People With ADHD Have Different Brains

The largest-ever brain imaging study on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has led scientists to say the condition should be considered a neurological disorder, not just a behavioral one.  The brain structures of children with ADHD differ in small but significant ways from those of normally developing children, according to the findings, which were published online in the journal Lancet Psychiatry on Feb. 15. Up to 11 percent of U.S. children and around 5 percent of U.S. adults have been diagnosed with ADHD, which causes symptoms like difficulty paying attention, impulsivity, irritability and forgetfulness.  The study’s authors hope that the research will help to combat widespread misunderstanding of ADHD, which is often seen as some sort of motivational deficit or character failing rather than a real disorder. The findings show that the disorder is as real as other neuropsychiatric disorders like depression or obsessive-compulsive disorder.  “I hope it gives a bit more understanding of the disorder,” Dr. Martine Hoogman, a geneticist at Radboud University in the Netherlands and the study’s lead author, told The Huffington Post. “This research shows that there are neurobiological substrates [brain changes] involved ― just as in other psychiatric disorders ― and there is no reason to treat ADHD any differently.”  For the study, a team of Dutch neuroscientists analyzed MRI scans of the brains of m...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news

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CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that the K-SADS-PL-DSM-5-T is an effective instrument for diagnosing major childhood psychiatric disorders including selective mutism, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and autism spectrum disorder which have recently been added to the schedule. PMID: 31170306 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Turkish Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Turk Psikiyatri Derg Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the most comprehensive estimates of the development, incidence rates, and contributing risk factors of registered mental disorders for the entire period of childhood and adolescence that have been calculated so far. PMID: 31050232 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study found that HIV-infected pubertal children showed a delayed cortical maturation with atrophy. This abnormal pattern of cortical development may be the structural basis for cognitive impairment in HIV-infected children. Introduction Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related encephalopathy is one of the most serious complications of AIDS and is more common in children than in adults (1). At present, there are nearly 2 million children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world, almost all newly infected children are infected through mother-to-child transmission (2). Effec...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to evaluate the convergent and divergent validity of four diagnose categories generated by the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). The diagnose categories were: anxiety, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The K-SADS-PL was applied in a clinical sample of youth aged 7-17 years (N = 269), who were participants in the Nordic long-term OCD-treatment study (NordLOTS). Youth and parents completed measures to evaluate symptoms of anxiety...
Source: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Nord J Psychiatry Source Type: research
Violent motor tics or severe self-harm behaviors have been reported in patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) and leading to traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study aimed to determine the risk of TBI in TS patients, the effects associated with concurrent psychiatric disorders (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), or depressive disorder), and the effects of drug treatment (antipsychotics, antidepressants, or clonidine) on the risk of TBI.
Source: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsMicroparticles of aquaporin-4 represent subcellular arrangements that may influence the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and may serve as biomarkers for the underlying cellular disturbances. The increase of aquaporin-4 microparticles in cerebrospinal fluid may be used for early diagnostic purposes; for prevention; and for evaluation of effective treatment, long-term follow-up studies, and elucidating the pathophysiology in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Further studies of aquaporin-4 microparticles in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neuromyelitis optica and similar neuropsyc...
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Background The Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program presents evidence-based recommendations considering efficacy, tolerability, safety, and cost. Two previous algorithms for unipolar nonpsychotic depression were published in 1993 and 1998. New studies over the last 20 years suggest that another update is needed. Methods The references reviewed for the previous algorithms were reevaluated, and a new literature search was conducted to identify studies that would either support or alter the previous recommendations. Other guidelines and algorithms were consulted. We considered exception...
Source: Harvard Review of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Reviews Source Type: research
A highly effective psychotherapy called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) focuses on how our thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes can affect our feelings and behavior. Traditional CBT treatment usually requires weekly 30- to 60-minute sessions over 12 to 20 weeks. A faster option now emerging is intensive CBT (I-CBT), which employs much longer sessions concentrated into a month, week, or weekend — or sometimes a single eight-hour session. CBT helps people learn tools to reframe different types of thinking, such as black-and-white thinking (I can’t do anything right) and emotional reasoning (I feel you dislike me, ...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Adolescent health Anxiety and Depression Behavioral Health Mental Health Parenting Source Type: blogs
, Eating Disorder Working Group of the PGC, Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the PGC, Obsessive Compulsive Disorders and Tourette Syndrome Working Group of the PGC, Schizophrenia CLOZUK, Substance Use Disorder Working Group of the PGC, Agrawal A, Børglum AD, Bulik CM, Daly MJ, Davis LK, Demontis D, Edenberg HJ, Grove J, Gelernter J, Neale BM, Pardiñas AF, Stahl E, Walters JTR, Walters R, Sullivan PF, Posthuma D, Polderman TJC PMID: 30334498 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
We describe the neurodevelopmental needs in this young cohort at study enrollment as reported by the parent or primary care-giver. We present data that supports that young boys with DMD have a high prevalence of neurodevelopmental needs as reported by parent or care-giver. Further, boys with DMD mutations between exons 45-50 reported higher cognitive problems. There was no relationship between neurodevelopmental needs and glucocorticoid use. We conclude that there is an unmet, critical medical need in DMD to develop pragmatic solutions for early detection and intervention of neurodevelopmental needs during a window of neu...
Source: PLOS Currents Muscular Dystrophy - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
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