Trends, Associations, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi in Pakistan.

We report a total of 17,387 S. Typhi-positive and 8,286 S. Paratyphi A and B-positive specimens from 798,137 blood cultures performed. The results suggest an overall decline in typhoid incidence as S. Typhi positivity rates declined from 6.42% in 1992 to 1.32% in 2015 and S. Paratyphi (A and B) from 1.29% to 0.39%. Subgroup analysis suggests higher S. Typhi prevalence in adults older than 18 years, whereas S. Paratyphi is greater in aged children 5-18 years. The relative contribution of S. Paratyphi to overall confirmed cases increased from 16.8% in 1992 to 23% in 2015. The analysis suggests high burden of fluoroquinolone resistance and multidrug-resistant S. Typhi strains. Statistically significant associations of water, sanitation indicators, and literacy rates were observed with typhoid positivity. Despite some progress, typhoid remains endemic and a strong political will is required for targeted typhoid control strategies. A multipronged approach of improving water, sanitation and hygiene in combination with large-scale immunization in endemic settings of Pakistan could help reduce burden and prevent epidemics. PMID: 30047366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Related Links:

No abstract available
Source: Medical Care - Category: Health Management Tags: Special Commentary Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: The Lancet Neurology, Volume 19, Issue 1Author(s): João Batista Santos Garcia, José Osvaldo Barbosa Neto
Source: The Lancet Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
Condition:   Antibiotic Reaction Intervention:   Diagnostic Test: urine culture Sponsor:   Batool Mutar Completed
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
This study evaluated the efficacy of low-energy X-ray with cut-off energy of 150 KeV to inactivate two of the most prevalent foodborne pathogens in dry edible bird's nest (EBN). The X-ray irradiation at 350 and 400 Gy decreased E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium from 6.35 ± 0.56 and 5.84 ± 0.67 log CFU/g, respectively, to undetectable level. The low-energy X-ray irradiation yielded the tR1 value of 37.6 ± 6.9 and the D10 value of 83.3 ± 7.0 Gy for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium, respectively, which indicates that S. Typhimurium exhibited...
Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Journal of Microbiological MethodsAuthor(s): Miaomiao Hu, Dong Yang, Xiaoli Wu, Meng Luo, Feng XuAbstractTo establish a simple and rapid high-resolution melting curve (HRM) method, 5 different strains of Salmonella were identified by adding DNA denaturants at different concentrations into the HRM system to change the characteristics of DNA melting and to obtain different Tm (dissolving temperature) values of DNA from different target bacteria. When the concentration of n-butanol was 7% (v/v), the Tm value of the melting curve of the 5 strains changed from 89 °...
Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Rising antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a recognised threat to global health. There is a perception that poor prescribing practices contribute to the problem, although data confirming this are limited. Reliable data on the quality of antimicrobial prescribing in UK hospitals are not available, with hospital drug-purchasing data most often being used ...
Source: The Pharmaceutical Journal - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: EDITORIALS Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Volume 20Author(s): Ana Lucia D. Moro, Maria Helena Rigatto
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur results indicate a polyclonal dissemination of mcr-1.1 in the environment surrounding the first MCR-producing E. coli strain reported in Ecuador. Our findings support the idea of lateral dissemination of mcr-1.1 gene between unrelated E. coli isolates
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
More News: Antimicrobial Resistance | Children | Endemics | Epidemics | Epidemiology | Hospitals | Multidrug Resistance | Pakistan Health | Politics | Salmonella | Statistics | Study | Tropical Medicine | Typhoid