Contraception in Autoimmune Diseases

Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical Obstetrics &GynaecologyAuthor(s): Giuseppe Benagiano, Marisa Benagiano, Paola Bianchi, Mario Milco D’Elios, Ivo BrosensAbstractAutoimmune diseases (AIDs) affect women with a 2 - 1 ratio vs. men, suggesting that hormonal contraceptives play a role in their clinical course.Combined oral contraceptives have complex, sometimes contradictory, effects on AIDs; they can worsen the situation in women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and with Antiphospholipid Syndrome, condition in which they are contraindicated. Early studies indicated a positive effect on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whereas more recent trials failed to do so, possibly because of the lowering of oestrogen content. Evidence on effects on Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is conflicting: risk may vary depending on the progestin used. Minor adverse effects may exist on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and no significant effect was found on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases. Women can become sensitised to sex hormones.Progestin-Only Contraceptives may be used, although copper-releasing Intra-Uterine Devices represent the best option.Finally, several Organisations have issued guidelines for contraceptive use in women with AIDs.
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: The varied pharmacologic mechanisms of NBP involve many complex molecular mechanisms; however, there many unknown pharmacologic effects await further study. PMID: 31205106 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
Publication date: October 2019Source: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 101Author(s): Ozlem Altintas YildirimAbstractCopper doped zinc oxide (Cu:ZnO) nanonails with uniformly distributed Cu ions through the nail structure were synthesized via a vapor-liquid-solid technique using seed Cu:ZnO nanoparticles. The seed nanoparticles were prepared with a simple precipitation method. The structure and morphology of nanonails and the distribution of Cu ions were investigated using X-ray diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and...
Source: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2019Source: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 273Author(s): Patxi Fernandez-Zelaia, Shreyes N. MelkoteAbstractMachining is a severe plastic deformation process that subjects materials to high rates of deformation and elevated temperatures. Dynamic recrystallization during severe plastic deformation drives grain refinement into the sub-micron range but the ductility and thermal stability of these structures is poor. In contrast, bimodal microstructures consisting of both fine and coarse grains have been shown to exhibit attractive strength and ductility properties at these tempera...
Source: Journal of Materials Processing Technology - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 June 2019Source: Journal of Materials Processing TechnologyAuthor(s): Moslem Paidar, Olatunji Oladimeji Ojo, Amirhossein Moghanian, Hossein Karami Pabandi, Morteza ElsaAbstractThis paper examines the use of pre-fabricated interlocking arms/threading in enhancing the strength of friction stir spot welded hybrid joints of AA2219/PP-C30S polypropylene polymer by varying parameter combination. The process involves the fabrication of a pre-threaded hole on the Al alloy prior to the joining process, and the threading/crest-pitch profile aids mechanical interlocking. The peak temperature, cre...
Source: Journal of Materials Processing Technology - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Yu Chen, Zheng-Xue Zhang, Liu-Pu Zheng, Li Wang, Yin-Feng Liu, Wei-Yong Yin, Yan-Yan Chen, Xin-Shi Wang, Sheng-Tao Hou, Jiang-Fan Chen, Rong-Yuan ZhengAbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting more than 2.5 million individuals worldwide. In the present study, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice were treated with adenosine receptor A2A antagonist SCH58261 at different periods of EAE dev...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
AbstractThe sympathetic nervous system (SNS) serves to maintain homeostasis of vital organ systems throughout the body, and its dysfunction plays a major role in human disease. The SNS also links the central nervous system to the immune system during different types of stress via innervation of the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and bone marrow. Previous studies have shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, gene name adcyap1) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis. Because PACAP is known to regulate SNS function, we...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In conclusion, the augmented antioxidative capacity of EL-HDL is primarily determined by the enrichment of HDL with EL-generated lipolytic products and to a lesser extent by the decreased HDL particle size and the increased activity of chloramine T-sensitive mechanisms.
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 June 2019Source: SexologiesAuthor(s): M. OhayonSummaryImprovements in the prognosis for HIV infection and the impact of biomedical strategies for the prevention of transmission have created very specific situations for men who live with HIV within the homosexual minorities. Originally focused on their duty in preventing transmission, the issue at stake gradually moved towards one of power, with the HIV-infected person, the hero/martyr of the 1980s and 1990s, becoming the hero who has vanquished the fear of Aids. Undetectable viral load, the standard of current treatment, makes the indiv...
Source: Sexologies - Category: Sexual Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: Sensors and Actuators A: PhysicalAuthor(s): Lu Wang, Jianjun Ding, Zhuangde Jiang, Guoxi Luo, Libo Zhao, Dejiang Lu, Xiao Yang, Maeda RyutaroAbstractThis paper presents the new design and fabricating process of a packaged micro piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH). Structures are designed and parameters are optimized through finite element modelling and analysis. The double L-shaped tungsten proof mass block and thick copper-based PZT bimorph are proposed to ensure the harvester with high electrical power. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) packaging and epoxy r...
Source: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical - Category: Physics Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: Redox BiologyAuthor(s): James N. Cobley, Anna Noble, Eduardo Jimenez-Fernandez, Manuel-Thomas Valdivia Moya, Matthew Guille, Holger HusiAbstractUsing non-reducing Western blotting to assess protein thiol redox state is challenging because most reduced and oxidised forms migrate at the same molecular weight and are, therefore, indistinguishable. While copper catalysed Click chemistry can be used to ligate a polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety termed Click PEGylation to mass shift the reduced or oxidised form as desired, the potential for copper catalysed auto-oxidation is ...
Source: Redox Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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