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Modern math sheds new light on long-standing debate about Viking-age Ireland conflict
(Coventry University) Modern mathematical techniques -- similar to those used to analyze social-networking websites -- have allowed academics to shed new light on a centuries old debate surrounding the Viking age in Ireland and the famous battle of Clontarf in 1014. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

The concept of constitution in the history of political thought
(De Gruyter) The aim of the present volume is to discuss the notion of constitution from the perspectives of history of political thought. Its scholarly intention is to go beyond the approach concentrating on the formal understanding of constitution and bring forward more complex historical and philosophic-political interpretations. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Smart baby pillows for flat head syndrome prevention
(Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology(UNIST)) A team of students, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has succeeded in developing a smart baby pillow to help prevent and correct mild cases of flat head syndrome. This innovative device has also recently won a gold award at a business idea competition. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Princesses and action heroes are for boys and girls
(Springer) Given the chance, young boys will try out dolls, and girls will play with cars and building blocks. It's even possible to encourage the two sexes to play together without too much moaning, says Lauren Spinner of the University of Kent in the UK, lead author of a study in Springer's journal Sex Roles. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Only 1 in 10 patients with anxiety disorders receives the right treatment
(IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute)) The results of an international study commissioned by the World Mental Health with a sample of more than 51,500 individuals from 21 different countries, reveals that 10 percent of people suffer anxiety. Of these, only 27.6 percent have received some type of treatment, and this was considered appropriate in only 9.8 percent of the cases. It is the first time a study has described the treatment gap in anxiety disorders at an international level. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Warning follows report into online child sexual abuse risk
(Lancaster University) If the public are serious about wanting to protect children from online sexual abuse more investment in skilled professionals is needed now.The stark warning comes from researchers following publication of a new report commissioned by the Independent Inquiry on Child Sexual Abuse (IICSA) which coincided with the first day of the public hearing into online child sexual abuse. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Press registration opens for 2018 spring national meeting of the American Chemical Society
(American Chemical Society) Journalists may now apply for press credentials for the American Chemical Society's 255th National Meeting& Exposition, one of the largest scientific conferences of the year. It will be held March 18-22, 2018, in New Orleans. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Biomechanical mapping method aids development of therapies for damaged heart tissue
(The Optical Society) Researchers have developed a new way to capture the detailed biomechanical properties of heart tissue. The high-resolution optical technique fills an important technology gap necessary to develop and test therapies that might eventually be used to heal heart damage after a heart attack. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Forensic researchers find more accurate way to estimate age of deceased
(North Carolina State University) Forensic researchers have found a more accurate way to assess an individual's age at death, based on the bone mineral density of the femur. The technique could be used to help identify human remains. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Prosecuting background check and straw purchase violations depends on state laws
(Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health) Study examined prosecutions following tougher sentencing for 'straw arm' purchases in Pennsylvania and a Maryland court decision that redefined private firearm transfers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Brief exposure to charismatic career women inspires female students to pursue same field
(Southern Methodist University) A simple, low-cost experiment to encourage women to enter the male-dominated field of economics was surprisingly effective, says economist Danila Serra, Southern Methodist University, Dallas. Top female college students were inspired to pursue economics when exposed very briefly to charismatic, successful women in the field, says co-author Serra. The successful results suggest that exposing young women to an inspiring female role model could spark similar interventions in other male-dominated fields of study to enhance gender diversity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Married veterans more at risk of suicide than single soldiers
(University of Connecticut) Among recently returned   veterans, a new study says those   who are married or living with a partner   are at higher suicide   risk   than soldiers who are single, and older married female veterans are at the greatest risk. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New DNA database at Rutgers-Camden to strengthen forensic science
(Rutgers University) A new database at Rutgers University-Camden is now available to help to bring more reliability to the interpretation of complex DNA evidence. This innovative new resource was developed by a research team led by Rutgers University-Camden professors Catherine Grgicak and Desmond Lun, and Ken Duffy of the University of Ireland at Maynooth. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Flourishing under an abusive boss? You may be a psychopath, study shows
(University of Notre Dame) According to research from Notre Dame,   certain types of 'psychopaths' actually benefit and flourish under abusive bosses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Study explores how propaganda recruits terrorists
(University of Massachusetts Lowell) Neil Shortland, director of the Center for Terrorism and Security Studies at UMass Lowell, recently won a $794,000 grant from the US Department of Defense to study how terrorists use propaganda to recruit members to their ranks and which types of individuals are inclined to be influenced by such tactics. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Children view people's behavior, psychological characteristics as shaped by environments
(Society for Research in Child Development) A new study has found that 5- to 6-year-olds view people's environments, not their skin color, as the most important determinant of their behavior and psychological characteristics. These findings contradict the idea that views of race that are known to lead to prejudice such as believing that race naturally divides the world into distinct kinds of people's inevitably develop early in childhood. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Civic engagement in adolescence and young adulthood beneficial for adult development
(Society for Research in Child Development) A new study sought to determine whether civic engagement during adolescence and young adulthood promotes better health, education, and income over the course of adulthood. The study found a pattern of positive associations of voting and volunteering with these important aspects of adult development, but a mix of positive and negative outcomes in adulthood for activism as a form of civic engagement. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Study shows how fetal infections may cause adult heart disease
(University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine) Infants born prematurely are known to have a higher risk of developing heart disease later in life. Now, a study led by researchers at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle shows that, in preterm animal models, inflammation due to infection can disrupt the activity of genes that are crucial for normal development of the heart. The findings point to the importance of developing better ways to prevent or therapeutically target inflammation in the fetus to reduce long-term health problems. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Reduced attention to audiovisual synchrony in infancy predicts autism diagnosis
(Uppsala University) An ability to integrate information from different sensory modalities is important for infants' development and for their perception of the environment. A new study suggests that infants who pay little attention to synchronous sights and sounds may be at elevated risk for developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

The ins and outs of Area 25
(Society for Neuroscience) Neuroscientists have charted the incoming and outgoing connections of a brain region located deep within the monkey prefrontal cortex that has important roles in emotion and memory processes. The comprehensive, high-resolution map reported in JNeurosci provides new insight into how emotional regulation may become disrupted in psychiatric disorders. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Crows 'hooked' on fast food
(University of St. Andrews) Biologists at the universities of St. Andrews and Edinburgh have discovered why some crows 'craft' elaborate hooked tools out of branched twigs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Overall in-hospital cardiac arrest survival improves, lower survival on nights, weekends
(American College of Cardiology) Overall survival has improved for the approximately 200,000 patients experiencing in-hospital cardiac arrest in the US each year, but patients who arrest during nights or weekends continue to experience lower survival compared to patients who arrest during daytime hours. Survival to discharge in patients who arrested during 'off-hours' was an absolute 3.8 percent lower compared to patients who arrested during 'on-hours,' according to a study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Speech analysis software predicted psychosis in at-risk patients with up to 83 percent accuracy
(The Mount Sinai Hospital / Mount Sinai School of Medicine) Computer-based analyses of speech transcripts obtained from interviews with at-risk youths were able to predict which youths would later develop psychosis within two years, with an accuracy of up to 83 percent. In two independent cohorts of young people at risk for psychosis, a disturbance in the flow of meaning when speaking, otherwise known as being tangential or going off track, predicted who would later develop psychosis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

People with prosthetic arms less affected by common illusion
(University of Exeter) People with prosthetic arms or hands do not experience the 'size-weight illusion' as strongly as other people, new research shows. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Artificial intelligence predicts corruption
(FECYT - Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology) Researchers from the University of Valladolid (Spain) have created a computer model based on neural networks which provides in which Spanish provinces cases of corruption can appear with greater probability, as well as the conditions that favor their appearance. This alert system confirms that the probabilities increase when the same party stays in government more years. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Protracted problems walking among hip surgery patients
(University of Gothenburg) People who have undergone hip surgery with total hip arthroplasty often experience no difficulty in walking -- but for some, mobility actually is impaired long after surgery. Research under way at Sahlgrenska Academy is focusing on how advanced motion analysis can lead to improvements for patients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

BU: Young men who have sex with men receive less HIV education
(Boston University School of Medicine) Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are at much higher risk of HIV infection compared to their peers, but a new study led by a Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) researcher suggests young MSM are less likely to receive school-based HIV education than young men who only have sex with women. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Researchers discover that female cats are more likely to be right-handed
(Queen's University Belfast) Researchers at Queen's University Belfast have found that female cats are much more likely to use their right paw than males. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Smart rollator motivates elderly to exercise more
(VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland) VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Orton are exploring the benefits and impacts of technology in motivating seniors to increase physical activity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Housing instability negatively affects the health of children and caregivers
(Boston Medical Center) When families don't have stable housing, their risk of struggling with poor health outcomes and material hardships, such as food insecurity, increases, according to a new study from Children's HealthWatch. Researchers surveyed over 22,000 families and found that one third of low-income renters were housing unstable, which was associated with negative impacts on their health. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Vandana Gopikumar to receive 2018 Penn Nursing Renfield Award for Global Women's Health
(University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing) Vandana Gopikumar, PhD, Co-Founder of The Banyan and The Banyan Academy of Leadership in Mental Health will receive the 2018 Penn Nursing Renfield Foundation Award for Global Women's Health for her work in helping women with mental health problems in India. She co-founded both organizations with Vaishnavi Jayakumar. Gopikumar will receive the award - which comes with a $100,000 cash prize - during an event at the University of Pennsylvania on March 21, 2018. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

The role of cranial modification in identity formation
(University of Chicago Press Journals) It has long been recognized that the Inka incorporated diverse peoples into their empire, but how these ethnic groups developed historically during the political upheaval of the preceding Late Intermediate Period (LIP; AD 1100-1450) is only now receiving commensurate attention. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Phone-addicted teens are unhappy
(San Diego State University) Researchers found that teens who spent a lot of time in front of screen devices -- playing computer games, using more social media, texting and video chatting -- were less happy than those who invested time in non-screen activities like sports, reading newspapers and magazines, and face-to-face social interaction. The happiest teens used digital media for less than an hour per day. But after a daily hour of screen time, unhappiness rises steadily along with increasing screen time (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Human smugglers operate as 'independent traders,' study finds
(University of Cambridge) First study to model the organizations behind trade in illegal border crossings shows no 'Mafia-like' monopoly of routes from Africa into Europe. Instead, myriad independent smugglers compete in open markets that have emerged at every stage of the journey. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Study of learning and memory problems in OCD helps young people unlock potential at school
(University of Cambridge) Adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have widespread learning and memory problems, according to research published today. The findings have already been used to assist adolescents with OCD obtain the help they needed at school to realize their potential -- including helping one individual go on to university. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Occupational therapy improves health, quality of life of young adults with diabetes
(University of Southern California) New results from a University of Southern California-led research study demonstrates the distinct value of occupational therapy for improving the health and quality of life of young adults living with diabetes. Research participants who completed the occupational therapy intervention program significantly improved their average blood glucose levels, diabetes-related quality of life and habits for checking blood glucose. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Algorithm increases employment opportunities for refugees
(ETH Zurich) A data-driven approach could help increase employment levels for asylum seekers in Switzerland from 15 to 26 percent. Social scientists from Switzerland and the US, in collaboration with ETH's Public Policy Group, reached this conclusion in the journal Science. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Teaming up to prepare for emergencies: JRC data helps international community
(European Commission Joint Research Centre) The Joint Research Centre (JRC), the European Commission's science and knowledge service, joins forces with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to assess similarities in emergency preparedness and response across sectors, identify lessons learned and set out good practices for the nuclear sector. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Early Trump support climbed in areas with recent Latino population growth
(University of California - Riverside) According to three political scientists from the University of California, Riverside, Donald Trump's promise to build a 'great wall' spanning the border separating the United States and Mexico, as well as subsequent remarks describing Mexican immigrants as 'criminals' and 'rapists,' had a galvanizing effect on his voter base in the initial stages of his campaign, particularly in areas of the country that had experienced considerable Latino population growth in recent years. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

UTA researcher to examine cured-in-place pipe technology
(University of Texas at Arlington) A University of Texas at Arlington expert in pipe technology is investigating whether steam sealing of repaired pipes release a noxious fume and how dangerous that is to people. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Let's make a deal: Could AI compromise better than humans?
(Brigham Young University) BYU researchers developed an algorithm that teaches machines not just to win games, but to cooperate and compromise -- and sometimes do a little trash-talking too. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Portland State study shows pitfalls of using the term middle class
(Portland State University) Middle class describes an economic tier between rich and poor. It implies upward mobility and a break from poverty. But a recent article co-authored by Portland State University anthropologist Charles Klein shows that the term does little to shine a light on the real lives of people who make it into this social classification. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Ohio Supercomputer Center to host free webinar on innovative web-based HPC portal
(Ohio Supercomputer Center) The Ohio Supercomputer Center will host a free webinar to discuss topics related to its Open OnDemand software project at 2 p.m. on Jan. 29. The Customizing and Extending Open OnDemand Webinar will feature live demonstrations on OnDemand installations from different sites, including the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center and Tufts University. OSC experts will provide examples of how to configure OnDemand and extend the installation with custom branding and applications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Using Hawkeye from the Avengers to communicate on the eye
(Delft University of Technology) Superheroes can be used to communicate learning objectives to students in an interesting, fun, and accessible manner. Hawkeye, a member of the Avengers, is one such superhero, as Barry Fitzgerald of Delft University of Technology (TU Delft, The Netherlands) argues in the article 'Using Hawkeye from the Avengers to communicate on the eye', published in the journal Advances in Physiology Education. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Increased scientific rigor will improve wildlife research and management
(Wiley) Wildlife management relies on rigorous science that produces reliable knowledge because it increases accurate understanding of the natural world and informs management decisions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Babies' babbling betters brains, language
(Cornell University) Babies are adept at getting what they need -- including an education. New research shows that babies organize mothers' verbal responses, which promotes more effective language instruction, and infant babbling is the key. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Algorithm improves integration of refugees
(Stanford University) A new machine learning algorithm developed by Stanford researchers could help governments and resettlement agencies find the best places for refugees to relocate, depending on their particular skills and backgrounds. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Low-income immigrants face barriers to US citizenship
(Stanford University) New research shows that lowering application fees for naturalization could help more U.S. immigrants gain the benefits of citizenship. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Key to willpower lies in believing you have it in abundance
(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Americans believe they have less stamina for strenuous mental activity than their European counterparts -- an indication that people in the US perceive their willpower or self-control as being in limited supply, suggests a study by University of Illinois educational psychologist Christopher Napolitano. The purpose of the study was to test the validity of the widely used Implicit Theory of Willpower for Strenuous Mental Activities Scale. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Challenges and research for an evolving aviation system
(National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine) A comprehensive aviation safety system as envisioned by NASA would require integration of a wide range of systems and practices, including building an in-time aviation safety management system (IASMS) that could detect and mitigate high-priority safety issues as they emerge and before they become hazards, says a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news