Infections, inflammation and epilepsy

Abstract Epilepsy is the tendency to have unprovoked epileptic seizures. Anything causing structural or functional derangement of brain physiology may lead to seizures, and different conditions may express themselves solely by recurrent seizures and thus be labelled “epilepsy.” Worldwide, epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition. The range of risk factors for the development of epilepsy varies with age and geographic location. Congenital, developmental and genetic conditions are mostly associated with the development of epilepsy in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Head trauma, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and tumours may occur at any age and may lead to the development of epilepsy. Infections of the CNS are a major risk factor for epilepsy. The reported risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of survivors of CNS infections from developed countries is between 6.8 and 8.3 %, and is much higher in resource-poor countries. In this review, the various viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infectious diseases of the CNS which result in seizures and epilepsy are discussed. The pathogenesis of epilepsy due to brain infections, as well as the role of experimental models to study mechanisms of epileptogenesis induced by infectious agents, is reviewed. The sterile (non-infectious) inflammatory response that occurs following brain insults is also discussed, as well as its overlap with inflammation d...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Siqi Feng, Huan Wang, Jiali Liu, Jiye AA, Fang Zhou, Guangji WangAbstractKetone bodies are traditionally viewed as metabolic substrates in carbohydrate restriction and are applied in the treatment of epilepsy and other neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, people have paid more attention to its application in the treatment for cancers. Compared to normal cells, cancer cells maintain a higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to the dysfunctional oxidative phosphorylation and they highly rely on glucose for glycolysis and p...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe rate of helminthic co-infection is predominantly high than that of intestinal protozoa. Single parasitic co-infection was more common than double or multiple co-infections. Both body mass index and mid-upper arm circumference anthropometric parameters revealed greater risk of undernutrition in tuberculosis patients. Thus, screening and prompt treatment of parasites in tuberculosis patients and a support of nutritional supplementation for malnourished tuberculosis patients should be further studied which might enhance the disease treatment and minimize the risk of its complexity.
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a regulatory role and influence various biological activities, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Our group has demonstrated through functional studies that Schistosoma mansoni c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SmJNK) MAPK is involved in the parasite’s development, reproduction, and survival. SmJNK can, therefore, be considered a potential target for the development of new drugs. Considering the importance of SmJNK in S. mansoni maturation, we aimed at understanding of SmJNK regulated signaling pathways in the parasite, correlating expression data with S. ...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Henry Hess, 72, of Edwardsburg, Michigan, died on Saturday, becoming the state's fifth fatality of Eastern Equine Encephalitis this year as the nationwide death toll rise to 14
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Jinming Wang, Jifei Yang, Shandian Gao, Aihong Liu, Muhammad Rashid, Youquan Li, Zhijie Liu, Junlong Liu, Guangyuan Liu, Jianxun Luo, Guiquan Guan, Hong YinAbstractBovine theileriosis, caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Theileria, presents with various clinical symptoms. In cattle, clinical presentations and outcomes of bovine theileriosis are closely correlated with the causative Theileria spp. Thus, accurate detection and discrimination of Theileria spp. are essential for epidemiological studies and for provision of ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Conclusions: The results indicated that the incidence of pemphigus is remarkably high in the Eastern region of Turkey and the associated factors including lifestyle changes should be taken into mind when considering these patients. PMID: 31616221 [PubMed]
Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology - Category: Dermatology Tags: Postepy Dermatol Alergol Source Type: research
Authors: Kamińska-Winciorek G, Cybulska-Stopa B, Lugowska I, Ziobro M, Rutkowski P Abstract The introduction of immunotherapy into the treatment of cancer patients has revolutionised the oncological approach and significantly improved patient survival. The key drugs are immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), whose mechanism of action is to elicit immune response against cancer cell antigens. Three types of CPIs are currently used and approved: an anti-CTLA-4 antibody, ipilimumab; anti-PD-1 antibodies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab; and anti-PD-L1 antibodies: atezolizumab, avelumab and durvalumab. CPIs have been widely...
Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology - Category: Dermatology Tags: Postepy Dermatol Alergol Source Type: research
Authors: Szuster-Ciesielska A, Wawiórka L, Krokowski D, Grankowski N, Jarosz Ł, Lisiecka U, Tchórzewski M Abstract Malaria remains one the most infectious and destructive protozoan diseases worldwide. Plasmodium falciparum, a protozoan parasite with a complex life cycle and high genetic variability responsible for the difficulties in vaccine development, is implicated in most malaria-related deaths. In the course of study, we prepared a set of antigens based on P-proteins from P. falciparum and determined their immunogenicity in an in vivo assay on a mouse model. The pentameric complex P0-(P1-P2)2 wa...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
Authors: Caroff SN PMID: 31613194 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research
Mind-reading exoskeletons, digital tattoos, 3D printed drugs, RFID implants for recreational purposes: mindblowing innovations come to medicine and healthcare almost every single day. We shortlisted some of the greatest ideas and developments that could give us a glimpse into the future of medicine, but we found so many that we had trouble fitting them into one article. Here are the first ten spectacular medical innovations to watch for. 1) Mixed reality opens new ways for medical education Augmented, virtual, and mixed reality are all technologies opening new worlds for the human senses. While the difference between...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine 3d printing artificial food brain-computer interface cyborg digital tattoos drug development exoskeleton gamification google glass health insurance Healthcare Innovation List Medical education medical techn Source Type: blogs
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