Details of first historically recorded plague pandemic revealed by ancient genomes
(Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History) An international team of researchers has analyzed human remains from 21 archaeological sites to learn more about the impact and evolution of the plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis during the first plague pandemic (541-750 AD). The researchers reconstructed 8 plague genomes from Britain, Germany, France and Spain and uncovered a previously unknown level of diversity in Y. pestis strains. Additionally, they found the first direct genetic evidence of the Justinianic Plague in the British Isles. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - June 5, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The signaling adaptor BCAP inhibits NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasome activation in macrophages through interactions with Flightless-1
B cell adaptor for phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) (BCAP) is a signaling adaptor that activates the PI3K pathway downstream of B cell receptor signaling in B cells and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in macrophages. BCAP binds to the regulatory p85 subunit of class I PI3K and is a large, multidomain protein. We used proteomic analysis to identify other BCAP-interacting proteins in macrophages and found that BCAP specifically associated with the caspase-1 pseudosubstrate inhibitor Flightless-1 and its binding partner leucine-rich repeat flightless-interacting protein 2. Because these proteins inhibit the NLRP3 inflammas...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - May 13, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Carpentier, S. J., Ni, M., Duggan, J. M., James, R. G., Cookson, B. T., Hamerman, J. A. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Surveillance Report: Annual Epidemiological Report for 2016: Yersiniosis
Source: European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Published: 12/2018. This five-page report is based on the data for 2016 about cases of yersiniosis retrieved from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) on February 21, 2018. In 2016, 28 European Union/European Economic Area Member States reported yersiniosis data, three of which had partial population surveillance coverage. These countries reported 6,918 confirmed cases. (PDF) (Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - January 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Ancient ancestor of the bacteria that causes plague found in 5,000-year-old human remains
In an ancient grave in Sweden, scientists have unearthed the oldest known strain of a deadly bacteria that has killed millions of people over thousands of years.They call it Yersinia pestis. You may know it as the plague.The new discovery suggests that the microscopic bacteria has been wiping... (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)
Source: Los Angeles Times - Science - December 6, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Deborah Netburn Source Type: news

Plague was NOT brought to Europe by foreign invaders
Yersinia pestis, the bacteria that causes plague, has been found in the remains of a 20-year-old Stone Age woman who died 4,900 years ago in southern Sweden. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - December 6, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

An ancient strain of plague may have led to the decline of Neolithic Europeans
(Cell Press) A team of researchers from France, Sweden, and Denmark have identified a new strain of Yersinia pestis, the bacteria that causes plague, in DNA extracted from 5,000-year-old human remains. Their analyses, publishing Dec. 6 in the journal Cell, suggest that this strain is the closest ever identified to the genetic origin of plague. Their work also suggests that plague may have been spread among Neolithic European settlements by traders, contributing to their decline. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - December 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Pathogen blockade of TAK1 triggers caspase-8-dependent cleavage of gasdermin D and cell death
Limited proteolysis of gasdermin D (GSDMD) generates an N-terminal pore-forming fragment that controls pyroptosis in macrophages. GSDMD is processed via inflammasome-activated caspase-1 or -11. It is currently unknown whether macrophage GSDMD can be processed by other mechanisms. Here, we describe an additional pathway controlling GSDMD processing. The inhibition of TAK1 or IB kinase (IKK) by the Yersinia effector protein YopJ elicits RIPK1- and caspase-8–dependent cleavage of GSDMD, which subsequently results in cell death. GSDMD processing also contributes to the NLRP3 inflammasome–dependent release of interl...
Source: ScienceNOW - November 29, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Orning, P., Weng, D., Starheim, K., Ratner, D., Best, Z., Lee, B., Brooks, A., Xia, S., Wu, H., Kelliher, M. A., Berger, S. B., Gough, P. J., Bertin, J., Proulx, M. M., Goguen, J. D., Kayagaki, N., Fitzgerald, K. A., Lien, E. Tags: Immunology reports Source Type: news

Products Approved for Other Bioterrorism Emergencies
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 09/08/2017 This Web page lists products approved for seven bioterrorism emergencies: Botulism due to Clostridium botulinum toxin; Ebola Virus Disease (EVD); Glanders and Melioidosis due to Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei, respectively; Plague due to Yersinia pestis; Smallpox due to Variola major and Variola minor; Tularemia due to Francisella tularensis; and Zika Virus Disease. (Text) (Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - May 9, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: The U.S. National Library of Medicine Source Type: news

Annual Epidemiological Report for 2015: Yersiniosis
European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 04/30/2018 This six-page report is based on data for 2015 retrieved from the European Surveillance System (TESSy). It found that in 2015, 26 countries reported 7,279 confirmed yersiniosis cases in the European Union/European Economic Area. It provides information on methods, epidemiology, age and gender distribution, seasonal distribution and trend, threats description for 2015, and public health implications. (PDF) (Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - May 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: The U.S. National Library of Medicine Source Type: news

Are amoebae safe harbors for plague?
(Colorado State University) Amoebae, single-celled organisms common in soil, water and grade-school science classrooms, may play a key role in the survival and spread of deadly plague bacteria. New Colorado State University research shows that plague bacteria, Yersinia pestis, not only survive, but thrive and replicate once ingested by an amoeba. The discovery could help scientists understand why plague outbreaks can smolder, stay dormant for years, and re-emerge with a vengeance. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-Borne Outbreaks in 2016
European Union, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 11/13/2017 This 228-page report presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2016 in 37 European countries (28 Member States [MS] and nine non-MS). It summarizes trends and sources for Yersinia (plague) and tularemia, both Category A bioterrorism agents; brucella, a Category B bioterrorism Agent; bovine tuberculosis, trichinellosis, echinococcosis, toxoplasmosis, rabies, Q fever, and West Nile fever. (PDF) (Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - December 13, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: The U.S. National Library of Medicine Source Type: news

Burkholderia and Yersinia Pestis
North Dakota Department of Health. 06/23/2017 This course discusses the history of Yersinia pestis, and the methods of transmission of Burkholderia. It describes the various symptoms and stages of disease of Yersinia and Burkholderia, lists treatment options for disease caused by Yersinia and Burkholderia, and compares and contrasts laboratory identification methods of Yersinia pestis and Burkholderia. (Video or Multimedia) (Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - December 8, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: The U.S. National Library of Medicine Source Type: news

Plague likely a Stone Age arrival to central Europe
(Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History) A team of researchers led by scientists at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History has sequenced the first six European genomes of the plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis dating from the Late Neolithic to the Bronze Age (4,800 to 3,700 years ago). Analysis of these samples, published in Current Biology, suggests that the Stone Age Plague entered Europe during the Neolithic with a large-scale migration of people from the Eurasian steppe. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - November 22, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Introduction to Human Plague: Managing Infectious Hazards
World Health Organization. 2017 This 21-minute module is an introductory-level online course on plague, a zoonotic disease with severe clinical presentations caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. It describes the transmission cycle of the disease, explains the difference between the bubonic plague and pneumonic plague, and describes the public health concerns of plague. (Video or Multimedia) (Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - October 4, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: The U.S. National Library of Medicine Source Type: news

Plague Fact Sheet
World Health Organization. 04/2017 This fact sheet provides information about plague, an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, a zoonotic bacteria, usually found in small mammals and their fleas. It is transmitted between animals from their fleas. The fact sheet discusses signs and symptoms, where plague is found, diagnosing plague, treatment, prevention, vaccination, managing plague outbreaks, and surveillance and control. (Text) (Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - October 2, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: The U.S. National Library of Medicine Source Type: news