A highly virulent canine distemper virus strain isolated from vaccinated mink in China
AbstractAn outbreak of canine distemper in 2017 in mink breeding farms (Shandong province, China) caused severe pneumonia, hardened footpads, and death in more than 5000 vaccinated animals. Sequencing of the hemagglutinin and fusion protein genes from the WH2 canine distemper virus (CDV) strain we isolated from the infected minks were clustered into the recently isolated CDV Asia-1 genotype group. The WH2 strain was distinct from the current vaccine strains, containing a novel potential N-glycosylation site in its hemagglutinin protein. It also contained amino acid mutations in the fusion protein gene (I87N, T110P and L386...
Source: Virus Genes - May 5, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV) ORF 95 encodes a late, structural envelope protein
In this study, AngHVORF95 was characterized. Bioinformatics analysis showed thatORF95 putatively encodes a structural protein that is homologous to hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein of infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). Temporal transcription and expression analysis indicated thatORF95 is a viral late gene. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that ORF95 was predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. Further, western blot analysis indicated that ORF95 is a structural protein of virion envelope. These results provide a novel basis to make further efforts to clarify the function of ORF95 in the process of AngHV in...
Source: Virus Genes - April 30, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Complete genome sequences of novel Berlinvirus and novel Certrevirus lytic for Pectobacterium sp. causing soft rot and black leg disease of potato
AbstractTwo novel dsDNA bacteriophages namedPectobacterium virus CB251 (PcCB251) andPectobacterium virus CB7V (PcCB7V) targeting plant pathogenPectobacterium parmentieri have been isolated and sequenced. The PcCB251 genome consists of 40,557  bp with G+C content of 48.6% and contains 47 predicted genes on a single strand. The phage is classified in genusBerlinvirus, familyAutographiviridae. The PcCB7V phage has a circular dsDNA genome of 146,054  bp with G+C content of 50.4% and contains 269 predicted protein genes on both strands and 13 tRNA genes. The PcCB7V phage can be classified in genusCertrevirus, subfamil...
Source: Virus Genes - April 29, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genome characterization of parsley severe stunt-associated virus in Iran
AbstractParsley severe stunt-associated virus (PSSaV) is a recently identified nanovirus first reported in Germany. During a survey for identification of nanoviruses infecting apiaceous plants in south-eastern Iran, PSSaV was identified and characterized using a combination of rolling circle amplification (RCA) and high-throughput sequencing. Parsley plant samples were collected from vegetable production farms in Kerman province. From two symptomatic samples (39Ba and 40Ba), seven PSSaV components (DNA-C, -S, -M, -R, -N, -U1 and -U2) with two phylogenetically distinct variants of DNA-R (R1 and R2) were identified. In commo...
Source: Virus Genes - April 21, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Detection of mink astrovirus in Poland and further phylogenetic comparison with other European and Canadian astroviruses
AbstractMink astrovirus infection remains a poorly understood disease entity, and the aetiological agent itself causes disease with a heterogeneous course, including gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms. This paper presents cases of astrovirus infection in mink from continental Europe. RNA was isolated from the brains and intestines of animals showing symptoms typical of shaking mink syndrome (n = 6). RT-PCR was used to amplify astrovirus genetic material, and the reaction products were separated on a 1% agarose gel. The specificity of the reaction was confirmed by sequencing fragment coding RdRP protei...
Source: Virus Genes - April 15, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Isolation and genetic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 from Indian patients in a single family without H/O travel abroad
AbstractIn view of the rapidly progressing COVID-19 pandemic, our aim was to isolate and characterize SARS-CoV-2 from Indian patients. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs collected from the two members of a family without any history of (H/O) travel abroad. Both the virus isolates (8003 and 8004) showed CPE on day 3 post-inoculation, viral antigens by immunofluorescence assay and produced distinct, clear and uniform plaques. Infectious virus titers were 5  × 106 and 4  × 106 Pfu/ml by plaque assay and 107.5 and 107 by CPE-based TCID50/ml, respectively. Phylogenetic anal...
Source: Virus Genes - March 8, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The host cellular protein Ndufaf4 interacts with the vesicular stomatitis virus M protein and affects viral propagation
AbstractVesicular stomatitis virus  (VSV) is an archetypal member of Mononegavirales which causes important diseases in cattle, horses and pigs. The matrix protein (M) of VSV plays critical roles in the replication, assembly/budding and pathogenesis of VSV. To further investigate the role of M during viral growth, we used a two-hyb rid system to screen for host factors that interact with the M protein. Here, NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex assembly factor 4 (Ndufaf4) was identified as an M-binding partner, and this interaction was confirmed by yeast cotransformation and GST pulldown assays. The ...
Source: Virus Genes - February 26, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of poleroviruses isolated from oilseed rape in Greece
AbstractIn 2018 virus-like symptoms, typical of polerovirus infection were observed in several oilseed rape crops in northern Greece. In order to identify the etiological agent of these symptoms a polerovirus-generic RT-PCR assay was applied. Sequencing of the amplicons revealed the presence of virus isolates genetically close to turnip yellows virus (TuYV). Further molecular characterization of the near complete genome of ‘1–2’, ‘Geo1’, ‘Geo7’ and ‘Geo15’ isolates revealed that they share >  96% nt identity with various TuYV sequences. On the other han...
Source: Virus Genes - February 25, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Profiling of alternative polyadenylation and gene expression in PEDV-infected IPEC-J2 cells
In this study, we used in vitro transcription sequencing alternative polyadenylation sites (IVT-SAPAS) method, which allowed accurate profi ling of gene expression and alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites to profile APA switching genes and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in IPEC-J2 cells during PEDV variant strain infection. We found 804 APA switching genes, including switching in tandem 3′ UTRs and switching between coding r egion and 3′ UTR, and 1,677 DEGs in host after PEDV challenge. These genes participated in variety of biological processes such as cellular process, metabolism and immunity reacti...
Source: Virus Genes - February 23, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The effect of single amino acid substitution at position 220 in the hemagglutinin glycoprotein on avian influenza H7N9 candidate vaccine virus
AbstractInfluenza vaccines represent the most effective preventive strategy to control influenza virus infections; however, adaptive mutations frequently occur in the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein during the preparation of candidate vaccine virus and production of vaccine in embryonated eggs. In our previous study, we constructed candidate vaccine virus (HA-R) to match the highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 viruses A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016 as part of a pandemic preparedness program. However, mixed amino acids (R, G, and I) were presented at position 220 (H3 numbering) in HA during passage in embryonated eggs. The res...
Source: Virus Genes - February 19, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Comparison of two Turnip mosaic virus P1 proteins in their ability to co-localize with the Arabidopsis thaliana G3BP-2 protein
AbstractTurnip mosaic virus (TuMV), belonging to the genus Potyvirus (familyPotyviridae), has a large host range and consists of a single-stranded positive sense RNA genome encoding 12 proteins, including the P1 protease. This protein which is separated from the polyprotein by cis cleavage at its respective C-terminus, has been attributed with different functions during potyviral infection of plants. P1 of Turnip mosaic virus (P1-TuMV) harbors an FGSF-motif and FGSL-motif at its N-terminus. This motif is predicted to be a binding site for the host Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein (G3BP), which is a key factor ...
Source: Virus Genes - February 18, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Prophylactic strategies to control chikungunya virus infection
AbstractChikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a (re)emerging arbovirus and the causative agent of chikungunya fever. In recent years, CHIKV was responsible for a series of outbreaks, some of which had serious economic and public health impacts in the affected regions. So far, no CHIKV-specific antiviral therapy or vaccine has been approved. This review gives a brief summary on CHIKV epidemiology, spread, infection and diagnosis. It furthermore deals with the strategies against emerging diseases, drug development and the possibilities of testing antivirals against CHIKV in vitro and in vivo. With our review, we hope to provide the l...
Source: Virus Genes - February 15, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Natural intertypic and intratypic recombinants of enterovirus 71 from mainland China during 2009 –2018: a complete genome analysis
This study reports these specific intertypic and intratypic recombination events for the first time highlighting the importance of genetic recombination in the emergence of new enterovirus variants. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - February 11, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Giant virus-related sequences in the 5300-year-old Ötzi mummy metagenome
AbstractGiant viruses have brought new perspectives on the virosphere. They have been increasingly described in humans, including in several metagenomic studies. Here, we searched into the metagenome of the 5300-year-old Ötzi mummy for the presence of giant virus-related sequences using MG-Digger pipeline. We found 19 reads (0.00006% of the total read number) that best matched (mean ± standard deviation (range) fore-values of 5.0E-6  ± 1.4E-6 (6.0E-5–4.0E-10) and for amino acid identity of 69.9 ± 8.7% (46.4–84.9%) and most significantly with se...
Source: Virus Genes - February 10, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of potential infectious bursal disease virus VP3-interacting proteins in chicken embryo fibroblasts cells
This study would help explore regulatory pathways and cellular mechanisms in IBDV-infected cells, and also provided clues for the in-depth study of VP3 biological functions and IBDV replication or pathogenesis. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - February 9, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Novel herpesvirus discovered in walrus liver
AbstractA walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) born in an aquarium and hand-reared in Japan died at the age of 11  months. The affected animal showed fever and anorexia and had high levels of AST and ALT. Necropsy showed multiple necroses in the liver and adrenal glands and histological examination revealed necrotic lesions of the liver and adrenal cortex, both of which contained intranuclear inclusions. Elect ron microscopic analysis of the liver sample showed herpesvirus-like particles. High-throughput sequencing analysis of the liver sample and phylogenetic analysis of herpesvirus polymerase genes identified a new virus, Wal...
Source: Virus Genes - February 9, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

First complete genome sequence of an isolate of cowpea severe mosaic virus from South America
In this study, the complete nucleotide sequence of a Brazilian isolate of cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV) is presented for the first time. To date, the CPSMV-DG isolate, from the USA, is the only one with the complete known genome. High-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq) and Sanger sequencing of the total RNA extract from a cowpea plant collected in Teresina city, Brazil, revealed the genome sequence of the CPSMV-Ter1 isolate. RNA-1 and RNA-2 are, respectively, 5921 and 3465 nucleotides (nt) long without the poly(A) tail, and show 77.91% and 76.08% nt sequence identity with CPSMV-DG, considered the type isolate of t...
Source: Virus Genes - February 8, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Development and application of reverse genetic technology for the influenza virus
This article will review the development and application of influenza virus reverse genetic technology. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - February 2, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Correction to: Potential reverse spillover of infectious bursal disease virus at the interface of commercial poultry and wild birds
The original version of this article unfortunately contained an error in figure. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - January 30, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Comparison of whole genomes of tick-borne encephalitis virus from mountainous alpine regions and regions with a lower altitude
AbstractTick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been a notifiable disease in Germany since 2001. Its causative agent, the TBE virus (TBEV), is the most important arbovirus in Europe and Northern Asia. The illness, caused by the European Subtype usually displays flu-like symptoms, but can result in sequelae and, in 2 % of all cases, in death. Over the last few decades, the virus has spread into new habitats, such as higher altitudes in the Alpine region. For this study, it was hypothesized that the environmental challenges that the virus might be exposed to at such altitudes could lead to the selection of viral strains with a hig...
Source: Virus Genes - January 24, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Biological characteristics and genomic analysis of a Stenotrophomonas maltophilia phage vB_SmaS_BUCT548
This study reports a novelS. maltophilia phage named vB_SmaS_BUCT548, which has a short incubation period, strong lytic ability, and a wide host range. The main characteristic of this bacteriophage is the novelty of the genomic sequence and the analysis of the other characteristics provides basic data for further exploring the interaction mechanism between the phage and the host. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - January 20, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

In vitro inhibitory effect of maraviroc on the association of the simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein with CCR5
AbstractAsian macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) isolated from African non-human primates develop a disease similar to human AIDS. SIV enters its target cells by binding to CD4 and a coreceptor, typically CCR5. Maraviroc is an entry inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that prevents the interaction between CCR5 and the surface subunit gp120 of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Thus far, the activity of maraviroc on SIV entry has been poorly studied. Here, we determined in vitro pharmacological parameters of the effect of maraviroc on the SIV Env association with CCR5. Cel...
Source: Virus Genes - January 5, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Removal of 3C protease from the 3ABC improves expression, solubility, and purification of the recombinant 3AB of foot-and-mouth disease  virus
In this study, alternatively to expressing the recombinant 3ABC (r3ABC), we expressed the 3AB coding sequence (~672  bp) as a recombinant protein (r3AB) with a molecular mass of ~26 KDa. Analytical data from three-dimensional structure, hydrophilicity, and antigenic properties for 3ABC and 3AB exhibited the 3C protein as a hydrophobic, while 3AB as a hydrophilic and highly antigenic protein. The expressed r3AB w as recovered as a completely soluble matter after merely native purification, unlike the full expressed r3ABC. Immunoreactivity of r3AB to anti-FMDV antibody in infected sera with different FMDV serotypes was ...
Source: Virus Genes - January 5, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Full-length genome characterization of a novel alphapartitivirus detected in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hygrophorus penarioides
AbstractVirus populations of ectomycorrhizal fungi remain poorly studied. In the present study, we characterized a new partitivirus isolated from the basidiomycetous, ectomycorrhizal fungusHygrophorus penarioides, named “Hygrophorus penarioides partitivirus 1” (HpPV1). The whole genome of HpPV1, determined by merging deep sequencing and RLM-RACE approaches, comprised two dsRNA segments of 2053 bp and 2072 bp, respectively. Both dsRNA genome segments included a single open reading frame (ORF), encoding a putat ive RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and a capsid protein (CP), respectively. Based on BL...
Source: Virus Genes - January 3, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Effects of β-HPV on DNA damage response pathways to drive carcinogenesis: a review
AbstractThe DDR is a complex signaling network responsible for the preservation of genomic integrity. Beta human papillomaviruses ( β-HPVs) are able to destabilize the host genome by attenuating the DDR machinery at the molecular scale following expression of the oncogenes E6 and E7. In the event of β-HPV infection, the E6- and E7-mediated inhibition of the DDR enhances the oncogenicity of UV-induced mutations to enable carcin ogenesis in an otherwise immunocompetent host, marking an important mechanistic divergence from the alpha genus of HPVs. In this review, we summarize recent updates to build upon the &lsquo...
Source: Virus Genes - January 3, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

PK15 cell line stably overexpressing IL2 enhances PCV2 replication
AbstractPorcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary agent responsible for porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVADs), which is acknowledged as one of the most economically important diseases for the swine industry worldwide. Currently, the development of PCV2 vaccine against PCVADs and for other applications require large amounts of viral  particles. The low propagation rate of PCV2 in vitro limits vaccine production. Previous studies showed that a cell line transfected with the porcine interleukin (IL)-2 gene gave higher PCV2 yield in vitro. However, transient transfection may become less effective and unsta...
Source: Virus Genes - January 3, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Peste des petits ruminants virus non-structural C protein inhibits the induction of interferon- β by potentially interacting with MAVS and RIG-I
AbstractPeste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an acute and highly contagious disease in domestic and wild small ruminants throughout the world, mainly by invoking immunosuppression in its natural hosts. It has been suggested that the non-structural C protein of PPRV helps in evading host responses but the molecular mechanisms by which it antagonizes the host responses have not been fully characterized. Here, we report the antagonistic effect of PPRV C protein on the expression of interferon- β (IFN-β) through both MAVS and RIG-I mediated pathways in vitro. Dual luciferase reporter assay and direct expres...
Source: Virus Genes - January 3, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Diversity of tomato-infecting begomoviruses and spatiotemporal dynamics of an endemic viral species of the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest biome
AbstractYield losses induced by a complex of begomoviruses are observed across all major tomato-producing areas in Brazil. Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) is the most widespread begomovirus in the country. Conversely, tomato common mosaic virus (ToCmMV) displays a more restricted geographical distribution to areas associated with the Atlantic Rain Forest (ARF) biome, encompassing the States of Esp írito Santo–ES, Minas Gerais–MG, and Rio de Janeiro–RJ. Here, we characterized 277 tomato-infecting isolates collected in fields located within the ARF biome from 2006 to 2018. ToSRV displayed the high...
Source: Virus Genes - November 24, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Molecular interactions of plant viral satellites
AbstractPlant viral satellites fall under the category of subviral agents. Their genomes are composed of small RNA or DNA molecules a few hundred nucleotides in length and contain an assortment of highly complex and overlapping functions. Each lacks the ability to either replicate or undergo encapsidation or both in the absence of a helper virus (HV). As the number of known satellites increases steadily, our knowledge regarding their sequence conservation strategies, means of replication and specific interactions with host and helper viruses is improving. This review demonstrates that the molecular interactions of these sa...
Source: Virus Genes - November 23, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

First identification and genomic characterization of equine hepacivirus sub-type 3 strain in China
AbstractEquine Hepacivirus (EqHV) is a newly discovered equine virus that is classified under theHepacivirus genus of theFlaviviridae family. There are three sub-types of EqHV worldwide namely; sub-types 1 –3. The majority of EqHV sub-type 1 strains were found in China. While different sub-types have been found in Japan and USA, therefore, to investigate whether the other sub-types of EqHV strains were present in China, a total of 60 horse serum samples were collected and screened for EqHV RNA throu gh RT-PCR. The results revealed that 19 serum samples were RNA-positive (19/60) and the EqHV detection rate was 31.67%....
Source: Virus Genes - November 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Tomato yellow vein streak virus and Tomato golden vein virus : a reappraisal of the classification status of two South American Begomovirus species based upon genome –wide pairwise identity of multiple isolates
AbstractTomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV) and tomato golden vein virus (TGVV) are begomoviruses reported infecting tomatoes and other hosts across South America. However, their close phylogenetic relationship has generated uncertainties about their taxonomic status and nomenclature. In fact, genomic DNA –A identity levels of isolates reported with an identical virus name may range from 89–100%. In view of the potential inaccuracy regarding the classification status of these viruses (strains vs. distinct species), we carried out a comprehensive set of analyses employing all 45 available isolates with comp...
Source: Virus Genes - November 19, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Co-infection of a novel fusagravirus and a partitivirus in a Korean isolate of Rosellinia necatrix KACC40168
We report here the presence of dsRNA mycoviruses in a Korean isolate ofRosellinia necatrix. A multiple band pattern of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) fromR. necatrix suggested mixed mycovirus infection. Next-generation sequencing analysis of purified dsRNAs indicated the presence of two dsRNA mycoviruses related to the members of families “Fusagraviridae” (proposed) andPartitiviridae. The first dsRNA virus revealed that the complete genome sequence was 8868  bp in size and contained two large open reading frames (ORFs 1 and 2), overlapped by 22 bp containing a canonical (− 1) slippery heptan...
Source: Virus Genes - November 7, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Identification of a reptile lyssavirus in Anolis allogus provided novel insights into lyssavirus evolution
In this study, we detected a lyssa-like virus from publicly available RNA-seq data obtained using the brain and skin ofAnolis allogus (Spanish flag anole), which was designated anole lyssa-like virus 1 (ALLV-1), and determined its complete coding sequence. Via mapping analysis, we demonstrated that ALLV-1 was actively replicating in the original brain and skin samples. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that ALLV-1 is more closely related to lyssaviruses than FLLV-1. Overall, the topology of the tree is compatible with that of hosts, suggesting the long-term co-divergence of lyssa-like and lyssaviruses and vertebrates. The &ps...
Source: Virus Genes - November 7, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Enigmatic PreS deletions in hepatitis B virus DNA
(Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - November 5, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Enzootic nasal tumor virus type 2 envelope of goats acts as a retroviral oncogene in cell transformation
AbstractEnzootic nasal tumor virus type 1 (ENTV-1) (ovine nasal tumor virus) and ENTV-2 (caprine nasal tumor virus) are known to be causative agents of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) in sheep and goats, respectively. Although the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of ENTV-1 and ENTV-2 are quite similar, they are recognized as phylogenetically distinct viruses. The envelope protein of ENTV-1 functions as an oncoprotein in the in vitro transformation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Thus, it is the primary determinant of in vivo tumorigenesis in ENA. As per our knowledge, no previous studies have reported in detail...
Source: Virus Genes - November 5, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The N-terminal cysteine protease domain of rice stripe tenuivirus Pc1 possesses deubiquitinating enzyme activity
AbstractVirus encoded deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) plays important roles in viral replication and the regulation of host innate immunity. Bioinformatics-based analysis revealed the presence of an ovarian tumor (OTU) protease domain in the N terminus of rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV) Pc1. Many viral OTU domains have been reported to possess DUB activity, which suggests that RSV OTU probably also have DUB activity. To confirm this prediction, we first expressed and purified RSV OTU domain (the N-terminal 200 amino acids of Pc1) and its three mutants (D42A, C45A and H148A) fromEscherichia coli and analyzed its DUB activity in ...
Source: Virus Genes - November 4, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Co-circulation of genotypes XIV.2 and XVIII.2 of avian paramyxovirus-1 (Newcastle disease virus) in backyard poultry in Niger
AbstractThe causative agent of Newcastle disease (ND) of poultry is the avian paramyxovirus-1, also commonly known as ND virus (NDV). Like in many developing countries, ND is endemic in Niger and has significant economic impact on commercial and backyard poultry production. NDVs were characterized in Niger between 2006 and 2008 and shown to belong to genotypes XIV.1 and XVII. In order to determine the current situation regarding the virus in Niger, tracheas (n = 384) were collected for the detection of NDV from both healthy (n = 335) and sick (n = 49) backyard poultry in 2019. Of t...
Source: Virus Genes - October 31, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Assessment of replication of bovine herpesvirus type 4 in human glioblastoma and breast cancer cells as a potential oncolytic virus
In conclusion, BoHV-4 has in vitro potential as a novel oncolytic virus in human cancer therapy. However, its replication potential in the MCF10a cells as a non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cell line is a concern in using this virus in cancer therapy, at least against human mammary tumors. Further studies must therefore be conducted to examine the specific apoptotic pathways induced by this virus to move on to further experiments. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - October 26, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic classification of Tunisian SARS-CoV-2 strains from patients of the Military Hospital in Tunis
AbstractIn the present work, two complete genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 were obtained from nasal swab samples of Tunisian SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive patients using nanopore sequencing. The virus genomes of two of the patients examined, a Tunisian soldier returning from a mission in Morocco and a member of another Tunisian family, showed significant differences in analyses of the total genome and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Phylogenetic relationships with known SARS-CoV-2 genomes in the African region, some European and Middle Eastern countries and initial epidemiological conclusions indicate that the introduction...
Source: Virus Genes - October 9, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Identification of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV)-encoded microRNAs
In this study, using Illumina sequencing coupled with miRNA precursor prediction and stem-loop real-time PCR, 14 putative ISKNV-encoded miRNAs were preliminarily identified from ISKNV-infected mandarin fish MFF-1 cells. To initially study their functions, inhibitors of the 14 viral miRNAs were synthesized and transfected into MFF-1 cells, which were further infected with ISKNV. The results showed that these viral miRNAs could affect the virus titers in the supernatant of ISKNV-infected cells and the expression of major capsid protein (MCP). Moreover, we observed that inhibition of several ISKNV miRNAs had different effects...
Source: Virus Genes - October 8, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Transcriptional programs of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in vitro and in vivo
In this study, the transcriptional programs of ISKNV in vitro (MFF-1 cells) and in vivo (spleens from mandarin fish) were investigated using real-time PCR. Transcription of all the putative open reading frames (ORFs) of ISKNV was verified. The temporal expression patterns of ISKNV ORFs in vitro and in vivo, including peak expression times (PETs) and relative maximal expression levels, were determined and compared. The K-means clustering with Spearman rank correlation was generated in heat maps constructed based on ISKNV ORF expression profiles in vivo and in vitro. The current study may provide a global picture of ISKNV in...
Source: Virus Genes - October 8, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Date palm virus A: first plant virus found in date palm trees
AbstractIn this work, a novel ssRNA (+) viral genomic sequence with gene organization typical of members of the subfamilyQuinvirinae (familyBetaflexiviridae) was identified using high- throughput sequencing data of date palm obtained from the Sequence Read Archive database. The viral genome sequence consists of 7860 nucleotides and contains five ORFs encoding for the replication protein (Rep), triple gene block proteins 1, 2, 3 (TGB 1, 2, and 3), and coat protein (CP). Phylogenetic analysis based on the Rep and the CP amino acid sequences showed the closest relationship to garlic yellow mosaic-associated virus (GYMaV). Bas...
Source: Virus Genes - October 6, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Construction and immune protection evaluation of recombinant virus expressing Newcastle disease virus F protein by the largest intergenic region of fowlpox virus NX10
In this study, we found that the insertion of foreign genes into ORF054 and the ORF161/ORF162 intergenic region of the FPV genome did not affect replication, and that the foreign genes inserted into the intergenic region were more efficiently expressed than when they were inserted into a gene. Based on these results, the recombinant virus rFPVNX10-NDV F –E was constructed and immune protection against virulent FPV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was evaluated. Tests for anti-FPV antibodies in the vaccinated chickens were positive within 14 days post-vaccination. After challenge with FPV102, no clinical signs o...
Source: Virus Genes - October 2, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Characterization of H3 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Vietnam
AbstractTo date, avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have persisted in domestic poultry in wet markets in East Asian countries. We have performed ongoing virus surveillance in poultry populations in Vietnam since 2011, with the goal of controlling avian influenza. Throughout this study, 110 H3 AIVs were isolated from 2760 swab samples of poultry in markets and duck farms. H3 hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the isolates were phylogenetically classified into eight groups (I –VIII). Genetic diversity was also observed in the other seven gene segments. Groups I–IV also included AIVs from wild waterbirds. The epidemic strain...
Source: Virus Genes - September 28, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Potential reverse spillover of infectious bursal disease virus at the interface of commercial poultry and wild birds
In conclusion, our results revealed the molecular detection of vaccine and vvIBDV-like strains in Egyptian wild birds and highlighted the potential role of wild birds in IBDV epidemiology in disease-endemic regions. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - September 23, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

First molecular identification of porcine circovirus-like agents in dogs and cats in China
AbstractPorcine circovirus-like agents comprise two types of viruses: porcine circovirus-like viruses (P1, P2, P3, and P4) and porcine circovirus-like mini agents (PCVL258, PCVL264, PCVL201, and PCVL347). Of these, P1 has been identified in pigs, cattle, goats, and rabbits in China; P2, P3, P4, PCVL258, and PCVL264 have been identified in pigs; and PCVL201 and PCVL347 have been identified in cattle. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dogs and cats have been exposed to porcine circovirus-like agents. We screened 158 serum samples from diseased dogs and 41 from cats in China by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. ...
Source: Virus Genes - September 21, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Analysis of host protein interactions in plant viruses: an in silico study using Sesbania mosaic virus
AbstractThe dynamics of interactions of viral proteins with their host are pivotal in establishing a successful infection and ensuring systemic spread. To uncover these, an  in silico analysis of the interactions between the coat protein (CP) of Sesbania mosaic virus (SeMV), a group IV virus with single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome was carried out with the known crystal structures of proteins belonging to theFabaceae family, which is its natural host. SeMV is an isometric plant virus which infectsSesbania grandiflora, a member ofFabaceae, and causes mosaic symptoms. Earlier results have indicated that the assemb...
Source: Virus Genes - September 18, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Subcellular localization of the porcine deltacoronavirus nucleocapsid protein
AbstractPorcinedeltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has been recently identified as an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that mainly infects newborn piglets and causes enteritis, diarrhea and high mortality. Although coronavirus N proteins have multifarious activities, the subcellular localization of the PDCoV N protein is still unknown. Here, we produced mouse monoclonal antibodies against the PDCoV N protein. Experiments using anti-haemagglutinin antibodies and these monoclonal antibodies revealed that the PDCoV N protein is shuttled into the nucleolus in both ectopic PDCoV N-expressing cells and PDCoV-infected cells. The result...
Source: Virus Genes - September 16, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Increased viral read counts and metagenomic full genome characterization of porcine astrovirus  4 and Posavirus 1 in sows in a swine farm with unexplained neonatal piglet diarrhea
AbstractNeonatal diarrhea in piglets may cause major losses in affected pig herds. The present study used random high-throughput RNA sequencing (metagenomic next generation sequencing, mNGS) to investigate the virome of sows from a farm with persistent neonatal piglet diarrhea in comparison to two control farms without diarrhea problems. A variety of known swine gastrointestinal viruses was detected in the control farms as well as in the problem farm (Mamastrovirus,Enterovirus,Picobirnavirus,Posavirus 1,Kobuvirus,Proprismacovirus). A substantial increase in normalized viral read counts was observed in the affected farm com...
Source: Virus Genes - September 2, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

An antiviral drug-resistant mutant of hepatitis B virus with high replication capacity in association with a large in-frame deletion in the preS1 region of viral surface gene
In conclusion, this is an unusual ADV-resistant HBV isolate harboring two nonsense mutations in the S gene and a large in-frame deletion in the preS1 region, but still retains a high replication phenotype, which can provide a platform for recombinant vector construction. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - August 24, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research