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Complex neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of histone deacetylases

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Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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Abstract The evolutionarily conserved FOXO family of transcription factors has emerged as a significant arbiter of neural cell fate and function in mammals. From the neural stem cell (NSC) state through mature neurons under both physiological and pathological conditions, they have been found to modulate neural cell survival, stress responses, lineage commitment, and neuronal signaling. Lineage-specific FOXO knockout mice have provided an invaluable tool for the dissection of FOXO biology in the nervous system. Within the NSC compartments of the brain, FOXOs are required for the maintenance of NSC quiescence and fo...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease and prion disease are not timely and effectively treated using conventional therapies. This emphasizes the need for alternative therapeutic approaches. In this respect, gene-based therapies have been adopted as potentially feasible alternative therapies, where the microRNA (miRNA) approach has experienced a great explosion in recent years. Because miRNAs have been shown to be implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, they are intens...
Source: Current Gene Therapy - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Curr Gene Ther Source Type: research
"Understanding the Role of Hypoxia inducible factor during neurodegeneration for new therapeutics opportunities". Curr Neuropharmacol. 2018 Jan 10;: Authors: Merelli A, Rodriguez JCG, Folch J, Regueiro MR, Camins A, Alberto L Abstract Neurodegeneration (NDG) is linked with the progressive loss of neural function with intellectual and/or motor impairment. Several diseases affecting older individuals, including Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, Multiple Sclerosis and many others, are the most relevant disorders associated wit...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract Recent studies have illuminated the crucial role of astrocytes in maintaining proper neuronal health and function. Abnormalities in astrocytic functions have now been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Historically, drug development programs for neurodegenerative diseases generally target only neurons, overlooking the contributions of astrocytes. Therefore, targeting both disease neurons and astrocytes offers a new approach for drug development for th...
Source: Drug Discovery Today - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Drug Discov Today Source Type: research
Abstract Extracellular vesicles (EVs), based on their origin or size, can be classified as apoptotic bodies, microvesicles (MVs)/microparticles (MPs), and exosomes. EVs are one of the new emerging modes of communication between cells that are providing new insights into the pathophysiology of several diseases. EVs released from activated or apoptotic cells contain specific proteins (signaling molecules, receptors, integrins, cytokines), bioactive lipids, nucleic acids (mRNA, miRNA, small non coding RNAs, DNA) from their progenitor cells. In the brain, EVs contribute to intercellular communication through their bas...
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research
Authors: Matilla-Dueñas A, Corral-Juan M, Rodríguez-Palmero Seuma A, Vilas D, Ispierto L, Morais S, Sequeiros J, Alonso I, Volpini V, Serrano-Munuera C, Pintos-Morell G, Álvarez R, Sánchez I Abstract More than 600 human disorders afflict the nervous system. Of these, neurodegenerative diseases are usually characterised by onset in late adulthood, progressive clinical course, and neuronal loss with regional specificity in the central nervous system. They include Alzheimer's disease and other less frequent dementias, brain cancer, degenerative nerve diseases, encephalitis, epilepsy, geneti...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Formation of toxic protein aggregates is a common feature and mainly contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), which include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and prion diseases. The transglutaminase 2 (TG2) gene encodes a multifunctional enzyme, displaying four types of activity, such as transamidation, GTPase, protein disulfide isomerase, and protein kinase activities. Many studies demonstrated that the calcium-dependent transamidation activity of TG2 affected the formation of insoluble and toxic amyloid aggregates that mainly consis...
Source: BMB Reports - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research
This study cohort is a healthy subset of the EpiPath cohort, excluding all participants with acute or chronic diseases. With a mediation analysis we examined whether CMV titers may account for immunosenescence observed in ELA. In this study, we have shown that ELA is associated with higher levels of T cell senescence in healthy participants. Not only did we find a higher number of senescent cells (CD57+), these cells also expressed higher levels of CD57, a cell surface marker for senescence, and were more cytotoxic in ELA compared to controls. Control participants with high CMV titers showed a higher number of senes...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Hormesis is a near ubiquitous phenomenon in living organisms and their component parts: a little damage, a short or mild exposure to damaging circumstances, can result in a net benefit to health and longevity. Cells respond to damage or stress by increasing their self-repair efforts for some period of time, maintaining their function more effectively than would otherwise have been the case. At the high level, the outcomes of hormesis have been measured for a wide variety of stresses and systems, from individual cells to entire organisms. At the low level of specific biochemical processes and interaction of components insid...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
Owen ProudfootNeurology India 2017 65(6):1241-1247The collective evidence to date suggests that environmental exposure to excessive amounts of manganese (Mn) can cause a neurodegenerative condition known as manganism. It is now also relatively clear that Mn is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and at least some prion diseases. The potential involvement of Mn in a panel of other neurodegenerative conditions including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Batten disease has been suggested and investigated, but the results to date are somewhat inconclusive....
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
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