School Pharmacist and "Methods of Analysis in Health Science".
The objectives of the "environmental" component of the pharmacy education model core curriculum include performing analyses corresponding to the regularly checked items of the school environmental health standards. Students of the School of Pharmacy should cultivate their expertise in environmental analysis and environmental health, through practices such as sample collection, analysis operation, and evaluation of test results. As analysis experts, school pharmacists must know the principles and characteristics of analytical methods. The "Methods of Analysis in Health Science" published by the Pharmaceu...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nagase H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Current Indoor Air Quality in Japan.
Abstract People spend more than two thirds of their daily time indoors. Hence, maintaining a healthy indoor environment is indispensable for the prevention of building related illness. In Japan, guidelines for indoor air quality have been established for 13 volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs). These guidelines are now under revision by the Committee on Sick House Syndrome: Indoor Air Pollution. In order to gain information on the current indoor air pollutants and their levels, we carried out a nation-wide survey of VOCs and aldehydes in indoor residential air during 2012-2013. In this review, I c...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jinno H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Exposure Measurements in Japan Environment and Children's Study.
Abstract The Japan Ministry of the Environment is conducting a large-scale birth cohort study called the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), which involves 100000 mother-child pairs. Mothers are enrolled during pregnancy, and their children are followed up and studied until they reach the age of 13 years. The JECS started recruiting mothers in January 2011 and completed the registration of more than 103000 mothers in March 2014. The National Institute for Environmental Studies takes the lead in the study programming and implementation in cooperation with the National Centre for Child Health and Developm...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nakayama S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Mechanisms and Pharmacological Strategy Targeting Dysfunction of Endoplasmic Reticulum.
PMID: 27252057 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ozawa K, Nomura Y, Kitamura Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Regulation of Unfolded Protein Response via Protein S-nitrosylation.
Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal function in neurotransmission, vasodilation, proliferation, and apoptosis in various types of cells via protein S-nitrosylation. Previously we demonstrated that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is S-nitrosylated in brains manifesting sporadic neurodegenerative diseases. This modification results in dysfunction of its enzymatic activity and consequently the accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The aim of this study was to clarify the detailed function of NO on unfolded protein response (UPR) branches. We here found that the ER str...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ohkubo Y, Nakato R, Uehara T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Physiological Roles of Ubiquitin Ligases Related to the Endoplasmic Reticulum.
In conclusion, oxidative stress-induced HRD1 insolubilization might be involved in a vicious cycle of increased Aβ production and Aβ-induced oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. PMID: 27252059 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kaneko M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

ER Stress-induced Aberrant Neuronal Maturation and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
Abstract Neurodevelopmental disorders, which include autism spectrum disorder, are congenital impairments in the growth and development of the central nervous system. They are mainly accentuated during infancy and childhood. Autism spectrum disorder may be caused by environmental factors, genomic imprinting of chromosome 15q11-q13 regions, and gene defects such as those in genes encoding neurexin and neuroligin, which are involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic signaling. However, regardless of the many reports on neurodevelopmental disorders, the pathogenic mechanism and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kawada K, Iekumo T, Kaneko M, Nomura Y, Okuma Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Pathogenic Mechanism of Diabetes Development Due to Dysfunction of Unfolded Protein Response.
Abstract The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle in which newly synthesized secretory and membrane proteins are folded and assembled. Various stresses cause the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER, resulting in ER dysfunction. This condition is termed ER stress. To cope with ER stress, cells activate a signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that the UPR plays a pivotal role in pancreatic β cells. Pancreatic β cells producing a large amount of insulin are highly sensitive when the UPR is impaired. In mammalian cell...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tsuchiya Y, Saito M, Kohno K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

The Mechanisms and Pharmacological Strategy for Treatment of ER Stress-induced Metabolic Syndrome.
Abstract Obesity is one of the major risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. Leptin exerts an anti-obesity effect through the Ob-Rb leptin receptor, which is mainly expressed on hypothalamic neuronal cells. Recent evidence indicated that one of the mechanisms of obesity may be the development of leptin resistance. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms of leptin resistance in obesity, focusing on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We previously found that flurbiprofen is a candidate drug for attenuating ER stress and the subsequent development of leptin res...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hosoi T, Ozawa K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Application of Unfolded Protein Response for Production of Biologics.
Abstract Improvements in the productivity of established mammalian cell lines used for biopharmaceutical production are desirable to increase product yields. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the workhorse used for more than 60% of industrial therapeutic antibody production. Glycoprotein secretion by CHO cells requires intracellular processes including transcription, translation, glycosylation, and secretion. Within these intracellular steps, post-translational processes are rate limiting for production in high-producer cell lines. This review focuses on unfolded protein response-based engineering of CHO cells...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Omasa T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Syntheses and Reactions of Chalcogen-containing Heterocycles.
Abstract The advances in my laboratory for the past 20-25 years concerning the chemistry of chalcogen-containing heterocycles are reviewed. The intramolecular cyclization of the chalcogenols (-TeH, -SeH, -SH) into a triple bond or appropriate leaving group produced various chalcogen-containing heterocycles. The reactions of the obtained products were examined: the reactions of 1-benzo- and 2-benzopyrylium salts containing a tellurium or selenium element with several nucleophiles, including alkoxides, amines, the cyanide ion, an active methyl compound (acetone), Grignard reagents, copper reagents, and tin reagents,...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sashida H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Induction of Aneuploidy, Centrosome Abnormality, Multipolar Spindle, and Multipolar Division in Cultured Mammalian Cells Exposed to an Arsenic Metabolite, Dimethylarsinate.
Abstract Toxicological studies of arsenic compounds were conducted in cultured mammalian cells to investigate the effects of glutathione (GSH) depletion. Dimethylarsinate DMA(V) was not cytotoxic in cells depleted of GSH, but was found to be cytotoxic when GSH was present outside the cells. The results suggested that a reactive form of DMA(V) was generated through interaction with GSH. Dimethylarsine iodide DMI(III) was used as a model compound of DMA(III), and the biological effects were investigated. DMI(III) was about 10000 times more toxic to the cells than DMA(V). Chromosome structural aberrations and numeric...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ochi T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Reaction Development on π- and σ-Conjugated Bonds and Creation of Innovative Functions.
Reaction Development on π- and σ-Conjugated Bonds and Creation of Innovative Functions. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2016;136(6):883-93 Authors: Takita R Abstract Monocarba-closo-dodecaborate (1; [closo-CB11H12](-), or C1-carborane anion) is a symmetrical, stable anionic cluster, which possesses low nucleophilicity/basicity and exhibits three-dimensional aromaticity. In contrast to the rich applications of C2-carborane molecules (C2B10H12), the chemistry of the C1-carborane anion as a platform for functional molecules has not been thoroughly studied thus far due to the lack of its efficient functionaliza...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Takita R Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Animal Models for Elucidation of the Mechanisms of Neuropsychiatric Disorders Induced by Sleep and Dietary Habits.
Abstract Numerous changes in human lifestyle in modern life increase the risk of disease. Especially, modern sleep and dietary habits are crucial factors affecting lifestyle disease. In terms of sleep, decreases in total sleep time and in rapid eye movement sleep time have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. From a dietary perspective, mastication during eating has several good effects on systemic, mental, and physical functions of the body. However, few animal experiments have addressed the influence of this decline in sleep duration or of long-term powdered diet feeding on ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yaoita F Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analyses of Drug-Drug Interactions between Iguratimod and Warfarin.
Abstract Iguratimod (IGU), a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug launched in September 2012, has been reported to carry a risk of severe hemorrhages through a suspected interaction with warfarin (WF) in the all-case surveillance and early postmarketing-phase vigilance. To elucidate possible mechanisms of adverse interaction between IGU and WF, we analyzed the effects of IGU on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of WF in rats. IGU was orally administered to male Wistar rats once daily for 5 d at 10 or 30 mg/kg in combination with WF at an oral dose of 0.25 mg/kg. Coadministration of IGU 30 mg/kg enhanced th...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yamamoto T, Hasegawa K, Onoda M, Tanaka K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

An Approach for Safe Medication Assistance in Nursing Homes: A Workshop to Identify Problems of and Plan Measures for Care Workers.
Abstract We conducted a workshop that aimed to clarify problems with care workers supporting medication use in nursing homes, to propose measures for solving these problems, and to raise awareness of these problems among care workers. Eighteen care workers from different fee-based elderly nursing homes were enrolled in the workshop, and divided into four groups. The participants in these groups identified the issues based on their experiences regarding medication-related incidents, and discussed related problems and viable measures using the KJ method. The issues identified by each group were "dropping a medi...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Park H, Miki A, Satoh H, Maki H, Asai K, Konishi Y, Sawada Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Pharmaceutical Approach for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Syndrome: A Case Study.
Abstract Since 2012, Matsudo City Hospital has increased the number of pharmacists stationed in the ward on weekday mornings at the emergency care center, the intensive care unit (ICU) and the high care unit (HCU). Multidisciplinary joint meetings and joint conferences are conducted in the emergency care center, and patient and drug information is shared. A 20-year-old man was transferred to our hospital after a traffic accident. He was diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage and brain contusion. He exhibited violent movement and intense restlessness. He was sedated with a continuous intravenous infusion of 5 mg/h ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - June 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kameda K, Watarai K, Takahashi K, Shoko T, Koinuma M, Ikushima G Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Effects of manufacturing conditions on pharmaceutical properties of petrolatum ointment.
In this study, it was clear that the pharmaceutical properties of WP ointment samples were particularly influenced by the paddle-mixer stopping temperature. PMID: 27193304 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 19, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ashizuka Y, Horisawa E Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Inspired Visions of Young Pharmacologists; from Bench to Bedside.
PMID: 27150919 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sato H, Kurauchi Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Possible Involvement of Insulin Resistance in the Progression of Cancer Cachexia in Mice.
Abstract Malnutrition is a common problem among cancer patients, affecting up to 85% of patients with certain cancers. In severe cases, malnutrition can progress to cachexia, a specific form of malnutrition characterized by loss of lean body mass and muscle wasting. Although this muscle wasting might be a product of enhanced protein degradation, the precise mechanisms of cancer cachexia are not fully elucidated. Based on basic and clinical research, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance have been postulated to be associated with cancer cachexia. Since insulin in the skeletal muscle inhibits protein degradatio...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ohsawa M, Murakami T, Kume K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Functional Relationship between Arterial Tissue and Perivascular Adipose Tissue in Metabolic Syndrome.
Abstract Metabolic syndrome is a complex of disorders that includes visceral obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. It is characterized by an increased risk for serious cardiovascular events. Adipocytes are now recognized to contribute to the development of cardiovascular complications in metabolic syndrome via the release of several bioactive substances (adipocytokines). Obesity induces an increase in the volume of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which is located outside the blood vessels. In recent years, PVAT has been reported to produce/release vasoactive adipocytokines. Thus, PVAT ca...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kagota S, Iwata S, Maruyama K, Wakuda H, Shinozuka K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Molecular Understanding of the Acquisition of Resistance to Anti-cancer Drugs Associated with the Exacerbation of Cancer.
Abstract Gefitinib and erlotinib target the ATP cleft in the tyrosine kinase EGFR, which is overexpressed in 40-80 percent of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and many other epithelial cancers. However, the application of gefitinib is ultimately limited by the emergence of mutations and other molecular mechanisms conferring drug resistance. Furthermore, it has been considered that acquired resistance to gefitinib is associated with a clinically significant risk of accelerated disease progression. We previously established a new gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell line, HCC827GR, which harbors the T790M mutation. Usin...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kuzumaki N, Narita M, Ikegami D, Narita M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Gene-manipulated Adipocytes for the Treatment of Various Intractable Diseases.
Abstract Although protein replacement is an effective treatment for serum protein deficiencies such as diabetes and hemophilia, recombinant protein products are not available for all rare inherited diseases due to the instability of the recombinant proteins and/or to cost. Gene therapy is the most attractive option for treating patients with such rare diseases. To develop an effective ex vivo gene therapy-based protein replacement treatment requires recipient cells that differ from those used in standard gene therapy, which is performed to correct the function of the recipient cells. Adipose tissue is an expected ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kuroda M, Bujo H, Aso M, Saito Y, Yokote K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Brain Activity of Neural Reward Processing in Children and Adolescents with Reactive Attachment Disorder.
Abstract Childhood maltreatment, which markedly increases risks for psychopathology, is associated with structural and functional brain differences. Especially, exposure to parental verbal abuse (PVA) or interparental violence during childhood is associated with negative outcomes such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and reduced cognitive abilities. Other forms of childhood maltreatment have been associated with brain structure or developmental alteration. Our earlier studies elucidated potential discernible effects of PVA and witnessing domestic violence during childhood on brain morphology, i...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tomoda A Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Mission and Vision for the Future in University Pharmacy.
PMID: 27150925 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Teramachi H, Matsushita R Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Activity and the Role of Keio University Pharmacy.
Abstract Keio University Faculty of Pharmacy opened an insurance pharmacy on its campus in 2001. This pharmacy was opened with the objectives of 1) educating pharmacists to serve the regional community; 2) heightening students' motivation; and 3) providing practical education geared to the needs of actual healthcare settings. Since my appointment as director in 2003, I have led various initiatives to determine an ideal business model for a university pharmacy. This paper reports these initiatives and discusses the mission and future prospects of university pharmacies. In terms of education, all 4th-year students p...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fukushima N Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

The Faculties of Pharmacy Schools Should Make an Effort to Network with Community Pharmacies.
Abstract By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an inde...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Matsushita R Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

The Vision and Challenges of Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University's Affiliated Pharmacy.
Abstract Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University (HPU), according to its educational mission, seeks to "develop medical professionals who contribute to community medicine", and it has produced more than 6300 graduates since 1974. With recent medical advancements and a progressively aging society, the role of the pharmacist in community medicine has diversified and is increasing in importance. Therefore, in April 2012, the Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University Affiliated Pharmacy was established as a for-profit business of the Educational Foundation of the Hokkaido University of Science, the parent body of HPU. T...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Norose T, Manabe T, Furuta S, Watanabe K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Pharmacy Education and the Role of the Local Pharmacy at Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy.
Abstract Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy was established in front of Gifu University Hospital (GUH) as a pharmacy attached to the university, the first in Japan in 1998. When GUH moved in 2004, Gifu Pharmaceutical University Pharmacy was built in its current location. One of the priorities of the design of the new facility was easy access to those with disabilities. For example, ramps, wheelchair accessible restrooms, and handicap-friendly waiting-room chairs were installed. In cooperation with GUH, we introduced a two-dimensional bar code system for prescriptions. This promoted the efficiency of compoundi...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Teramachi H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Psychopharmacological Studies in Mice.
Abstract Since 1998, when the laboratory of Medicinal Pharmacology was established in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, I have been interested in psychopharmacological research topics. During this period, we identified a number of novel regulatory mechanisms that control the prefrontal dopamine system through functional interaction between serotonin1A and dopamine D2 receptors or between serotonin1A and σ1 receptors. Our findings suggest that strategies that enhance the prefrontal dopamine system may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. We also...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Matsuda T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Novel Strategies for Treating Lifestyle-related Diseases Using Various Approaches.
Abstract The number of patients with metabolic disorders is dramatically increasing all over the world. The diseases often exhibit multiple metabolic disturbances including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, and so on, recognized as a concept of metabolic syndrome. It is important to consider the common underlying pathophysiological bases of such metabolic diseases at the suggestion of the teachings of a parable, "The blind men and an elephant," whereby each blind man investigates a different part of the elephant. The lesson could even be applicable to each aspect of the disorders. Physical exercise ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Miyamoto L Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Factors Influencing the Accurate Administration of Peristaltic Finger Infusion Pumps Attached to Polyvinylchloride Infusion Sets Containing Tris(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate.
Abstract An accurate continuous intravenous injection via a peristaltic finger infusion pump has been utilized at outpatient clinics recently. An infusion element designed for this pump is necessary for the accurate handling of the pump, and for proper use of this equipment, we need accurate information. Our experiments have shown that medication administration has occasionally been incomplete at the calculated input time when a peristaltic finger infusion pump has been used. In this paper, we have investigated the cause of the delay in the administration time and the effect of the attachment procedure using a com...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Umemura M, Arai D, Maegawa K, Shigeno K, Wakiya Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Relationship of Prescribed Drugs with the Risk of Fall in Inpatients.
Abstract Falls are common in elderly patients and are often serious. Several drugs have been associated with an increased risk of fall. Older adults often take multiple drugs for chronic diseases, and thus may be at increased risk from drugs associated with fall. We investigated the association between drug use and falling in hospitalized older people, with the goal of identifying medications that may increase the risk of a fall. A retrospective case control study was performed at the National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Saishunso Hospital in Japan. Medications taken by patients who fell (n=57) were compared wi...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kozono A, Isami K, Shiota K, Tsumagari K, Nagano M, Inoue D, Adachi R, Hiraki Y, Nakagawa Y, Kamimura H, Yamamichi K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Future Vision of Regulatory Science in the Global Development of Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices.
PMID: 27040332 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nakamura M, Ikeda K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

New Medical Device Evaluation.
Abstract In this presentation, as a member of the Harmonization by Doing (HBD) project, I discuss the significance of regulatory science in global medical device development and our experience in the international collaboration process for medical devices. In Japan, most innovative medical therapeutic devices were previously developed and exported by foreign-based companies. Due to this device lag, Japanese had minimal opportunities for receiving treatment with innovative medical devices. To address this issue, the Japanese government has actively accepted foreign clinical trial results and promoted global clinica...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ikeda K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Future Regulatory Science through a Global Product Development Strategy to Overcome the Device Lag.
Abstract Environment that created "medical device lag (MDL)" has changed dramatically, and currently that term is not heard often. This was mainly achieved through the leadership of three groups: government, which determined to overcome MDL and took steps to do so; medical societies, which exhibited accountability in trial participation; and MD companies, which underwent a change in mindset that allowed comprehensive tripartite cooperation to reach the current stage. In particular, the global product development strategy (GPDS) of companies in a changing social environment has taken a new-turn with inter...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tsuchii I Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Quantitative Decision Making in Drug Development: Pharmacometrics.
Abstract According to the US Food and Drug Administration, pharmacometrics is an emerging science that quantifies drugs, diseases, and trial information to aid efficient drug development and/or regulatory decisions. Quantitative decision making occurs at all stages of drug development. In general, patient-level data are not made available to competitors. However, summary-level data are available. Model-based meta-analysis (MBMA) is a powerful tool for decision making which identifies the candidate position in the market. The limitation of MBMA is the heterogeneity of the treatment effect. In the near future, MBMA ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Suzuki A Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Role of Academia in Regulatory Science for Global Drug Development.
Abstract As diseases know no national boundaries, drug development must be designed at a global level. Drugs are highly regulated to maximize the benefits to public health, which is assessed on a regional basis. The complexity and diversity of stakeholders increase dramatically once multiple international regions are involved. Each stakeholder in drug development depends on customized criteria to make decisions for its own benefit. Thus, a huge gap exists among drug discovery researchers, developers, clinicians, patients, and regulatory bodies. With reasonable scientific evidence gathered and analyzed, mutual agre...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tsukamoto K, Takenaka T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Analysis of Spontaneously Reported Adverse Events.
Abstract Observational study is necessary for the evaluation of drug effectiveness in clinical practice. In recent years, the use of spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) for adverse drug reactions has increased and they have become an important resource for regulatory science. SRS, being the largest and most well-known databases worldwide, are one of the primary tools used for postmarketing surveillance and pharmacovigilance. To analyze SRS, the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) are reviewed. Authorized pharmacovigilanc...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nakamura M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Regulatory Science in the Review of Drugs and Medical Devices.
Abstract The review of drugs and medical devices is an integral part of regulatory science. The Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) evaluates the efficacy, safety, and quality of drugs and medical devices after applications are submitted for regulatory approval. The products are approved when their benefits exceed their risks, i.e., an application is approved if the efficacy of the product in patients was demonstrated and the safety of the product is acceptable in view of its observed benefits. However, drugs and medical devices for which efficacy was not clearly demonstrated in clinical trials makes...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Koide A Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Current Status and Future Prospects of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in Japan-Feedback from Clinical and Basic Researches to Medical Therapy and Pharmacist Activities.
PMID: 27040339 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tokuyama S, Ih Kim K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

An Overview of NAFLD/NASH in Japan.
Abstract Clinical identity of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has established it as a chronic liver disease since the 1990s in the USA and in the 21st century in Japan, although its significance is not well recognized in Japanese society. It is characterized as a chronic liver disease, differentiated from viral liver disease and alcoholic liver disease. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and NASH. NASH is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of a metabolic syndrome. It is understood that among individuals with NAFLD, NAFL is a benign condition, whereas NASH...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ryang Kim S, Ih Kim K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Incretin as a Novel Treatment Strategy for NAFLD/NASH.
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have been recognized as metabolic disorders characterized by fatty accumulation in the liver without alcohol consumption. The diseases can cause metabolic syndromes, consisting of obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia and hypertension. For the treatment of NAFLD/NASH, losing weight by exercise or diet remains the standard treatment, because no effective pharmacological therapy has yet been developed for NAFLD/NASH. Two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Takeda Y, Ikeda R, Kondo T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Drug-induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.
Abstract Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic progressive liver disease characterized by intense liver steatosis accompanied by hepatocyte destruction, inflammation and fibrous, despite little or no history of alcoholic consumption. There are also cases of drug-induced secondary steatohepatitis. Drug-induced steatohepatitis is a relatively rare type of drug-induced liver disease, but close attention to the possible onset of steatohepatitis is needed when drugs with the potential to induce fatty liver are prescribed for long term use. Estrogen is a factor indispensable to smooth fatty acid β-oxidat...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Miyamura M, Yokota J, Saibara T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

A Future Perspective on the Involvement of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid in the Development of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the pathological accumulation of fat in the liver in the absence of any other disease related to liver steatosis, which includes a wide spectrum of liver diseases ranging from mild asymptomatic fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Recently, it was reported that NAFLD is characterized by the impaired bioavailability of liver n-6 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). That is, compared with healthy individuals, steatosis and steatohepatitis patients have higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. Furthermore, per rec...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nakamoto K, Obata T, Hirasawa A, Ih Kim K, Ryang Kim S, Tokuyama S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Characteristics and Functional Roles of Opioids Originally Present in Vivo.
Abstract The characteristics and functional roles of opioids originally present in vivo (endogenous opioids) in guinea-pig ileum were investigated. The release of endogenous opioids was determined by the inhibitory twitch response evoked by 0.1 Hz stimulation after 10 Hz stimulation (post-tetanic twitch inhibition). The effects of peptidase inhibitors increased the post-tetanic twitch inhibition, prevented by β-funaltrexamine and nor-binaltorphimine, which are selective μ- and κ-opioid receptor subtype antagonists, respectively. Dopamine receptor antagonists (haloperidol, sultopride and domperidone) ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ozaki M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Synthetic Studies of Bioactive Heterocyclic Natural Products and Fused Heterocyclic Compounds Based on the Thermal Electrocyclic or Azaelectocyclic Reaction of 6π-Electron or Aza-6π-electron Systems.
Synthetic Studies of Bioactive Heterocyclic Natural Products and Fused Heterocyclic Compounds Based on the Thermal Electrocyclic or Azaelectocyclic Reaction of 6π-Electron or Aza-6π-electron Systems. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2016;136(4):607-48 Authors: Hibino S Abstract Since 1979, synthetic studies of bioactive heterocyclic natural products and condensed heteroaromatic compounds based on the thermal electrocyclic reaction of 6π-electron or aza-6π-electron systems incorporating the double bond of the principal aromatic or heteroaromatic ring have been conducted by our research group. In this revie...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hibino S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanisms of Early-stage Adipocyte Differentiation and Multi-functional Roles of Newly Isolated Adipogenic Factors.
Abstract Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and arteriosclerosis. Although the middle and late stages of adipocyte differentiation are well characterized, the earliest step in the differentiation process has remained largely unknown. We isolated 102 genes expressed at the beginning of the differentiation of a mouse preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1 cells. Because approximately half of these genes were unknown, we named them factor for adipocyte differentiation (fad) genes. I first show how these genes regulate the early stage of adipocyte differentiation. We next generated fad1...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Imagawa M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of Radiolabeled Molecular Imaging Probes for in Vivo Analysis of Biological Function.
Abstract Molecular imaging is a newly emerging field aimed at advancing our understanding of biology and medicine through the noninvasive in vivo investigation of cellular molecular events involved in normal and pathologic processes. In this field, researchers and/or clinicians are combining modern tools of molecular and cell biology with state of the art technology in order to noninvasively image living subjects. Various imaging modalities such as optics (fluorescence and luminescence), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and radiation are being used to visually capture and study molecular and cellula...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ueda M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Exploring New Drug Targets through the Identification of Target Molecules of Bioactive Natural Products.
Abstract With the development of cell biology and microbiology, it has become easy to culture many types of animal cells and microbes, and they are frequently used for phenotypic screening to explore medicinal seeds. On the other hand, it is recognized that cells and pathogenic microbes present in pathologic sites and infected regions of the human body display unique properties different from those under general culture conditions. We isolated several bioactive compounds from marine medicinal resources using constructed bioassay-guided separation focusing on the unique changes in the characteristics of cells and p...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 7, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Arai M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research