or mic...
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research

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