Zoonotic Influenza and Human Health —Part 1: Virology and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Influenzas

AbstractPurpose of ReviewZoonotic influenza viruses are those that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. They have also been implicated in the causation of deadly pandemics in recent history. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this first part of a two-part review, we describe the structure of zoonotic influenza viruses, the relationship between mutation and pandemic capacity, pathogenesis of infection, and also discuss history and epidemiology.Recent FindingsWe are currently witnessing the fifth and the largest wave of the avian influenza A(H7N9) epidemic. Also in circulation are a number of other zoonotic influenza viruses, including avian influenza A(H5N1) and A(H5N6); avian influenza A(H7N2); and swine influenza A(H1N1)v, A(H1N2)v, and A(H3N2)v viruses. Most recently, the first human case of avian influenza A(H7N4) infection has been documented.SummaryBy understanding the virology and epidemiology of emerging zoonotic influenzas, we are better prepared to face a new pandemic. However, continued effort is warranted to build on this knowledge in order to efficiently combat the constant threat posed by the zoonotic influenza viruses.
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Related Links:

[Premium Times] The Nigerian government has hosted 16 Nigerians recently honoured by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) for their contributions to the control of the HIV epidemic in Nigeria.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
Conclusions: The percentage of patients utilizing opioid prescriptions after ankle fracture surgery is much lower than expected, suggesting that routine prescriptions given after ankle fracture surgery and other smaller orthopaedic procedures are not likely to be contributing to the epidemic.
Source: Current Orthopaedic Practice - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
Routine surveillance and surveillance in response to influenza virus outbreaks in avian species in Vietnam in 2009–2013 resulted in the isolation of numerous H5N1 influenza viruses of clades 1.1.2,,,, and Consistent with other studies, we found that viruses of clade were dominant in Vietnam in 2013 and circulated in the northern, central, and southern parts of the country. Phylogenetic analysis revealed reassortment among viruses of clades,, and; in contrast, no reassortment was detected between clade viruses and viruses of clades 1.1.2 o...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Tens of millions of dollars will go toward helping the state abate an opioid epidemic that has killed thousands there.
Source: Washington Post: To Your Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Source Type: news
An Oklahoma judge on Monday approved a revised $85 million settlement with Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd resolving claims by the state's attorney general that the drugmaker helped fuel the U.S. opioid epidemic.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
AbstractUsing high-throughput sequencing of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), virion-associated nucleic acid (VANA), and double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), we have determined the complete genome sequences of Comorian isolates of two ipomoviruses, cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and a divergent isolate of Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV-KM) representing a new strain of this virus. While the large ORF of CBSV shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity (95.9%) with a Tanzanian isolate of CBSV, the large UCBSV-KM ORF shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity (77.5%) with a Malawian isolate of UCBSV. This low ...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
AbstractNewcastle disease virus (NDV) has a wide avian host range and a high degree of genetic variability, and virulent strains cause Newcastle disease (ND), a worldwide concern for poultry health. Although NDV has been studied in Nigeria, genetic information about the viruses involved in the endemicity of the disease and the transmission that likely occurs at the poultry-wildlife interface is still largely incomplete. Next-generation and Sanger sequencing was performed to provide complete (n = 73) and partial genomic sequence data (n = 38) for NDV isolates collected from domestic and wild birds in Nigeria during 2002-201...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 June 2019Source: Veterinary ParasitologyAuthor(s): Rasha M.A. Gharieb, Dwight D. Bowman, Janice L. Liotta, Lihua XiaoAbstractThe ability of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) based nested PCR and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to identify and genotype a single Cryptosporidium oocyst isolated from bovine faecal samples was evaluated in this study. In addition, subtyping was carried out by sequencing the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene from the same single oocyst. Faecal samples were collected from 40 pre-weaned calves (5-20 days old) from 7 dairy farm...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The University of Pittsburgh's Division of General Internal Medicine has received a $5.8 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to conduct opioid research in Appalachia, the school announced Monday morning. Dr. Jane Liebschutz will establish the Appalachian Node of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network to facilitate research in the region, which has been badly affected by the opioid epidemic. "Historical and cultural factors have caused Appalachia to experience…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Source Type: news
ConclusionsThis study indicates that there was no significant correlation between IgG antibodies against Toxocara and variables such as gender and age. Based on the statistical analysis, there was no significant difference in Toxocara seropositivity between our control population with MS and RA patients.
Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
More News: Bird Flu | Epidemics | Epidemiology | Flu Pandemic | H1N1 | H1N2 | H3N2 | H5N1 | Infectious Diseases | Influenza | Pandemics | Respiratory Medicine | Swine Flu | Virology | Zoonoses