Ebola and Marburg virus vaccines

AbstractThe filoviruses, Ebola virus (EBOV), and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most pathogenic viruses known to man and the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Africa with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Nearly 30,000 infections were observed in the latest EBOV epidemic in West Africa; previous outbreaks were much smaller, typically only affecting less than a few hundred people. Compared to other diseases such as AIDS or Malaria with millions of cases annually, filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) is one of the neglected infectious diseases. There are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics available to treat EBOV and MARV infections; therefore, these pathogens can only be handled in maximum containment laboratories and are classified as select agents. Under these limitations, a very few laboratories worldwide conducted basic research and countermeasure development for EBOV and MARV since their respective discoveries in 1967 (MARV) and 1976 (EBOV). In this review, we discuss several vaccine platforms against EBOV and MARV, which have been assessed for their protective efficacy in animal models of FHF. The focus is on the most promising approaches, which were accelerated in clinical development (phase I –III trials) during the EBOV epidemic in West Africa.
Source: Virus Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

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