Causes of severe pneumonia requiring hospital admission in children without HIV infection from Africa and Asia: the PERCH multi-country case-control study

In this study, we estimated causes of pneumonia in young African and Asian children, using novel analytical methods applied to clinical and microbiological findings.MethodsWe did a multi-site, international case-control study in nine study sites in seven countries: Bangladesh, The Gambia, Kenya, Mali, South Africa, Thailand, and Zambia. All sites enrolled in the study for 24 months. Cases were children aged 1–59 months admitted to hospital with severe pneumonia. Controls were age-group-matched children randomly selected from communities surrounding study sites. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (NP-OP), urine, blood, induced sputum, lung aspirate, pleural fluid, and gastric aspirates were tested with cultures, multiplex PCR, or both. Primary analyses were restricted to cases without HIV infection and with abnormal chest x-rays and to controls without HIV infection. We applied a Bayesian, partial latent class analysis to estimate probabilities of aetiological agents at the individual and population level, incorporating case and control data.FindingsBetween Aug 15, 2011, and Jan 30, 2014, we enrolled 4232 cases and 5119 community controls. The primary analysis group was comprised of 1769 (41·8% of 4232) cases without HIV infection and with positive chest x-rays and 5102 (99·7% of 5119) community controls without HIV infection. Wheezing was present in 555 (31·7%) of 1752 cases (range by site 10·6–97·3%). 30-day case-fatality ratio wa...
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Journal of Vocational BehaviorAuthor(s): Nimrod Levin, Hedva Braunstein-Bercovitz, Yuliya Lipshits-Braziler, Itamar Gati, Jérôme RossierAbstractMany individuals face difficulties when making a career decision. Gati, Krausz, and Osipow (1996) proposed a taxonomy that classifies career decision-making difficulties into three major clusters, which are further subdivided into 10 categories. Based on the proposed taxonomy, they developed the Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), which has been since adopted and used in>50 countries. D...
Source: Journal of Vocational Behavior - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Authors: Mumu SJ, Fahey PP, Ali L, Rahman AKMF, Merom D Abstract While the effect of weather and seasons on physical activity (PA) is well documented for leisure-time physical activities in western countries, scant information is available for developing countries where lifestyle PA is the major source of energy expenditure (EE). In Bangladesh, the traditional calendar divides the year to six seasons that last two months each: summer, rainy, autumn, late autumn, winter, and spring. We developed the Past Year Physical Activity Questionnaire to record culturally relevant physical activities and to help assess the sea...
Source: Journal of Environmental and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Environ Public Health Source Type: research
Condition:   Influenza Intervention:   Behavioral: antibiotic stewardship efforts Sponsor:   Ostfold Hospital Trust Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Conditions:   HIV;   Antiretroviral Therapy Interventions:   Other: Routine medical record data collection;   Other: Interviews with service providers Sponsors:   Boston University;   Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation;   University of Witwatersrand, South Africa Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
ConclusionFor women both with and without diagnosed breast cancer, cost was a major concern in seeking medical services. Affordability and access to breast cancer screening and treatment need to be improved. Providing more comprehensive insurance coverage is a key solution.
Source: Journal of Cancer Policy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The study demonstrated that relative advantage, observability, simplicity and compatibility were key factors in influencing acceptability of the economic support. However, to enhance acceptability of cash transfer schemes aimed at addressing early marriage and pregnancy, it is important to explore socio-cultural factors that create suspicions and negative perceptions and to provide schemes that are perceived as relatively better than available similar schemes, understood, compatible and viable beyond the immediate beneficiary. PMID: 31735121 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Global Health Action - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Glob Health Action Source Type: research
This collection of resources has been relaunched for 2019. The campaignurges people to always take their doctor's, pharmacist's or nurse's advice on antibiotics. It provides effective self-care advice to help people and their families feel better if they are not prescribed antibiotics. Antibiotics are essential to treat serious bacterial infections such as pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. They also help to ward off infections during chemotherapy, caesarean sections and other surgeries. However, while antibiotics are vital to treating life-threatening infections, they are frequently being used to treat less serious illness...
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Authors: He P, Guo Y, Wang J, Yan L, Feng A Abstract Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases, especially in children. Ripasudil (K-115), a selective ROCK inhibitor, is a promising emerging drug against glaucoma, and reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of ripasudil still remains unclear in pneumonia. The goal of this study is to investigate the role and the underlying mechanism of ripasudil in pneumonia. BALB/c mice were used to establish an acute pneumonia model of mice by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally. Rip...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
Publication date: 19 November 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 29, Issue 8Author(s): Wiebke Hartmann, Marie-Luise Brunn, Nadine Stetter, Nicola Gagliani, Franziska Muscate, Stephanie Stanelle-Bertram, Gülsah Gabriel, Minka BreloerSummaryHelminth parasites infect more than a quarter of the human population and inflict significant changes to the immunological status of their hosts. Here, we analyze the impact of helminth infections on the efficacy of vaccinations using Litomosoides sigmodontis-infected mice. Concurrent helminth infection reduces the quantity and quality of antibody responses to vaccination against seaso...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: 19 November 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 29, Issue 8Author(s): Ying Xu, Ruchao Peng, Wei Zhang, Jianxun Qi, Hao Song, Sheng Liu, Haiyuan Wang, Min Wang, Haixia Xiao, Lifeng Fu, Zheng Fan, Yuhai Bi, Jinghua Yan, Yi Shi, George F. GaoSummarySince 2013, H7N9 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have caused more than 1,600 human infections, posing a threat to public health. An emerging concern is whether H7N9 AIVs will cause pandemics among humans. Molecular analysis of hemagglutinin (HA), which is a critical determinant of interspecies transmission, shows that the current H7N9 AIVs are still dual-receptor trop...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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