Cancers, Vol. 11, Pages 354: Exploring the Frequency of Homologous Recombination DNA Repair Dysfunction in Multiple Cancer Types

Cancers, Vol. 11, Pages 354: Exploring the Frequency of Homologous Recombination DNA Repair Dysfunction in Multiple Cancer Types Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers11030354 Authors: Lucy Gentles Bojidar Goranov Elizabeth Matheson Ashleigh Herriott Angelika Kaufmann Sally Hall Asima Mukhopadhyay Yvette Drew Nicola J. Curtin Rachel L O’Donnell Dysfunctional homologous recombination DNA repair (HRR), frequently due to BRCA mutations, is a determinant of sensitivity to platinum chemotherapy and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi). In cultures of ovarian cancer cells, we have previously shown that HRR function, based upon RAD51 foci quantification, correlated with growth inhibition ex vivo induced by rucaparib (a PARPi) and 12-month survival following platinum chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of measuring HRR dysfunction (HRD) in other tumours, in order to estimate the frequency and hence wider potential of PARPi. A total of 24 cultures were established from ascites sampled from 27 patients with colorectal, upper gastrointestinal, pancreatic, hepatobiliary, breast, mesothelioma, and non-epithelial ovarian cancers; 8 were HRD. Cell growth following continuous exposure to 10 μM of rucaparib was lower in HRD cultures compared to HRR-competent (HRC) cultures. Overall survival in the 10 patients who received platinum-based therapy was marginally higher in the 3 with HRD ascites (median overall survival of 17...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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There is an urgent need to share expertise and offer emergency guidance for breast radiation therapy (RT) during the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) pandemic. As per the World Health Organisation (WHO) statement, our aim and obligation should be “to stop, contain, control, delay and reduce the impact of this virus at every opportunity”. In our roles as healthcare professionals and/or breast cancer experts this translates to minimising exposure of our patients to COVID-19 without compromising oncological outcome.
Source: Clinical Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Purpose: The availability of novel imaging modalities (NIM) in prostate cancer (PCa) has overtaken the evidence informing their use. The recent EORTC consensus statement on modern imaging recognises the need for large-scale clinical trials of novel imaging [1]. The UK environment is well placed to conduct such trials; the NCRI prostate cancer CSG wished to benchmark current UK imaging availability and practice to inform future national trials.
Source: Clinical Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
Purpose: The role of pelvic nodal irradiation in prostate cancer remains controversial. Nevertheless, many high-risk patients are treated with prostate and pelvis radiotherapy in addition to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) [1]. A recent retrospective study [2] and data from the UK Stampede control arm [3] suggest that radiotherapy may be of benefit to node positive patients. The aim of our study was to document outcomes in patients with node positive prostate cancer treated with pelvic nodal radiotherapy in a UK cancer centre.
Source: Clinical Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
Purpose: Relapsed or progressive prostate cancer frequently manifests as consecutive PSA rises long before disease is clinically detectable. Imaging with novel radiotracers targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been shown to be more sensitive in identifying the site of disease at lower PSA levels compared with conventional imaging, which may provide increased opportunity for salvage therapy, more aggressive local management of oligometastatic disease or increased confidence in proceeding with systemic therapy [1].
Source: Clinical Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
Purpose: To assess the benefits and risks of co-administering maintenance prednisolone with docetaxel and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer (HSMPC).
Source: Clinical Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
Purpose: As doctors we are required to take consent for radiotherapy; we typically take written consent [1]. We must tell a patient if a treatment might result in a serious adverse outcome, even if the likelihood is very small [2]. As many cancer centres move towards tumour site-specific consent forms for prostate radiotherapy we wanted to ascertain if there was consensus.
Source: Clinical Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we describe our experience with both drugs at the Diana Princess of Wales Hospital (DPoW), Grimsby.
Source: Clinical Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
This study is an important step forward in highlighting C1q as a new prognostic candidate biomarker for a range of carcinomas. Methods Oncomine Database Analysis The expression levels of C1QA, C1QB, and C1QC genes in various carcinomas were analyzed using Oncomine (www.oncomine.org), a cancer microarray database and web-based data mining platform from genome-wide expression analyses (22, 23). We compared the differences in mRNA level between normal tissue and carcinoma. The mRNA expression levels in neoplastic tissues compared to the healthy tissues were obtained as the parameters of p-value 2, and gene ranking in the t...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Joe Abdo1, Christopher S. Wichman2, Nicholas E. Dietz1,3, Pawel Ciborowski4, John Fleegel1, Sumeet K. Mittal1,5 and Devendra K. Agrawal1* 1Department of Clinical and Translational Science, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, United States 2Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States 3Department of Pathology, CHI Health Creighton University Medical Center, College of Medicine, Omaha, NE, United States 4Department of Pharmacology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States 5Norton Thoracic Institute, St....
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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