Trends, Associations, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi in Pakistan.

We report a total of 17,387 S. Typhi-positive and 8,286 S. Paratyphi A and B-positive specimens from 798,137 blood cultures performed. The results suggest an overall decline in typhoid incidence as S. Typhi positivity rates declined from 6.42% in 1992 to 1.32% in 2015 and S. Paratyphi (A and B) from 1.29% to 0.39%. Subgroup analysis suggests higher S. Typhi prevalence in adults older than 18 years, whereas S. Paratyphi is greater in aged children 5-18 years. The relative contribution of S. Paratyphi to overall confirmed cases increased from 16.8% in 1992 to 23% in 2015. The analysis suggests high burden of fluoroquinolone resistance and multidrug-resistant S. Typhi strains. Statistically significant associations of water, sanitation indicators, and literacy rates were observed with typhoid positivity. Despite some progress, typhoid remains endemic and a strong political will is required for targeted typhoid control strategies. A multipronged approach of improving water, sanitation and hygiene in combination with large-scale immunization in endemic settings of Pakistan could help reduce burden and prevent epidemics. PMID: 30047366 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Arab JP, Dirchwolf M, Álvares-da-Silva MR, Barrera F, Benítez C, Castellanos-Fernandez M, Castro-Narro G, Chavez-Tapia N, Chiodi D, Cotrim H, Cusi K, de Oliveira CPMS, Díaz J, Fassio E, Gerona S, Girala M, Hernandez N, Marciano S, Masson W, Mendez-Sanchez N, Leite N, Lozano A, Padilla M, Panduro A, Paraná R, Parise E, Perez M, Poniachik J, Restrepo JC, Ruf A, Silva M, Tagle M, Tapias M, Torres K, Vilar-Gomez E, Costa Gil JE, Gadano A, Arrese M Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) currently represents an epidemic worldwide. NAFLD is the most frequently diagnosed chr...
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the wound healing effects of babassu oil. In vitro, babassu oil increased the migration of L929 fibroblasts, inhibited the production of nitric oxide by LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, and increased the levels of INF-γ and IL-6 cytokines production. In vivo, babassu oil accelerated the healing process in a full-thickness splinted wound model, by an increase in the fibroblasts number, blood vessels, and collagen deposition in the wounds. The babassu oil also increased the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the wound site and showed an anti-inflammatory effec...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
In this digital age the impact of media can be observed in all walks of life. All media users are being influenced by one or another type of media, however the amount of effect and time may vary. One cannot deny the fact that the images that are being show...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): Elma L. Leite, Wydemberg J. Araújo, Tatiana R. Vieira, Karoline S. Zenato, Priscylla C. Vasconcelos, Samuel Cibulski, Patricia E.N. Givisiez, Marisa R.I. Cardoso, Celso J.B. Oliveira
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2020Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): E.L. Looman, P. van Tienen, D.Y.K. Ng, S. Baig, A. Fait, S. Overballe-Petersen, P.S. Andersen, M. Stegger
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionThe meta-analysis suggested the substantial role ofVEGF polymorphism rs3025039 as a possible biomarker for the assessment of DR risk. However, genome-wide association study (GWAS) is required in future to elucidate the multi-SNP effect of these polymorphisms inVEGF gene.
Source: International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
After being epidemic in China, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) infection has rapidly spread in many countries as a global pandemic, with the number of affected cases dramatically increasing worldwide on a daily basis. Although the median age of hospitalized patients with confirmed infection is usually more advanced 1, with older age reported to be associated to higher mortality rate 2, physiological adaptations occurring during pregnancy have been claimed to be potentially responsible for a more severe respiratory disease, thus leading to higher rates of maternal and fetal complications 3,4.
Source: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research
Authors: Stanhope J, Weinstein P PMID: 33029790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Medical Journal of Australia - Category: General Medicine Tags: Med J Aust Source Type: research
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