Why Does the Food and Drug Administration Need to Ban Kratom?

AbstractPurpose of ReviewKratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is an herb with no current indication for medical use with potentially addictive properties, yet it is being used in the management of pain, depression, and anxiety. The agent ’s pharmacology lends itself for concern regarding recreational misuse (Drugs of Abuse,2017).Recent FindingsKratom ’s increasing popularity for use in the USA is reflected by National Poison Data System data that in 2011 there were 13 cases reported to poison control centers while in 2017 there were 682 calls in response to kratom exposure (Kratom exposure in the US linked to serious medical outcomes,2019; Post et al. in Clin Toxicol. 57:847 –54,2019). Subjects most commonly use kratom for the self-treatment of pain, mood swings, and opioid-related withdrawal symptoms (Grundmann in Drug Alcohol Depend. 176:63 –70,2017). Known serious adverse events include hallucinations, delusions, reduced respiratory drive, and death (Kratom: unsafe and ineffective,2019). Additional anecdotally reported side effects include hypothyroidism, seizure, hepatotoxicity, coma, and injury to the posterior white matter of the brain (Anwar et al. in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 65:748 –9,2016; Nelsen et al. in J Med Toxicol. 6:424 –6,2010; Sheleg and Collins in J Addict Med. 5:300 –1,2011; Castillo et al. in Proc (Baylor Univ Med Cent). 30:355 –7,2017).SummaryAt this time, kratom remains without regulations on a federal level. The...
Source: Current Emergency and Hospital Medicine Reports - Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

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ConclusionsBy discussing various heterogeneity statistics, visualizations, and explanatory methods, this article provides the applied developmental researcher a foundational understanding of complexity and heterogeneity in meta-analysis.
Source: Journal of Adolescence - Category: Child Development Source Type: research
Publication date: December 2019Source: Journal of Adolescence, Volume 77Author(s): Rachel Widome, Aaron T. Berger, Kathleen M. Lenk, Darin J. Erickson, Melissa N. Laska, Conrad Iber, Gudrun Kilian, Kyla WahlstromAbstractIntroductionShort sleep duration is exceedingly common among adolescents and has implications for healthy youth development. We sought to document associations between adolescents’ sleep duration and characteristics of their schedules, behaviors, and wellbeing.MethodsWe used data from the baseline wave (9th grade year) of the START study, a cohort of 2134 students in five Minnesota high schools to ass...
Source: Journal of Adolescence - Category: Child Development Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The etiology of chronic groin pain post hernia repair is related in part to nerve injury. This is supported by the high frequency of sensory symptoms and numbness in these patients. However other factors including the role of tissue injury and inflammatory postoperative changes need to be considered. KEY WORDS: Chronic postoperative pain, Inguinal hernia repair, Open surgery, Laparoscopic surgery. PMID: 31719216 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia - Category: Surgery Tags: Ann Ital Chir Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Food ChemistryAuthor(s): Yue Li, Liqiang Liu, Hua Kuang, Chuanlai XuAbstractParaquat (PQ) poisoning is a serious threat to human health that leads to pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. Protecting humans from PQ exposure requires the development of rapid analytical methods for on-site detection. Here, two monoclonal antibodies against PQ were generated and an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was exploited to determine PQ concentrations in water samples. The results showed that the monoclonal antibody 1D6 exhibited higher affinity and sensitivity, ...
Source: Food Chemistry - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Abstract The Editor-in-Chief has retracted this article [1] because an investigation by Keio University has concluded that there are inaccuracies in the data reported. PMID: 31730223 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tags: Aging Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Artificial Intelligence in MedicineAuthor(s): Anam Mustaqeem, Syed Muhammad Anwar, Muhammad MajidAbstractIn the last few years, hospitals have been collecting a large amount of health related digital data for patients. This includes clinical test reports, treatment updates and disease diagnosis. The information extracted from this data is used for clinical decisions and treatment recommendations. Among health recommender systems, collaborative filtering technique has gained a significant success. However, traditional collaborative filtering algorithms are facing ch...
Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine - Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Fuß &SprunggelenkAuthor(s): Hubert Hörterer, Sebastian Felix Baumbach, Mareen Braunstein, Ulrike Szeimies, Wolfgang Böcker, Markus Walther, Hans PolzerZusammenfassungSchmerzen am Ansatz der Achillessehne stellen mit einer Lebenszeitinzidenz von 6% ein häufiges Krankheitsbild dar. Mittels klinischer Untersuchung, Röntgen und MRT können die Pathologien entsprechend ihrer Lokalisation in drei verschiedene Kompartimente (retro-, intra-, prä-achillär) eingeteilt werden. Führt die konservative Therapie nicht zu einer ausr...
Source: Fuss and Sprunggelenk - Category: Podiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2019Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 7Author(s): Atef M. Al-Attar, Fawziah A. AlsalmiAbstractMedicinal plants have always been an important source of new alternative effective compounds for human therapy. Currently, there are many of scientific evidences indicate that the medicinal plants contain a lot of hypoglycemic chemical compounds. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of olive leaves extract on hepatorenal injury in diabetic male rats. Experimental diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The levels of serum glucose, alanine amin...
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
This study demonstrated the potential use of herbal extract of Carum copticum in combination therapy against ESβL producing bacteria.
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In conclusion, promising nonchemical (plant extracts) are innocuous to adult bees. So, we strongly believed that this effort was made to evaluate the status of medicinal plants researches globally.
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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