Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy in Children
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOver recent years, there has been a marked increase in the number of centres delivering paediatric outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (pOPAT). Various factors have fuelled this drive, including the significant economic pressures faced by high-income countries to contain the cost of healthcare, resulting in a significant reduction of in-patient beds over the past 20  years. It is essential that pOPAT services have formal clinical governance structures in place to ensure the safe and effective management of children being ambulated on intravenous antibiotics. They also require oversight...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Health Considerations for HIV-Infected International Travelers
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewInternational travel continues to steadily increase, including leisure travel, travel to one ’s country of origin to visit friends and relatives, travel for service work, and business travel. Travelers with HIV may have an increased risk for travel-associated infections. The pre-travel medical consultation is an important means of assessing one’s risk for travel-related health issues. T he aim of this review is to provide an update on key health considerations for the HIV-infected traveler.Recent FindingsLike all travelers, the HIV-infected traveler should adhere to behavioral preca...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - April 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Outpatient Pediatric Antibiotic Use: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe majority of pediatric antibiotic use occurs in outpatients. However, the optimal strategies for antimicrobial stewardship in this setting are unknown. We sought to identify studies relevant to pediatric outpatient stewardship that have been published in the past decade. The details of this systemic review are presented along with targets for future stewardship efforts and discussion regarding effective outpatient stewardship strategies.Recent FindingsIn 2016, the CDC released the “Core Elements of Outpatient Antibiotic Stewardship” that serve as practical guidelines to develop impac...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - March 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Safe Travel Preparation for HIV-Infected Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewInfectious diseases are a risk when traveling internationally, and it is important to know the potential disease burden of a region and take appropriate preventative actions before traveling. For individuals with HIV, there are special considerations and contradictions for various vaccines and medications as well as interactions with likely antiviral drugs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the vaccine and medication recommendations for travelers with HIV infection. We also review recent studies to update these recommendations.Recent FindingsThe recommendation for yellow fever vaccine has ...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - March 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Self-Collection and Molecular Diagnosis for Detection of Human Papillomavirus: Why Incorporate It?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCervical cancer, the third cause of death by cancer among Brazil ’s women, is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In some countries of South America, North America, Europe, and Oceania, initial screening for HPV DNA and subsequent follow-up with HPV-positive patients using colposcopy and cytological testing are used as preventative measures.Recent FindingsFor HPV DNA detection, it is necessary to obtain cervical cells by conventional clinical collection method or self-collection of the cells that flake off from the uterine cervix and vaginal canal. Self-collection has been s...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevention Strategies for Recurrent Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus Skin and Soft Tissue Infections
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStaphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are a major source of morbidity. More than half of patients experiencing SSTI will have at least one recurrent infection. These infections frequently cluster in households. Given the burden these infections pose to patients and healthcare, prevention strategies are of major clinical importance and represent an active area of research. Bacterial colonization is frequently an early and critical step in the pathogenesis of infection. As such, strategies to prevent reinfection have aimed to decrease staphylococcal colonization of the skin and...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - March 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Advances and Challenges in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections: the Need for Diagnostic Stewardship
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUrinary tract infections (UTIs), including catheter-associated UTIs, are among the most common bacterial infections in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Diagnosis of true UTI remains a clinical challenge, and excessive antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) or contaminated urine cultures is common.Recent FindingsChallenges with the appropriate diagnosis of UTIs include the lack of specific signs and symptoms, no definitive diagnostic criteria, high incidence of ASB, contamination of samples, and frequent lack of indications for ordering urine cultures. Promising interventio...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - March 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Mortality Predictive Scores for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe use of severity score for the staging of pneumonias has emerged as a necessity for the physician caring for this disease. Although there are several established prognostic scoring systems for community-acquired pneumonia in adults, the availability for children are scarce.Recent FindingsRecently, scoring system for risk stratification of children with pneumonia were developed in low- and middle-income countries. They use clinical variables that represent known risk factors for severe outcomes of respiratory illness in children, such as hypoxemia, chest indrawing, refusal to feed, malnutrition, ...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - March 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Infections
AbstractPurpose of ReviewReview recent developments pertaining to the epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis, and sequelae of enterotoxigenicEscherichia coli (ETEC) infections in addition to discussion of challenges for vaccinology.Recent FindingsETEC are a major cause of diarrheal illness in resource poor areas of the world where they contribute to unacceptable morbidity and continued mortality particularly among young children; yet, precise epidemiologic estimates of their contribution to death and chronic disease have been difficult to obtain. Although most pathogenesis studies, and consequently vaccine development have f...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - March 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Biofilm Formations in Pediatric Respiratory Tract Infection Part 2: Mucosal Biofilm Formation by Respiratory Pathogens and Current and Future Therapeutic Strategies to Inhibit Biofilm Formation or Eradicate Established Biofilm
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to discuss the unique pathways of biofilm formation utilized by respiratory pathogens and current and future therapeutic strategies to inhibit biofilm formation or eradicate established biofilm in the context of these pathogens. Both nonselective and selective strategies for inhibiting biofilm formation or disrupting established biofilm are discussed.Recent FindingsNumerous strategies are being actively pursued to inhibit biofilm formation or eradicate established biofilm in respiratory pathogens. These can be broadly categorized by the stage of biofilm formation (adhe...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - March 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Biofilm Formations in Pediatric Respiratory Tract Infection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBiofilm represents an organized structure of microorganisms within an extracellular matrix attached to a surface. While the importance of biofilm in prosthetic heart valve and catheter-related infections has been known since the 1980s, the role of mucosal biofilm in human disease pathogenesis has only recently been elucidated. It is now clear that mucosal biofilm is present in both healthy and pathologic states. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of mucosal biofilm in pediatric respiratory infections.Recent FindingsMucosal biofilm has been implicated in relationship to several pediat...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - February 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antiretroviral Resistance Patterns in Children with HIV Infection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an update on the patterns of HIV drug resistance in children, including pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) and acquired drug resistance (ADR), focusing on children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for whom empiric first-line (FL) and second-line (SL) antiretroviral regimens are usually recommended.Recent FindingsHigh levels of PDR, particularly to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and poor treatment outcomes on NNRTI-based FL antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been widely reported among infants and young children. There is a paucity of recent data on the...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - February 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Management of CMV Colitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis is a relatively common end-organ infectious complication in immunocompromised hosts which negatively affects clinical outcomes. This paper presents the contemporary approaches to the diagnosis and management of CMV colitis and discusses some of the controversies of this condition, focusing on methods of diagnosis.Recent FindingsWhile certain risk factors for CMV colitis are well recognized, the clinical as well as endoscopic features of this condition are nonspecific. Rapid diagnosis and management are usually needed, especially in critically ill patients, which necess...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - February 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Recent Innovations in Diagnosis and Treatment of Pediatric Tuberculosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTuberculosis is leading cause of global morbidity and mortality and a significant proportion of the burden of disease occurs in children. In the past 5  years, a number of innovations have improved the diagnosis and treatment for children with both latent tuberculosis infection and active disease.Recent FindingsThis review discusses three key areas of innovation. First, we assess utilization and performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in different clinical and epidemiologic scenarios. Recent literature has demonstrated good performance of IGRAs for diagnosis of latent tuberculos...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - February 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Zika Virus-Associated Aseptic Meningitis and Guillain –Barre Syndrome in a Traveler Returning from Latin America: a Case Report and Mini-Review
AbstractZIKV-associated Guillain –Barré syndrome presents with an accelerated clinical course compared to classic post-infectious Guillain–Barré syndrome. Clinicians should anticipate and screen patients with ZIKV infection for neurologic complications bearing in mind that these may manifest during the acute viremic phase or during early convalescence. (Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports)
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - February 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Hospital Infection Prevention: How Much Can We Prevent and How Hard Should We Try?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the extent to which hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are preventable and to assess expectations, challenges, and barriers to improve patient outcomes.Recent FindingsHAIs cause significant morbidity and mortality. Getting to zero HAIs is a commonly stated goal yet leads to unrealistic expectations. The extent to which all HAIs can be prevented remains debatable and is subject to multiple considerations and barriers. Current infection prevention science is inexact and evolving. Evidence-based infection prevention practices are often incompletely implemented and at times controversial....
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - February 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clostridioides difficile – Associated Diarrhea: Infection Prevention Unknowns and Evolving Risk Reduction Strategies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNew controversies in the diagnosis and prevention ofClostridiodes difficile are challenging and at times changing infection control practice at many medical centers.Recent FindingsMolecular epidemiologic studies are changing our understanding ofC. difficile and its spectrum of disease.C. difficile as a hospital-acquired infection is likely largely overdiagnosed given overly sensitive molecular testing and widespread colonization of ill or debilitated patients.SummaryClostridiodes difficile infection continues to challenge infection prevention programs. Shifts in our understanding of the epidemiolog...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - January 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk of Dengue in Travelers: Implications for Dengue Vaccination
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDengue is found in tropics and subtropics that are considered to be popular travel destinations. We set out to review the burden of dengue on international travelers.Recent FindingsGeoSentinel, a global network of travel medicine providers, has seen an increasing trend of dengue in returning travelers over the past decades. In Southeast Asia, annual proportionate morbidity increased from 50 dengue cases per 1000 ill-returned travelers in non-epidemic years to an average of 159 cases per 1000 travelers during epidemic years. Dengue is the leading cause of fever in returning travelers, having overtak...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - October 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

An Update on Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests
AbstractPurpose of ReviewModern advances in malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) technology have increased demand for low-cost, easy-to-use assays in areas endemic for malaria. Substantial developments in diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, improvements in non-falciparum RDTs, and novel biotechnological innovations are gradually aligning the performance of RDTs with reference-level diagnostics including PCR and expert microscopy gold standards.Recent FindingsTrends have emerged in recent malaria RDT literature: (1) improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs forPlasmodium falciparum diagnosis, making them co...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - October 23, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Acinetobacter Infections in Neonates
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMDR-Gram-negative bacteria are a great concern in the neonatal population, with a worldwide rise in the reported incidence and with very limited therapeutic options.Acinetobacter baumannii is responsible for many infections in neonates and outbreaks in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); also, outbreaks caused by otherAcinetobacter species have been reported. The aim of this review is to document the epidemiology ofAcinetobacter spp. infections in neonates and risk factors for acquisition ofAcinetobacter spp. in the NICU using data from published studies.Recent FindingsAcinetobacter spp. infection...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - October 10, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Therapy in Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEmpirical antibiotic therapy remains the cornerstone of treatment in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the best option for empirical antibiotics for treatment on an ambulatory basis, as well as in those requiring hospitalization, is still unclear. This review tries to answer the question regarding the most appropriate antibiotics in different settings in children with CAP as well as duration of therapy.Recent FindingsRecent studies have provided insights regarding use of oral antibiotics in children with mild to moderate CAP, and severe CAP with lower chest retractions but no hypoxia. In...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - September 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Treating HIV-Positive/Non-AIDS Patients for Community-Acquired Pneumonia with ART
This article reviews the most recent publications on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the HIV-infected population on antiretroviral therapy (ART), focusing on epidemiology, prognostic factors, etiology, and antimicrobial therapy. The data discussed here were mainly obtained from a non-systematic review using Medline and references from relevant articles.Recent FindingsCAP remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients and incurs high health costs despite the introduction of ART.SummaryHIV-infected patients are generally known to be more susceptible to bacterial pneumonia.Streptococcus pne...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - September 10, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Moving Past the Routine Use of Macrolides —Reviewing the Role of Combination Therapy in Community-Acquired Pneumonia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDespite advances in diagnostic microbiology and sepsis management, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Current recommendations regarding the use of beta-lactams in combination with macrolides published in clinical practice guidelines are variable and based on low-quality evidence that is frequently retrospective, observational, and heterogeneous in nature. While population-based studies have historically suggested improved clinical outcomes with the routine use of macrolide combination therapy in hospitalized patients with CAP, emerging evidenc...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - September 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Infectious Diseases and Mass Gatherings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMass gatherings (MGs) are characterized by a high concentration of people at a specific time and location. Infectious diseases are of particular concern at MGs. The aim of this review was to summarize findings in the field of infectious diseases with a variety of pathogens associated with international MGs in the last 5  years.Recent FindingsIn the context of Hajj, one of the largest religious MGs at Mecca, Saudi Arabia, respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of infectious diseases in pilgrims with a prevalence of 50 –93%. The most commonly acquired respiratory viruses were h...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - August 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Candida parapsilosis Vaginal Infection —a New Site of Azole Drug Resistance
ConclusionClinicians are required to determine a causal relationship between vaginal isolates ofC. parapsilosis before prescribing antifungal agents, recognizing the possibility of fluconazole resistance to explain refractory symptomatology. (Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports)
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - August 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Sink-Related Outbreaks and Mitigation Strategies in Healthcare Facilities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we summarize recent outbreaks attributed to hospital sinks and examine design features and behaviors that contributed to these outbreaks. The effectiveness of various risk mitigation strategies is presented. Finally, we examine investigational strategies targeted at reducing the risk of sink-related infections.Recent FindingsOutbreaks of hospital sink-related infections involve a diverse spectrum of microorganisms. They can be attributed to defects in sink design and hospital wastewater systems that promote the formation and dispersion of biofilm, as well as healthcare practitioner ...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - August 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Effect of Spray Cryotherapy on Microbial Biofilms in Chronic Rhinosinusitis
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of spray cryotherapy as a biofilm disruption agent in CRS in an in vitro model.Recent FindingsA total of 23 patients with CRS undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) were included. Rhinosinusal mucosa samples were harvested. Half of sample was left intact while the other half was treated with spray cryotherapy, so patients served as their own witnesses. Subsequently, they were processed to hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and toluidine blue (TB) staining and analyzed by light microscopy. Biofilms were detected in 17 of 23 patients with CRS. Staining by HE showed strong co...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - August 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Zoonotic Influenza and Human Health —Part 1: Virology and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Influenzas
AbstractPurpose of ReviewZoonotic influenza viruses are those that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. They have also been implicated in the causation of deadly pandemics in recent history. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this first part of a two-part review, we describe the structure of zoonotic influenza viruses, the relationship between mutation and pandemic capacity, pathogenesis of i...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship: State of the Art
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe aim to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and antimicrobial stewardship (AS) strategies in the United States (US) inpatient setting. Furthermore, we review current gaps and challenges for unique pediatric populations and those in ambulatory settings.Recent FindingsMisuse and overuse of antimicrobials have been identified as key factors for antimicrobial resistance (AR). Multiple professional organizations support the implementation of hospital-based ASPs to decrease antimicrobial consumption, improve patient outcomes, ...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Zoonotic Influenza and Human Health —Part 2: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention Strategies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewZoonotic influenza viruses are those influenza viruses that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this second part of a two-part review, we discuss the clinical features, diagnostic modalities, and treatment of zoonotic influenza, and provide an overview of prevention strategies.Recent FindingsIllnesses caused by novel reassortant avi...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Diabetic Foot Infections: Update on Management
In this report, we present the diagnosis and management of DFIs according to their classification.Recent FindingsWhile appropriate antibiotic regiments and surgical techniques for the treatment of DFIs are well established, new technologies and techniques for example in medical imaging, wound care modalities, and supplementary therapy approaches show potentially promising results in preventing DFIs.SummaryAs with every complex disease, fine tuning DFI management can be challenging as it requires careful evaluation of different parameters. It demands timely action, close collaboration of different specialties, and patient c...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Zoonotic Influenza and Human Health —Part 1: Virology and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Influenzas
AbstractPurpose of ReviewZoonotic influenza viruses are those that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. They have also been implicated in the causation of deadly pandemics in recent history. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this first part of a two-part review, we describe the structure of zoonotic influenza viruses, the relationship between mutation and pandemic capacity, pathogenesis of i...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship: State of the Art
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe aim to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and antimicrobial stewardship (AS) strategies in the United States (US) inpatient setting. Furthermore, we review current gaps and challenges for unique pediatric populations and those in ambulatory settings.Recent FindingsMisuse and overuse of antimicrobials have been identified as key factors for antimicrobial resistance (AR). Multiple professional organizations support the implementation of hospital-based ASPs to decrease antimicrobial consumption, improve patient outcomes, ...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Zoonotic Influenza and Human Health —Part 2: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention Strategies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewZoonotic influenza viruses are those influenza viruses that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this second part of a two-part review, we discuss the clinical features, diagnostic modalities, and treatment of zoonotic influenza, and provide an overview of prevention strategies.Recent FindingsIllnesses caused by novel reassortant avi...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Diabetic Foot Infections: Update on Management
In this report, we present the diagnosis and management of DFIs according to their classification.Recent FindingsWhile appropriate antibiotic regiments and surgical techniques for the treatment of DFIs are well established, new technologies and techniques for example in medical imaging, wound care modalities, and supplementary therapy approaches show potentially promising results in preventing DFIs.SummaryAs with every complex disease, fine tuning DFI management can be challenging as it requires careful evaluation of different parameters. It demands timely action, close collaboration of different specialties, and patient c...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Substance Use and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy: What Is Known and What Is Unknown
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeople who use drugs face multiple challenges to achieve optimal HIV treatment outcomes. This review discusses the current knowledge in substance use and antiretroviral therapy adherence, highlighting recent findings and potential interventions.Recent FindingsStudies continue to demonstrate the negative impacts of substance use and related disorders on antiretroviral therapy adherence, with the exception of cannabis. Evidence-based addiction treatment, in particular, opioid agonist therapy, appears to improve adherence levels. Most individual-level adherence specific interventions did not provide s...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - July 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Hospital-Acquired Infections Under Pay-for-Performance Systems: an Administrative Perspective on Management and Change
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to explore the impact of hospital-acquired infection on payment under pay-for-performance systems, and provide perspective on the role of administrators in infection prevention.Recent FindingsHospital-acquired infections continue to pose a serious threat to patient safety and to the fiscal viability of healthcare facilities under pay-for-performance systems. There is mixed evidence that use of pay-for-performance systems leads to prevention of hospital-acquired conditions. Use of evidence-based guidelines has been shown to reduce hospital-acquired infections.SummaryInc...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - July 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Acute Flaccid Paralysis and Enteroviral Infections
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe focus of this review is on enterovirus (EV)-associated acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) due to spinal cord anterior horn cell disease. Emphasis is placed on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of AFP caused by polioviruses, vaccine-derived polioviruses, EV-D68, and EV-A71.Recent FindingsSince the launch of The Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, the worldwide incidence of polio has been reduced by 99.9%, with small numbers of poliomyelitis cases being reported only in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. With the planned phaseout of oral polio vaccine, vaccine...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evolving Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis: Implications for Vaccination
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe examine the present global burden of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in endemic populations, summarize published cases in travelers since 2009, examine current guidelines for vaccination for international travelers, and consider challenges in prevention of this vector-borne disease.Recent FindingsWe identified 11 JE cases in travelers that were published in peer-reviewed literature since 2009. JE incidence in endemic countries appears to be declining but the number of JE cases reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) varied from estimates derived from other published reports based on serosurve...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Current State of Antimicrobial Stewardship: Challenges, Successes, and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this study is to examine the current state of the field of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) by highlighting key challenges and successes, as well as exciting future directions.Recent FindingsAS mandates from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) and the Joint Commission (TJC) will stimulate increased compliance with current AS standards, but overall compliance is currently poor. Key challenges to progress in the field of AS include insufficient workforce and monetary resources, poorly defined AS metrics, and much needed expansion beyond the inpatient hospital setting. Despite these c...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ureaplasma urealyticum : the Role as a Pathogen in Women ’s Health, a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo evaluate the role ofUreaplasma urealyticum as a genital pathogen in women ’s health. Three aspects were analyzed: (1) preterm delivery (PTD); (2) female infertility; and (3) lower genital tract pathology including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), cervicitis, and genital discomfort (discharge, burning).Recent FindingsA systematic review was performed. Searching PUBMED and EMBASE for published articles from January 2003 to September 2017 using the key word “Ureaplasma urealyticum” yielded 1835 manuscripts. These were further screened using defined inclusion criteria: (1) origin...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research