Full-length genome analysis of the first human G8P[14] rotavirus strain from Morocco suggests evidence of zoonotic transmission
AbstractAn unusual group A rotavirus (RVA) strain MAR/ma31/2011/G8P[14] was detected for the first time in Morocco in a stool sample from hospitalized child aged 18  months suffering from acute gastroenteritis and fever in 2011. Complete genome sequencing of the ma31 strain was done using the capillary sequencing technology. The analysis revealed the G8-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3 constellation and the backbone genes: I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3 are comm only found in RVA strains from artiodactyls such as cattle. The constellation was shared with another Italian zoonotic G8P[14] strains (BA01 and BA02), two Hung...
Source: Virus Genes - June 13, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Development of a reverse genetics system for Japanese encephalitis virus strain SA14-14-2
In this study, a stable infectious cDNA clone of JEV SA14-14-2 with a low copy number pACYC177 vector dependent on the T7 promoter and T7 terminator was developed. Two introns were inserted into the capsid gene and envelope gene of JEV cDNA for gene stability. Hepatitis delta virus ribozyme (HDVr) was engineered into the 3 ′ UTR cDNA of JEV for authentic 3′ UTR transcription. The rescued virus showed biological properties indistinguishable from those of the parent strain (JEV SA14-14-2). The establishment of a JEV SA14-14-2 reverse genetics system lays the foundation for the further development of other flavivi...
Source: Virus Genes - June 3, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genetic characterization of hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza A viruses circulating in Southwest India during 2017 season
AbstractMolecular surveillance of influenza viruses is essential for early detection of novel variants. The aim of the present study was to analyze the hemagglutinin gene of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses circulating during the 2017 season. To investigate the genetic diversity of hemagglutinin gene of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses from 2017 season, ten samples from each subtype were sequenced and analyzed. The season was predominated by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Ten samples were sequenced from each subtype and all sequenced influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses belonged to clades 6B.1 an...
Source: Virus Genes - May 25, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Porcine deltacoronavirus nucleocapsid protein antagonizes IFN- β production by impairing dsRNA and PACT binding to RIG-I
In this study, we found that PDCoV nucleo capsid (N) protein, the most abundant viral structural protein, suppressed Sendai virus (SEV)-induced IFN-β production and transcription factor IRF3 activation, but did not block IFN-β production induced by overexpressing RIG-I/MDA5. Furthermore, study revealed that PDCoV N protein interacted with RIG-I and MDA5 in an in vitro overexpression system and evident interactions between N protein and RIG-I could be detected in the context of PDCoV infection, which interfered with the binding of dsRNA and protein activator of protein kinase R (PACT) to RIG-I. Together, our resul...
Source: Virus Genes - May 25, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Variability in the 3 ′ untranslated regions of the genomes of the different tick-borne encephalitis virus subtypes
AbstractTick-borne encephalitis viruses (TBEVs) are usually divided into three major subtypes: European (TBEV-Eu), Siberian (TBEV-Sib) and Far Eastern (TBEV-FE). The TBEV-Eu strains have the longest genomes, and TBEV-FE strains have the smallest genomes. Changes in the variable region of the untranslated region (V3 ′ UTR) play a major role in determining the viral genome length. Analyses of the 3′ UTRs of the different subtypes of TBEV have revealed significant changes in the secondary structures of the V3′ UTR of TBEV. More complex secondary structures of the V3′ UTR regions are typical for TBEV-Eu...
Source: Virus Genes - May 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

R7A mutation in N protein renders temperature sensitive phenotype of VSV by affecting its replication and transcription in vitro
AbstractViral genomic RNA encapsidated by nucleoprotein (N) forms functional template for the transcription and replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The crystal structure of the N-RNA complex shows that RNA is tightly sequestered between the two lobes of the N protein. The residue (R7) in N-terminal arm of N is of great importance to the formation of functional N-RNA template. In our study, we found that single amino acid substitution (R7A) resulted in the loss of CAT expression in vitro minigenome system at 37  °C. But the R7A had little effect on CAT expression at 31 °C. Further analysis sho...
Source: Virus Genes - May 15, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Nef-induced differential gene expression in primary CD4+ T cells following infection with HIV-1 isolates
In this study, we infected primary human CD4+ T cells with pseudotyped Nef-containing or Nef-deleted ( Δ-nef) NL4-3 virus and used RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) for transcriptomic  analysis. Our results showed that the interferon response, IL-15 and JAK/STAT signaling, as well as genes involved in metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and ribosome biogenesis were all altered in the presence of Nef. These early Nef-mediated transcriptional alterations may play a role in priming the host cell for cellular activation and viral replication. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - May 15, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Enhanced phylogenetic resolution of Newcastle disease outbreaks using complete viral genome sequences from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples
AbstractHighly virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes Newcastle disease (ND), which is a threat to poultry production worldwide. Effective disease management requires approaches to accurately determine sources of infection, which involves tracking of closely related viruses. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has emerged as a research tool for thorough genetic characterization of infectious organisms. Previously formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues have been used to conduct retrospective epidemiological studies of related but genetically distinct viruses. However, this study extends the applicability of NGS...
Source: Virus Genes - May 14, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Characterization of a new bunyavirus and its derived small RNAs in the brown citrus aphid, Aphis citricidus
AbstractHigh-throughput sequencing is widely used for virus discovery, and many RNA viruses have been discovered and identified. A new negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus was identified in the brown citrus aphid and namedAphis citricidus bunyavirus. The genome consists of large (7037  nt), medium (3462 nt), and small (1163 nt) segments. Phylogenetic analysis and amino acid sequences identities of this virus with other bunyaviruses suggest that it is a new species belonging to the familyPhenuiviridae. The small interfering RNA pathway could be involved against the infection of this virus in brown citrus ...
Source: Virus Genes - May 11, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Complete genome analysis of a SARS-like bat coronavirus identified in the Republic of Korea
In conclusion, we firstly carried out whole genome characterization of the SARS-like bat coronavirus discovered in the Republic of Korea; however, it presumably has no human infectivity. However, continuous surveillance and genomic characterization of coronaviru ses from bats are necessary due to potential risks of human infection induced by genetic mutation. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - May 10, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genomic characterization of two Orf virus isolates from Jilin province in China
AbstractOrf virus (ORFV), a typical member of theParapoxvirus genus within the familyPoxviridae, which is the causative agent of Orf, a common epitheliotropic viral disease of sheep, goats, wild ruminants, and humans. In the present study, we sequenced the complete genomic sequences of two ORFV strains (ORFV-SY17, isolated from sheep, and ORFV-NA17, isolated from goat) and conducted the comparative analysis of multiple ORFVs. The complete genomic sequence of ORFV-SY17 was at length of 140,413  bp, including 131 potential open reading frames (ORFs) flanked by inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of 4267 bp at both end...
Source: Virus Genes - April 27, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

U13  → C13 mutation in the variable region of the NA gene 3′UTR of H9N2 influenza virus influences the replication and transcription of NA and enhances virus infectivity
AbstractThe untranslated regions within viral segments are the essential promoter elements required for the initiation of viral replication and transcription. The end of the UTR sequence and part of the ORF sequence constitute the packaging signal for progeny viruses. To explore the influence of single-point and multi-site joint mutations in the UTR of the NA gene on the viral expression, we select clones with upregulated expression of the reporter gene and analyze their sequence characteristics. Bioinformatics methods were used to analyze polymorphisms in the untranslated region (UTR) of the neuraminidase gene of the H9N2...
Source: Virus Genes - April 25, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Characterization and genome analysis of a novel bacteriophage vB_SpuP_Spp16 that infects Salmonella enterica serovar pullorum
AbstractA novel virulent bacteriophage vB_SpuP_Spp16 (hereafter designated Spp16) that infectsSalmonella enterica serovar pullorum was isolated. Transmission electron microscopy showed that Spp16 possessed an isometric polyhedral head (60  nm in diameter) and a short tail (10 nm in length) belonging to the familyPodoviridae. Its complete genome was determined to be 41,832  bp, with a 39.46% GC content by next-generation sequencing. The genome contains 53 proposed open reading frames that are involved in DNA replication and modification, transcriptional regulation, phage structural and packaging proteins and ...
Source: Virus Genes - April 19, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Signaling pathways involved in regulating apoptosis induction in host cells upon PRRSV infection
AbstractPorcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a devastating disease of swine that poses a serious threat to the swine industry worldwide. The induction of apoptosis in host cells is suggested to be the key cellular mechanism that contributes to the pathogenesis of PRRS. Various signaling pathways have been identified to be involved in regulating PRRSV-induced apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the potential signaling pathways that contribute to PRRSV-induced apoptosis, and propose the issues that need to be addressed ...
Source: Virus Genes - April 19, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Presence of Newcastle disease viruses of sub-genotypes Vc and VIn in backyard chickens and in apparently healthy wild birds from Mexico in 2017
This study demonstrates that viruses of sub-genotype Vc are still present in Mexico, and the detection of this sub-genotype in both chickens and wild birds suggests that transmission among these species may represent a biosecurity risk. This is the first detection and c omplete genome sequencing of genotype VI NDV from Mexico. In addition, the utilization of an optimized long-read sequencing method for rapid virulence and genotype identification using the Oxford nanopore MinION system is demonstrated. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - April 12, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Correction to: Molecular analysis of maize ( Zea mays L.)-infecting mastreviruses in Ethiopia reveals marked diversity of virus genomes and a novel species
The original version of this article unfortunately contained errors in the “Results” section. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - April 8, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

A novel parvovirus, Roe deer copiparvovirus, identified in Ixodes ricinus ticks
This report further increases the current knowledge on the evolution and diversity of copiparvoviruses. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - April 3, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Identification of a lytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage depolymerase and its anti-biofilm effect and bactericidal contribution to serum
In this study, a lyticP. aeruginosa phage was isolated from the sewage of a hospital, and one protein was predicted as the depolymerase-like protein by genomic sequence analysis, it includes two catalytic regions, the Pectate lyase_3 super family and Glycosyl hydrolase_28 super family. Further analysis demonstrated that recombinant depolymerase-like protein degradedP. aeruginosa exopolysaccharide and enhanced bactericidal activity mediated by serum in vitro. Additionally, this protein disrupted host bacterial biofilms. All of these results showed that the phage-derived depolymerase-like protein has the potential to be deve...
Source: Virus Genes - April 1, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

A novel phage from periodontal pockets associated with chronic periodontitis
AbstractBacteriophages often constitute the majority of periodontal viral communities, but phages that infect oral bacteria remain uncharacterized. Here, we present the genetic analysis of the genome of a novel siphovirus, named Siphoviridae_29632, which was isolated from a patient with periodontitis using a viral metagenomics-based approach. Among 43 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) in the genome, the viral genes encoding structural proteins were distinct from the counterparts of other viruses, although a distant homology is shared among viral morphogenesis proteins. A total of 28 predicted coding sequences had signif...
Source: Virus Genes - March 29, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

A thioredoxin-like protein of Bemisia tabaci interacts with coat protein of begomoviruses
In this study, we performed yeast two-hybrid assay using CP of cotton leaf curl Rajasthan virus (CLCuV) andTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) as bait in separate experiments and cDNA prepared from total RNA ofB. tabaci was used as prey. Yeast two-hybrid assay resulted in identification of a thioredoxin-like protein (TLP) from CLCuV yeast two-hybrid library. Later TLP was also found to interact with CP of ToLCNDV. In vitro pull-down assay showed TLP interaction with CP of both CLCuV and ToLCNDV. TLP was found to interact with ToLCNDV virus particles isolated from tomato leaves. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - March 28, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Isolation and molecular characterization of a variant of Chinese gC-genotype II pseudorabies virus from a hunting dog infected by biting a wild boar in Japan and its pathogenicity in a mouse model
AbstractWe isolated a variant of Chinese pseudorabies virus from a hunting dog with symptoms similar to Aujeszky ’s disease and designated the isolate MY-1 strain. The dog developed symptoms 6 days after hunting and biting a wild boar and died the day after onset. TheBam HI restriction profile of MY-1 DNA was different from those of the Japanese reference strain Yamagata-S81 and two vaccine strains, Bartha and Begonia, and resembledBam HI-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) type IV. Complete nucleotide sequences were determined, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that MY-1 belonged to the same cluste...
Source: Virus Genes - March 27, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Discovery of Cucumis melo endornavirus by deep sequencing of human stool samples in Brazil
AbstractThe nearly complete genome sequences of two Cucumis melo endornavirus (CmEV) strains were obtained using deep sequencing while investigating fecal samples for the presence of gastroenteritis viruses. The Brazilian CmEV BRA/TO-23 (aa positions 116-5027) and BRA/TO-74 (aa positions 26-5057) strains were nearly identical to the reference CmEV CL-01 (USA) and SJ1 (South Korea) strains, showing 97% and 98% of nucleotide and amino acid identity, respectively. Endornaviruses are not known to be associated with human disease and their presence may simply reflect recent dietary consumption. Metagenomic analyses offered an o...
Source: Virus Genes - March 26, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of a novel H7N8 avian influenza virus from domestic ducks in Central China in 2017
AbstractIn 2017, an H7N8 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a domestic duck from a farm in Central China. Sequences analysis showed that this strain received its genes from H7, H1, H2, H3, H5, and H6 AIVs of domestic poultry and wild birds in Asia. It exhibited low pathogenicity in chickens and mild pathogenicity in mice. These results suggest the importance of continued surveillance of the H7N8 virus to better understand the ecology and evolution of the AIVs in poultry and wild birds and the potential threat to human health. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - March 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Pepper veinal mottle virus in Japan is closely related to isolates from other Asian countries, but more distantly to most of those from Africa
In this study, we report six complete genomic sequences of PVMV isolates from chilli pepper (i.e.Capsicum annuum) in Okinawa Islands in Japan, and we determined the evolutionary relationships between Japanese isolates and the isolates reported earlier from African and Asian countries. Complete genomic sequences of the six Japanese PVMV isolates were 9760 nucleotides in length, excluding the nucleotide primer sequences used for amplifying 5 ʹ end of the genomes. The major findings of this study are as follows: (1) all the Japanese isolates of PVMV have similar biological and molecular characteristics, indicating the presen...
Source: Virus Genes - March 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

A novel Australian flying-fox retrovirus shares an evolutionary ancestor with Koala, Gibbon and Melomys gamma-retroviruses
AbstractA novel gamma-retroviral sequence (7912  bp), inclusive of both partial 5′ and 3′ long terminal repeat regions, was identified from the brain of a black flying-fox (Pteropus alecto), Queensland, Australia. The sequence was distinct from other retroviral sequences identified in bats and showed greater identity to Koala, Gibbon ape leukaemia,Melomys burtoni and Woolly monkey retroviruses, forming their own phylogenetic clade. This finding suggests that these retroviruses may have an unknown common ancestor and that further investigation into the diversity of gamma-retroviruses in AustralianPteropus s...
Source: Virus Genes - March 15, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Molecular analysis of maize ( Zea mays L.)-infecting mastreviruses in Ethiopia reveals marked diversity of virus genomes and a novel species
AbstractMaize (Zea mays L.) is host for more than 50 virus species worldwide withMaize streak virus (MSV) (genusMastrevirus) causing significant yield losses in Africa. A survey for viruses infecting maize was conducted in major growing regions of Ethiopia. To test for DNA viruses, in particular mastreviruses, rolling circle amplification was performed for the analysis of virus composition in assayed samples. Following the analysis of the entire virus genomes, three genetic groups, each representing distinct virus species, were identified. The first group was almost identical with the A-strain of MSV. The next sequence-clu...
Source: Virus Genes - March 14, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Nine new RNA viruses associated with the fire ant Solenopsis invicta from its native range
AbstractThe red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) escaped its natural enemies when it was introduced into North America in the 1930s from South America. US efforts have focused on discovery of natural enemies, like viruses, to provide sustainable control of the ant. Nine new virus genomes were sequenced from the invasive fire antSolenopsis invicta using metagenomic RNA sequencing. The virus genomes were verified by Sanger sequencing and random amplification of cDNA ends reactions. In addition to the nine new virus genomes, the previously described Solenopsis viruses were also detected, including Solenopsis invicta vir...
Source: Virus Genes - March 7, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of new emerging sub-genotype VIIh Newcastle disease viruses in China
AbstractNewcastle disease (ND) has been enzootic in China for several decades since the first recognition of the disease in 1946 in China. Continuous surveillance revealed that the sub-genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been predominantly responsible for most of ND outbreak in China in recent years. But in the present study, three virulent NDVs isolated from poultry in southern China were classified as sub-genotype VIIh, which is highly related to the viruses circulating in some Southeast Asia countries. Continuous isolation of genotype VIIh NDV strains in the region suggests its panzootic potential. This is t...
Source: Virus Genes - March 5, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Integrase strand transfer inhibitor-based regimen is related with a limited HIV-1 V3 loop evolution in clinical practice
AbstractIntegrase-strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are known to rapidly reduce HIV-1 plasma viral load, replication cycles, and new viral integrations, thus potentially limiting viral evolution. Here, we assessed the role of INSTIs on HIV-1 V3 evolution in a cohort of 89 HIV-1-infected individuals starting an INSTI- (N = 41, [dolutegravir:N = 1; elvitegravir:N = 3; raltegravir:N = 37]) or a non-INSTI-based (N = 48) combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), with two plasma RNA V3 genotypic tests available (one before [baseline] and one during cART). V3 s...
Source: Virus Genes - February 22, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) during viral infections
AbstractThe helicase eIF4A is part of the cellular eIF4F translation initiation complex. The main functions of eIF4A are to remove secondary complex structures within the 5 ′-untranslated region and to displace proteins attached to mRNA. As intracellular parasites, viruses regulate the processes involved in protein synthesis, and different mechanisms related to controlling translation factors, such as eIF4A, have been found. The inhibitors of this factor are currentl y known; these substances could be used in the near future as part of antiviral pharmacological therapies in instances of replication cycles in which eI...
Source: Virus Genes - February 22, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Diversity and distribution of Maize-associated totivirus strains from Tanzania
AbstractTypically associated with fungal species, members of the viral familyTotiviridae have recently been shown to be associated with plants, including important crop species, such asCarica papaya (papaya) andZea mays (maize).Maize-associated totivirus (MATV) was first described in China and more recently in Ecuador, where it has been found to co-occur with other viruses known to elicit maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND). In a survey for maize-associated viruses, 35 samples were selected for Illumina HiSeq sequencing, from the Tanzanian maize producing regions of Mara, Arusha, Manyara, Kilimanjaro, Morogoro and Pwani. ...
Source: Virus Genes - February 21, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genetic characterization of bovine coronavirus in Vietnam
AbstractA maximum clade credibility tree constructed using the full-length spike (S) and hemagglutinin-esterase genes revealed that Vietnamese Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) strains belong to a single cluster (C1); therefore, they might share a common origin with Cuban and Chinese BCoV strains. The omega values of cluster 1 (C1) and cluster 2 (C2) were 0.15734 and 0.11613, respectively, and naive empirical bayes analysis identified two amino acid positions (179 and 501) in the S protein in C1 and three amino acid positions (113, 501, and 525) in that of C2 that underwent positive selection (p >  99%). The evolu...
Source: Virus Genes - February 15, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Co-infection with different serotypes of FMDV in vaccinated cattle in Southern Egypt
AbstractDuring 2015 –2016 period, an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was observed in cattle in four governorates of the upper of Egypt. The infection was extended to the vaccinated cattle. A total of 54 mouth swabs and serum samples were collected from vaccinated cattle for serological and virological investigation. The typical clinical signs of FMDV infection were observed in all cattle under investigation. All samples were positive for FMDV using molecular methods, while the serological method showed 85% positive of tested samples. Typing of FMDV-positive samples using serotype-specific primer s sho...
Source: Virus Genes - February 15, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Interactions between the transcription and replication machineries regulate the RNA and DNA synthesis in the herpesviruses
AbstractThe temporal coordination of viral gene expression is imperative for the regulation of the herpesvirus replication cycle. While the main factors of this transcriptional coordination are known, the subtler control mechanisms of gene expression remain elusive. Recent long read sequencing-based approached have revealed an intricate meshwork of overlaps between the herpesvirus transcripts and the overlap of the replication origins with noncoding RNAs. It has been shown that the transcriptional apparatuses can physically interfere with one another while transcribing overlapping regions. We hypothesize that transcription...
Source: Virus Genes - February 14, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The BeWo cell line derived from a human placental choriocarcinoma is permissive for respiratory syncytial virus infection
In this study, we examined the capacity of RSV to infect a human trophoblast model, the BeWo cell line. Our results suggest that BeWo cells are susceptible to RSV infection since they allow RNA viral replication, viral protein translation, leading to the production of infectious RSV particles. In this report, we demonstrate that a human placenta model system, consisting of BeWo cells, is permissive to RSV infection. Thus, the BeWo cell line may represent a useful model for studies that aim to characterize the events of a possible RSV infection at the human maternal –fetal interface. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - February 13, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Whole genome characterisation of quail deltacoronavirus detected in Poland
AbstractQuail deltacoronavirus (QdCoV) described for the first time in the United Arab Emirates in 2018 belongs to the same deltacoronavirus species as viruses discovered in swine and tree sparrows. The full-length genome of QdCoV detected in quails with enteritis in Poland has similar organization as Middle Eastern viruses although there is no NSP7c gene. The overall degree of nucleotide sequence identity was 92.4 –92.6% between Polish PL/G032/2015 and Middle Eastern UAE-HKU30 QdCoV isolates. The sequences of the individual genes show similar nucleotide identities in the range of 91.4–94.7% with the exception ...
Source: Virus Genes - February 13, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Linear epitope binding antibodies against GII.3 Norovirus exhibit no histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) blocking effects
In this study, we characterized the blocking antibody binding site and epitope type (linear or conformational) by using hyperimmune sera produced against different antigens. VP1 from Jingzhou402 (GII.3, JZ402) strain was expressed by using pGEX-6p-1 expression vector and the insoluble proteins were purified for immunization in rabbit. Previously characterized chimeric VP1-assembled VLPs (GII.4-VP1/GII.3-P2) were used to immunize guinea pig. Peptides reactive with hyperimmune serum against VLPs derived from the VP1 of JZ402 strain were conjugated with BSA and used to immunize rabbits. Hyperimmune sera against above antigens...
Source: Virus Genes - February 6, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Complete genomic analysis and molecular characterization of Japanese porcine sapeloviruses
In this study, almost the entire genomes of 23 PSVs detected in Japanese pigs were analyzed using bioinformatics. Analysis of thecis-active RNA elements showed that the predicted secondary structures of the internal ribosome entry site in the 5 ′ untranslated region (UTR) and acis-replication element in the 2C coding region were conserved among PSVs. In contrast, those at the 3 ′ UTR were different for different PSVs; however, tertiary structures between domains were conserved across all PSVs. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the complete VP1 region showed that PSVs exhibited sequence diversity;...
Source: Virus Genes - February 2, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Bungowannah virus in the affected pig population: a retrospective genetic analysis
AbstractBungowannah virus, which belongs to the genusPestivirus within the familyFlaviviridae, has been associated with myocarditis and a high incidence of stillbirths in pigs. In 2003, the virus was initially detected in a large pig farming complex on two separate sites in New South Wales, Australia. Until now, it has not been detected at other locations. Despite a program of depopulation and disinfection, the virus could be only eradicated from one of the affected farm complexes, the Bungowannah unit, but became endemic on the second complex, the Corowa unit. In the present study, the genetic variability of virus isolate...
Source: Virus Genes - January 31, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The interferon antagonistic activities of the V proteins of NDV correlated with their virulence
AbstractProtein V of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) serves as interferon (IFN) antagonist, and NDV stains with different pathogenicity show different abilities in inhibition IFN expression. To further reveal the relationship between viral virulence and their IFN-antagonistic activity derived from protein V, six NDV strains with three different pathotypes were used in this study and their V gene were cloned into eukaryotic expression vector. The V gene derived from different NDV strains were expressed in same level in cells after transfection according to the results from Western blotting. And these proteins showed different...
Source: Virus Genes - January 31, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a new recombinant brassica yellows virus infecting tobacco in China
AbstractBrassica yellows virus (BrYV), prevalently distributed throughout mainland China and South Korea while triggering serious diseases in cruciferous crops, is proposed to be a new species in the genusPolerovirus within the familyLuteoviridae. There are three distinct genotypes (BrYV-A, BrYV-B and BrYV-C) reported in cabbage and radish. Here, we describe a new BrYV isolate infecting tobacco plants in the field, which was named BrYV-NtabQJ. The complete genome sequence of BrYV-NtabQJ is 5741 nt in length, and 89% of the sequence shares higher sequence identities (about 90%) with different BrYV isolates. However, it poss...
Source: Virus Genes - January 29, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Recombinant HCV NS3 and NS5B enzymes exhibit multiple posttranslational modifications for potential regulation
In this report, we have analyzed the PTM of both hepatitis C virus NS3 and NS5B enzyme proteins, upon their individual expression in insect cells under the baculovirus expression system. Using mass spectrometry, we present evidence that these recombinant proteins exhibit diverse covalent modifications on certain amino acid side chains, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation. Although the functional implications of these PTM must be further addressed, these data may prove useful toward the understanding of the complex regulation of these key viral enzymes and to uncover novel potential targets for antivira...
Source: Virus Genes - January 29, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Endornaviruses: persistent dsRNA viruses with symbiotic properties in diverse eukaryotes
AbstractEndornaviruses are unique, persistent, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses with symbiotic properties that infect diverse eukaryotes, such as plants, fungi, and oomycetes. Endornaviruses contain a linear dsRNA genome of approximately 10 to 17 kbp in length and are classified in the familyEndornaviridae, which consists of two genera,Alphaendornavirus andBetaendornavirus. The endornaviruses encode a single long open reading frame encoding approximately 3200 to 5800 amino acid residues of conserved viral RNA helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains, and some endornaviruses contain a site-specific nick in the c...
Source: Virus Genes - January 14, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

In vitro antiviral activity of Griffithsin against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus
In conclusion, Griffithsin was identified as a potent PEDV inhibitor and may represent a candidate drug for preventing PEDV infection. (Source: Virus Genes)
Source: Virus Genes - January 14, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Nasal virome of dogs with respiratory infection signs include novel taupapillomaviruses
AbstractUsing viral metagenomics, we characterized the mammalian virome of nasal swabs from 57 dogs with unexplained signs of  respiratory infection showing mostly negative results using the IDEXX Canine Respiratory Disease RealPCR™ Panel. We identified canine parainfluenza virus 5, canine respiratory coronavirus, carnivore bocaparvovirus 3, canine circovirus and canine papillomavirus 9. Novel canine taupapillomaviruse s (CPV21-23) were also identified in 3 dogs and their complete genome sequenced showing L1 nucleotide identity ranging from 68.4 to 70.3% to their closest taupapillomavirus relative.Taupapill...
Source: Virus Genes - January 10, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Insect-specific virus evolution and potential effects on vector competence
AbstractThe advancement in high-throughput sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools has spurred a new age of viral discovery. Arthropods is the largest group of animals and has shown to be a major reservoir of different viruses, including a group known as insect-specific viruses (ISVs). The majority of known ISVs have been isolated from mosquitoes and shown to belong to viral families associated with animal arbovirus pathogens, such asFlaviviridae, Togaviridae andPhenuiviridae. These insect-specific viruses have a strict tropism and are unable to replicate in vertebrate cells, these properties are interesting for man...
Source: Virus Genes - January 10, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genomic and biological characterization of the Vibrio alginolyticus -infecting “ Podoviridae ” bacteriophage, vB_ValP_IME271
AbstractAs an opportunist pathogen,Vibrio alginolyticus (V. alginolyticus), causes disease in marine animals. Bacterial contamination of seafood is not uncommon, and phage therapy is considered a safe way to decontaminate such foods to control the emergence of vibriosis. Here, we report on the isolation of a new, virulent phage called vB_ValP_IME271 (designated phage IME271), which infectsV. alginolyticus and was isolated from seawater. Phage IME271 displayed good pH (7 –9) and temperature tolerance (  95% similarity score). In summary, our work identified a new lyticPodoviridae bacteriophage, which is infecti...
Source: Virus Genes - January 9, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

E2 and E rns of classical swine fever virus C-strain play central roles in its adaptation to rabbits
AbstractThe classical swine fever virus (CSFV) C-strain has been used as a vaccine strain for over 60  years in China. A recent study has demonstrated that the E2 protein of C-strain plays a major role in its adaptation to rabbits. E2 protein in combination with either Erns or E1 confers rabbit adaptation for the C-strain, and the residues P108 and T109 in domain I of E2 are critical for rabbit adaptation. To further identify the contributions of the glycoproteins to rabbit adaptation, a series of C-strain-based chimeric viruses containing single or double glycoprotein substitutions of the Shimen strain were generated...
Source: Virus Genes - January 3, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Human cytomegalovirus genomics and transcriptomics through the lens of next-generation sequencing: revision and future challenges
AbstractThe human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome was sequenced by hierarchical shotgun almost 30  years ago. Over these years, low and high passaged strains have been sequenced, improving, albeit still far from complete, the understanding of the coding potential, expression dynamics and diversity ofwild-type HCMV strains. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms have enabled a huge advancement, facilitating the comparison of differentially passaged strains, challenging diagnostics and research based on a single or reduced gene set genotyping. In addition, it allowed to link genetic features to different viral phenoty...
Source: Virus Genes - January 2, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Detection and genetic characterization of porcine pegivirus from pigs in China
In this study, 469 sera were tested and 34 (7.25%) were positive for PPgV. An ascending trend of the positive rate for PPgV was observed from suckling piglets (1.61%) to nursing piglets (1.85%), finishing pigs (6.56%), and sows (11.34%). The complete genome sequence of a representative strain of PPgV, PPgV_GDCH2017, and the complete E2 gene of 17 PPgV is olates discovered in this study was determined. Sequence analysis indicated that PPgV_GDCH2017 was highly related to other PPgVs with nucleotide and amino acid identities ranging from 87.3 to 97.4% and 94.6–99.3%, respectively, in the complete coding region. Phy...
Source: Virus Genes - January 2, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research