Host Genetics of Cytomegalovirus Pathogenesis

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpes virus (human herpes virus 5) with the highest morbidity and mortality rates compared to other herpes viruses. Risk groups include very young, elderly, transplant recipient, and immunocompromised individuals. HCMV may cause retinitis, encephalitis, hepatitis, esophagitis, colitis, pneumonia, neonatal infection sequelae, inflammatory and age-related diseases. With an arsenal of genes in its large genome dedicated to host immune evasion, HCMV can block intrinsic cellular defenses, and interfere with cellular immune responses. HCMV also encodes chemokines, chemokine receptors, and cytokines. Therefore, genes involved in human viral defense mechanisms and those encoding proteins targeted by the CMV proteins are candidates for host control of CMV infection and reactivation. Although still few in number, host genetic studies are producing valuable insights into biological processes involved in HCMV pathogenesis and HCMV related diseases. For example, genetic variants in the immunoglobulin GM light chain can influence the antibody responsiveness to CMV glycoprotein B, and modify risk of HCMV related diseases. Moreover, CMV infection following organ transplantation has been associated with variants in genes encoding toll-like receptors (TLRs), programmed death-1 (PD-1), interleukin-12p40 (IL-12B). A KIR haplotype (2DS4+) is proposed to be protective for CMV activation among hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Polymorphisms...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

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Authors: Pastor-Galán I, Hernández-Boluda JC, Correa JG, Alvarez-Larrán A, Ferrer-Marín F, Raya JM, Ayala R, Velez P, Pérez-Encinas M, Estrada N, García-Gutiérrez V, Fox ML, Payer A, Kerguelen A, Cuevas B, Durán MA, Ramírez MJ, Gómez-Casares MT, Mata-Vázquez MI, Mora E, Martínez-Valverde C, Arbelo E, Angona A, Magro E, Antelo ML, Somolinos N, Cervantes F, en representación del Grupo Español de Enfermedades Mieloproliferativas Filadelfia Negativas (GEMFIN) Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE MYELOFIBROSIS: is an infrequen...
Source: Medicina Clinica - Category: General Medicine Tags: Med Clin (Barc) Source Type: research
In this study we have genetically modified a serotype 1 strain (519/43), the first time that this has been achieved for this serotype, providing the methodology for a deeper understanding of its biology and pathogenicity. As proof of principle we constructed a defined pneumolysin mutant and showed that it lost its ability to lyse red blood cells. We also showed that when mice were infected intranasally with the mutant 519/43Δply there was no significant difference between the load of bacteria in lungs and blood when compared to the wild type 519/43. When mice were infected intraperitoneally there were significantly f...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
This study represents the first large scale attempt to gather a long period information on Q fever infection in Greece. The findings of the current study support the fact that Q fever is an important endemic zoonotic disease in Greece and needs increased awareness by clinical physicians and health care system.
Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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Source: Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractMacrophages promote vasculogenesis during retinal neovascularization (RNV) by increasing the recruitment and differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs). Different subtypes of macrophages (M1 and M2 macrophages) are associated with RNV. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of BMCs by different macrophage subtypes during RNV remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role and mechanism of action of different macrophage subtypes that regulate BMCs during the development of RNV. The retinal avascular area and neovascularization (NV) tuft area in M2 macrophage group in vivo were the ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and GastroenterologyAuthor(s): Wen-Yi Liu, Jian-Hong Wang, Yuan Guo, Xin Wang, Xiao-Dong Wu, Chuan-Shen Xu, Yang Zhao, Yun-Jin ZangSummaryBackgroundAn objective and accurate evaluation of liver grafts is required to improve the prognosis of liver transplant recipients and to increase the number of available liver grafts.AimTo compare outcomes using FibroScan with that of pathology in liver grafts from brain-dead donors (DBD).MethodsLiver grafts from 52 DBD were examined using ultrasound (US), FibroScan before liver transplantation ...
Source: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
ConclusionsCMR is a key tool for diagnosing LDAC. Characteristic findings are subepicardial fatty infiltration and midwall-subepicardial late gadolinium enhancement. The prognosis of this population is poor with a high incidence of sudden cardiac death and ventricular arrhythmias.ResumenIntroducción y objetivosRecientemente, la miocardiopatía arritmogénica del ventrículo izquierdo (MCAVI) ha sido reconocida como parte del espectro de la miocardiopatía arritmogénica. Se caracteriza por el reemplazo fibroadiposo de la pared de dicho ventrículo. Se describen las formas de prese...
Source: Revista Espanola de Cardiologia - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): YI Yan, Yinghui Qiu, Aonan Zhao, Jian Zhao, Ying Wang, Yulei DengAbstractA 66-year old mild cognitive impairment (MCI) female patient donated her Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC was reprogrammed using non-integrative Sendai viral vectors containing reprogramming factors OCT4, KLF4, SOX2 and C-MYC. The pluripotency of transgene-free iPSCs was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and ability of differentiation spontaneously into 3 germ layers in vitro. Moreover, the iPSC line displayed a normal karyotype. The apolipoprotein E (...
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Authors: Zhao J, Mu L, Wang Z, Fang X, He X, Zhang X, Xu X Abstract Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are categorized as non‑coding RNAs that, unlike widely known canonical linear RNAs, form a covalently closed continuous loop without 5' or 3' polarities, which enables them to resist digestion by RNA exonucleases. Although the functions of circRNAs remain largely unknown, accumulated evidence has demonstrated that circRNAs can act as microRNA sponges, which allows them to regulate numerous biological processes and disease mechanisms, including apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis and stem cell differentiation. Al...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
Authors: Li S, Wang M, Zhou J Abstract Biobanking plays an important role between clinical practice and translational research. In addition to the traditional biomolecular-based biobanks, there is a growing interest in establishing living biobanks, including organoid biobanks that can collect and store viable and functional tissues and proliferative cell types for long periods of time. An organoid is a three-dimensional cell complex derived by self-organization of small tissue blocks or stem cells, which can recapitulate the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of targeted human organs. Publications on brain orga...
Source: Biopreservation and Biobanking - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biopreserv Biobank Source Type: research
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