[Approach to Evidence-based Medicine Exercises Using Flipped Teaching: Introductory Education for Clinical Practice for 4th-Year Pharmacy Students].
Abstract  Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences has included an evidence-based medicine (EBM) exercise in the introductory education for clinical practice for 4th-year pharmacy students since 2015. The purpose of this exercise is to learn the process of practice and basic concepts of EBM, especially to cultivate the practical ability to solve patients' problems and answer their questions. Additionally, in 2016, we have attempted flipped teaching. The students are instructed to review the basic knowledge necessary for active learning in this exercise by watching video teaching materials and to bring reports...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Onda M, Takagaki N Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Training 5th-Year Clinical Pharmacy Students to Collect and Evaluate Information from Original Articles].
Abstract  Pharmacists are required to contribute to evidence-based medicine (EBM) by providing drug information, which can be collected from various sources such as books, websites, and original articles. In particular, information from original articles is needed in some situations. For example, original articles by international researchers are used to aid the management of novel in-hospital preparations on which little knowledge is available. We introduced an information evaluation program, the Okayama University Hospital EBM Model, into the clinical training of 5th-year pharmacy students. It aims to enable s...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Esumi S, Kawasaki Y, Ida H, Kitamura Y, Sendo T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Evaluation of an Evidence-based Medicine Educational Program for Pharmacists and Pharmacy Students].
Abstract  Practicing evidence-based medicine (EBM) is likely to gain importance for clinical pharmacists in the relatively near future in Japan. An educational program including research and the critical appraisal of literature was required for pharmacy students as of 2015. We organized a six-month practical EBM course for pharmacy students at Hyogo University of Health Sciences. To evaluate its effectiveness, students took a 10-question test after completing the course. The mean score of six students was 8.33±1.79 points. We also conducted a 1-day practical EBM workshop for pharmacists. Changes in knowle...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shimizu T, Ueda M, Toyoyama M, Ohmori S, Takagaki N Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[The Cutting Edge of Retinal Circuit Research].
PMID: 29710011 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Osakada F, Koike C Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Viral and Electrophysiological Approaches for Elucidating the Structure and Function of Retinal Circuits].
Abstract  The mammalian retina consists of five classes of neurons: photoreceptor, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells. Based on cell morphology, electrophysiological properties, connectivity, and gene expression patterns, each class of retinal neurons is further subdivided into many distinct cell types. Each type of photoreceptor, bipolar, and ganglion cell tiles the retina, collectively providing a complete representation across the visual scene. Visual signals are processed by at least 80 distinct cell types and at least 20 separate circuits in the retina. These circuits comprise parallel pathwa...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Onda M, Sansawa K, Osakada F Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Electrophysiological Analysis of Retinal Oscillation in Normal and Degenerated Retina].
Abstract  The vertebrate retina is one of the most sophisticated parts of the nervous system. It comprises five classes of neurons and one glial type cell. During development, but prior to a vertebrate's eyes opening, retinal circuits are refined by endogenous neural activity. Characteristic patterns of activity, including oscillatory activity, occur in the normal retina, whereas distinctive alternative patterns occur in abnormal retinas. In this paper, we first describe the electrophysiological and spike sorting methods used to study retinal oscillations. Next, we describe the mechanisms and functions of oscill...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Takeuchi H, Tsubo Y, Kitano K, Koike C Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[A Potential Mechanism for Spontaneous Oscillation in the Abnormal Retina].
Abstract  Rhythmic neural activities are observed in many brain regions, and these are considered to play an important role in neural information processing. On the other hand, distinct rhythmic neural activities emerge under several pathological conditions, suggesting that rhythmic neural activity has a close relation to brain function and dysfunction. In many pathological cases, the intrinsic property of unusual rhythm generation in a neuron or a neuronal network is prevented under normal conditions, but released by the pathological condition. Therefore, it may be useful to explore which conditions determine r...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Taniguchi K, Koike C, Kitano K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Effect of the Metabolic Modification of Environmental Chemicals on Endocrine-disrupting Activity].
Abstract  The endocrine-disrupting activities of various environmental chemicals are metabolically activated. For example, diphenyls, styrene oligomers, chalcones, trans-stilbene and 2-nitrofluorene are not estrogens, but after incubation with liver microsomes, their metabolites show estrogenic activities. Thus, these chemicals are estrogenically activated by the cytochrome P450 system. In contrast, the antiandrogenic activity of fenthion, an organophosphorus insecticide, is abolished after metabolism to sulfoxide and sulfone derivatives. Structural requirements of twenty bisphenol A related compounds, as well a...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kitamura S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Evaluation of a Two-day Hospital On-site Training Program for Community Pharmacists: Approach to Facilitate Collaboration among Community Healthcare Professionals].
Abstract  The importance of community-based care systems has increased due to the highly aging population and diversity of disease. To enhance the cooperation among healthcare professionals in community-based care systems, a two-day on-site training program for community pharmacists based on a multidisciplinary team approach was conducted at the Medical Science Hospital of Shiga University from April 2015 to March 2017. There were two professional courses in this training program: the palliative care course and nutrition support course. Both courses consisted of common pharmaceutical care training as follows: re...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sumi M, Hasegawa C, Morii H, Hoshino N, Okunuki Y, Kanemoto K, Horie M, Okamoto H, Yabuta N, Matsuda M, Kamiya T, Sudo M, Masuda K, Iwashita Y, Matsuda K, Motooka Y, Hira D, Morita SY, Terada T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Factors Related to the Awareness and Self-confidence of Pharmacists regarding "PRE-AVOID": Study Using VISTA Project Data].
The objective of this survey is investigating pharmacists' recognition of and belief in the importance of doing PRE-AVOID using the drug profile book (DPB). The main survey items were: 1. Awareness and self-confidence concerning PRE-AVOID using DPB, 2.Status of educating patients of the merits of the DPB, 3. Status of educating patients of the utilities of the DPB, 4. Status of educating patients of the roles of the DPB, 5. Guidance provided on methods of DPB usage, and 6. Interactions with patients. A multiple regression analysis was performed using "Awareness and self-confidence concerning PRE-AVOID using DPB" ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Maeta N, Shoji M, Hashimoto M, Arakawa Y, Onda M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Development of Noninvasive Drug Delivery Systems to the Brain for the Treatment of Brain/Central Nervous System Diseases].
Abstract  In general, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) poses a major challenge to drug development efforts targeting brain/central nervous system (CNS) diseases, since it limits the distribution of systemically administered therapeutics to the brain/ CNS. Therefore, the development of effective strategies for enhancing drug delivery to the brain has been a topic of great interest in both the clinical and pharmaceutical fields. Intranasal administration has been noted as a method for noninvasive delivery of a drug to the brain/CNS by bypassing the BBB via the "nose-to-brain" route. This nose-to-brain deliv...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kanazawa T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Establishing Individualized Medicine for Intractable Cancer Based on Clinical Molecular Pathogenesis].
Abstract  Although cancer treatment has dramatically improved with the development of molecular-targeted agents over the past decade, identifying eligible patients and predicting the therapeutic effects remain a major challenge. Because intratumoral heterogeneity represents genetic and molecular differences affecting patients' responses to these therapeutic agents, establishing individualized medicine based on precise molecular pathological analysis of tumors is urgently required. This review focuses on the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a common head and neck neoplasm, and introduces our a...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jono H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[How Do We Promote Research Integrity?]
PMID: 29607988 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Koide T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Research Misconduct in Japan and How It Is Covered by the Media].
In this report, I would like to introduce some representative cases of research misconduct in the field of life sciences over the past decade. These examples include studies conducted at Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (2006), Osaka University Graduate School of Frontier Bioscience (2006), Ryukyu University School of Medicine (2010), Toho University School of Medicine (2012), The University of Tokyo Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences (2013), and several cases outside of Japan. I will discuss what researchers should do to reduce the incidence of research misconduct. In addition, I will discuss how ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Enoki E Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Efforts to Promote Research Integrity in Academia].
Abstract  The revised model/core curriculum for pharmaceutical education in Japan was introduced in 2015. The need to provide ethics education, which includes research integrity for pharmacists and those conducting pharmaceutical research, was clearly described in the document: "G: pharmaceutical research (2) rule of law and ethics essential for research activity." Additionally, this newly introduced model/core curriculum was officially requested within each pharmaceutical university. As recently as 2014, a severe situation was exposed in the field of life sciences and clinical research: many reports e...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yasui H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Promoting Research Integrity].
Abstract  Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) was launched in April 2015 to promote integrated medical research and development (R&D) ranging from basic research to practical applications, in order to smoothly achieve the nationwide application of research outcomes, and to establish an environment therefor. AMED consolidates budgets for R&D expenses, which had previously been allocated from different sources, such as the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. It provi...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Suzuki H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Recent Progress in Promoting Research Integrity].
Abstract  An increasing number of cases of research misconduct and whistle-blowing in the fields of medicine and life sciences has created public concern about research integrity. In Europe and the United States, there has been a large focus on poor reproducibility in life science research, and poor reproducibility is largely associated with research misconduct. Research integrity is equally crucial in the pharmaceutical sciences, which play an important role in medical and life sciences. Individual cases of research misconduct have not been investigated in detail in Japan, because it was generally believed that...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tanaka S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Fascination of Sacran, a Polysaccharide from Aphanothece sacrum].
PMID: 29607993 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Arima H, Kaneko T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Super Liquid Crystalline Polysaccharides Produced by Ultimately-ecological Microreactors].
Abstract  Cyanobacteria fix carbon dioxide and nitrogen from the atmosphere using solar energy to produce various biomolecules, and thus are regarded as ultimately ecological microreactors. Sacran is a cyanobacterial polysaccharide with a very high molecular weight of 29 Mg/mol, which is extracted from Aphanothece sacrum cyanobacterium mass-cultivated in freshwater environments such as river or spring. Sacran is a water-soluble heteropolysaccharide comprising more than 6 kinds of sugar residues and contains 12% sulfate anionic groups and 27% carboxyls. Sacran has a super-absorbent function of water, which can re...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kaneko T, Okajima MK Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Negative Thixotropic Behavior for Sacran Aqueous Solutions].
Abstract  We investigated the electric and viscoelastic properties for the aqueous solution of cyanobacterial megamolecules, named sacran. Sacran is an anionic polyelectrolyte that has carboxylate and sulfate groups on the saccharide chain. The electric conductivity and shear viscosity demonstrated three crossover concentrations; overlap concentration at 0.004 wt%, entanglement concentration at 0.02 wt%, and gelation concentration at 0.1 wt%. The decrease in the charge density of the sacran chains reduces the repulsive force between the chains and this would cause transformation from the dilute to condensed stat...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mitsumata T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Unidirectionally-oriented Membrane Formation of Supra-polysaccharides Sacran and Application to Drug Delivery System].
Abstract  The geometric structures of soft materials can be controlled on the macro-scale using interfacial or mechanical instability, e.g., fingering patterns of viscous liquid and buckling patterns of gels during swelling/deswelling. These patterns can be used as smart materials for capturing/releasing and mass-transportation applications. Here we introduce the emergence of a uniaxially oriented membrane by drying an aqueous liquid-crystalline solution, composed of megamolecular supra-polysaccharides "sacran", from a limited space. By controlling the geometries of the evaporation front, multiple nucl...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Okeyoshi K, Okajima MK, Kaneko T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sacran on Atopic Dermatitis].
Abstract  Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease characterized by inflammation, pruritus, and eczematous lesions. Recently, sacran, a new polysaccharide isolated from cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum (Sur.) OKADA discovered by Suringar in the 19th century, has received considerable attention as a novel biomaterial. Previously, it was reported that sacran exhibits potent anti-inflammatory effects for skin diseases produced by various stimulants with optimum effective concentrations at 0.01% (w/v) and 0.05% (w/v) in rats and mice. Importantly, we demonstrated clinically that almost all of the average sc...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Arima H, Motoyama K, Higashi T, Fukushima S, Ihn H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Potential Use of Sacran Hydrogels as Wound Dressing Material].
In this study, to develop and characterize sacran hydrogel films (Sac-HGFs) for wound dressing materials, we prepared a physically crosslinked-Sac-HGFs, and evaluated their physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, skin hydration and wound healing ability. Additionally, we encapsulated curcumin, as a model drug for wound healing, into Sac-HGFs by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HP-γ-CyD), and investigated their potential for wound dressing application. Sac-HGF has potentially good properties for wound dressing application, due to not only the moisturizing effect but also the anti-inflammatory ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Motoyama K, Higashi T, Okajima MK, Kaneko T, Arima H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Appropriate Planning and Management of Annual Meeting for All Attendees; Application of Active Learning].
PMID: 29607999 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kawamura K, Ohsawa M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[The 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences].
Abstract  The 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences was held at Act City Hamamatsu, Japan, with a total of 2634 participants in attendance. The theme of the meeting was realized through a number of new concepts, such as a debate symposium, information sessions, nurses' workshops, and so on. The results obtained from the participation questionnaire (n=438), which were aggregated up to 1 month following the end of this year's meeting, revealed that 89% of the participants at considered it to have been appealing. In particular, 63% of the participants favored th...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shiokawa M, Kawamura K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Supporting an Academic Society with the Active Learning Tool Clica].
Abstract  Within school classrooms, Active Learning has been receiving unprecedented attention. Indeed, Active Learning's popularity does not stop in the classroom. As more and more people argue that the Japanese government needs to renew guidelines for education, Active Learning has surfaced as a method capable of providing the necessary knowledge and training for people in all areas of society, helping them reach their full potential. It has become accepted that Active Learning is more effective over the passive listening of lectures, where there is little to no interaction. Active Learning emphasizes that lea...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Arai K, Mitsubori M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Designing the Annual Meeting and Active Learning System].
Abstract  At the 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences our theme centered on active learning systems where adult learners engage on their own initiative. Many of the participants were pharmacists active in clinical practices. Regardless of their specialized skill-sets, pharmacists are constantly faced with difficult challenges in their daily work. Passive, one-way lectures are one resource for them, but unfortunately such lectures provide limited insights for resolving concrete problems. The present meeting aimed to show participants how to obtain information...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kawamura K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Participants-centered Design of Annual Meeting: From the Perspectives of Instructional Systems].
Abstract  This paper examines the reform experience of the 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences from Instructional Systems perspectives, to check whether it was effective, efficient, and appealing for participants. "Instructional Systems" has been a research area in educational technology for the past 50 years, and has also been applied to training and human resource development in healthcare domains. If an annual meeting is to be designed for participants' learning, then perspectives of Instructional Systems can be applied to interpret the effort ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Suzuki K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Acquiring Science English: A Plan and System Are Needed].
Abstract  Literary English is different from science English (SE) and pharmaceutical science English (PSE). Therefore, a totally new approach was adopted for students to learn PSE at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University (KPU). In 2012, a 4-year program for teaching PSE was proposed, and a stepwise-stepup tertiary science English education (SSTSEE) system was introduced at KPU. The system provides a novel form of PSE teaching that stretches from year 1 to 4, where the PSE level progresses to higher levels of learning with each passing academic year. With the launch of the SSTSEE system, relevant science-educated staff...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Foong FW Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Ensuring Traceability Using qNMR in the Quantitative Analysis of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde].
In conclusion, it is possible to obtain highly accurate results using 1H-qNMR with commercially available reagents that are not certified metrologically. PMID: 29608005 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tahara M, Sugimoto N, Tanaka-Kagawa T, Sakai S, Ikarashi Y, Jinno H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Evaluation of the Association between Topical Prostaglandin F2 α Analogs and Asthma Using the JADER Database: Comparison with β-Blockers].
[Evaluation of the Association between Topical Prostaglandin F2α Analogs and Asthma Using the JADER Database: Comparison with β-Blockers]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2018;138(4):559-564 Authors: Ohyama K, Sugiura M Abstract  Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) analog formulations are the most commonly used drugs for glaucoma treatment. They are known to be superior to β-blockers for reducing intraocular pressure and can be effective all through the day. Because of the action, topical β-blockers are contraindicated for patients with bronchial asthma. PGF2α is also known to act as a...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ohyama K, Sugiura M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Evaluation of the Stability of Indomethacin Oral Spray in Two Different Formulation Conditions].
Abstract  Indomethacin (IM) oral spray is a hospital preparation that is used to reduce pain from oral mucositis induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. IM oral spray consists of IM (0.25%) dissolved in KH2PO4-NaOH buffer (Formulation A) or Formulation A containing xylitol (Xyl) and glycerin (Gly) (Formulation B). To clarify the stability of IM oral spray in two different formulation conditions, we evaluated the residual rates of IM in these formulations to determine the optimal storage temperature and shelf-life. IM oral spray was stored at freezer temperature (-20°C), refrigerator temperature (4°C) a...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tazawa Y, Kagami K, Watanabe Y, Kubota K, Harada S, Kobayashi M, Yamada T, Iseki K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Retrospective Analysis of Factors Decreasing the Efficacy of Tazobactam/Piperacillin for Pneumonia in Elderly Patients].
In conclusion, TAZ/PIPC may not be sufficiently effective for pneumonia in elderly patients with the complications of chronic respiratory disease as a background. PMID: 29608008 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: So M, Oda K, Ota K, Sakamoto N, Suzuki T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Errata: Economic Evaluation of mFOLFOX6-based First-line Regimens for Unresectable Advanced or Recurrent Colorectal Cancer Using Clinical Decision Analysis].
PMID: 29608009 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shida T, Endo Y, Shiraishi T, Yoshioka T, Suzuki K, Kobayashi Y, Ono Y, Ito T, Inoue T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Evaluation of Dissolution Profiles of Famotidine from Over-the-counter Drugs].
In this study, we performed dissolution tests on both OTC drugs and ethical drug (ED) containing famotidine, and evaluated the differences in their dissolution profiles. Marked differences in dissolution profiles of OTC drugs were observed in test solutions at pH 1.2, 4.0, and 6.8 and in water. To evaluate the differences quantitatively, we calculated the lag time and dissolution rate constant from the dissolution profiles. Significant differences in lag times and dissolution rate constants between some OTC drugs and ED were observed. We also used similarity factor (f2), to quantify the similarity between dissolution profi...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Saito Y, Adachi N, Kato M, Nadai M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Pharmaceutical Compounds in the Environment-Distribution, Ecological Effects, and Purification Technologies].
PMID: 29503414 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ogata F, Azuma T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Antibiotic Residue in Environmental Water in Vietnam].
Abstract  The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has caused intractable infections worldwide. Nearly 50% of the healthy population of Southeast Asia carries extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. The overuse of antimicrobial agents in the agriculture, aquaculture, and medical care sectors causes environmental pollution, facilitating the spread of AMR. However, there is a lack of data pertaining to antimicrobial residues in environmental water in such regions. We investigated a total of 49 chemicals, including β-lactams, sulfonamides, quinolones, and tetrac...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Harada K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Effect of Environmental Factors on the Ecotoxicity of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products].
In this study, we examined the degradation of 9 pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, amiodarone, dapsone, dexamethasone, indomethacin, raloxifene, phenytoin, naproxen, and sulindac) by sunlight or UV, and investigated the ecotoxicological variation of degradation products. Sunlight (UVA and UVB) degraded most pharmaceuticals, except acetaminophen and phenytoin. Similar results were obtained with UVB and UVA. All the pharmaceuticals were photodegraded by UVC, which is used for sterilization in STPs. Ecotoxicity assay using the luminescent bacteria test (ISO11348) indicated that UVC irradiation increased the toxicity of acetamino...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sugihara K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Detection of Physiological Activity of Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater and River Water].
In this study, we measured the physiological activity of GPCR-acting pharmaceuticals in effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and upstream and downstream of its outfall in Japan during 2 years. We used the in vitro transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) shedding assay, which accurately and sensitively detects GPCR activation, to investigate the antagonistic activities of water extracts against receptors for dopamine (D2) and histamine (H1). Activities detected in waters were quantified as antagonist equivalent quantities (EQs). In WWTP effluent extracts, antagonistic activity was detected at several hu...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ihara M, Zhang H, Hanamoto S, Tanaka H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Newly Designed Water Treatment Systems for Hospital Effluent].
Abstract  Pharmaceuticals are indispensable to contemporary life. Recently, the emerging problem of pharmaceutical-based pollution of river environments, including drinking water sources and lakes, has begun to receive significant attention worldwide. Because pharmaceuticals are designed to perform specific physiological functions in targeted regions of the human body, there is increasing concern regarding their toxic effects, even at low concentrations, on aquatic ecosystems and human health, via residues in drinking water. Pharmaceuticals are consistently employed in hospitals to treat disease; and Japan, one ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Azuma T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[New Development of the Risk Benefit Communication-For Safety Information to Be Communicated and Understood Sufficiently].
PMID: 29503419 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yamamoto M, Nakayama T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Risk/Benefit Communication: International Developments and Prospects for the Future].
Abstract  While expectations for the benefits of pharmaceuticals are high, the occurrence of health damage from adverse drug reactions remains a problem. One of the reasons for this seems to be insufficient risk communication among stakeholders. Healthcare professionals (HCPs), relevant agencies, and pharmaceutical companies have responsibilities to communicate useful information on the risks/benefits of the pharmaceuticals they provide in addition to basic policies and services. Four years have passed since the risk management plan system was introduced in Japan. Although relevant materials for patients and HCP...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yamamoto M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[The Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency's Approach to Facilitate Risk Communication and Its Challenges].
This study addresses those efforts and the associated challenges. PMID: 29503421 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kondo E, Torii M, Oba I, Okamoto M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Making Patient-focused Information Provision a Reality: One Company's Approach].
Abstract  In recent years, as the market has seen the appearance of innovative medical products with novel mechanisms of action, adverse reactions that cannot be expected from the approved product label are being detected in the postmarketing phase. It is increasingly important to undertake timely product label updates and other drug safety measures through the monitoring, early detection, and reporting of adverse reactions. In 2013, the risk management plan (RMP) system was introduced in Japan. An RMP documents efforts to ensure the safety of a medical product, and sharing the RMP with stakeholders results in e...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Takemoto S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Current Status and Issues of Electronic Information Provision for Risk Minimization: Coordination between Electronic Medicine Notebook and Patient Drug Information].
Abstract  In the collaboration between community pharmacies and hospitals or clinics, the use of electronic medicine notebook may allow information sharing, including among out-of-network hospitals, clinics, and community pharmacies. For risk minimization, mobile or smart phones, which patients always carry with them, should be used as a tool allowing drug information to be accessed at any time. An advantage of the electronic conversion of patient drug information is that it allows patients not only to obtain round-the-clock information on drugs, etc. that they are receiving but also to check patient-oriented in...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Orii T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Evidence-based Risk and Benefit Communication for Shared Decision Making].
Abstract  Evidence-based medicine (EBM) can be defined as "the integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and a patient's unique values and circumstances". However, even with the best research evidence, many uncertainties can make clinical decisions difficult. As the social requirement of respecting patient values and preferences has been increasingly recognized, shared decision making (SDM) and consensus development between patients and clinicians have attracted attention. SDM is a process by which patients and clinicians make decisions and arrive at a consensus through interact...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nakayama T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Knowledge of Drug Interactions to Take Advantage in the Pharmacist].
PMID: 29503425 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Masumi A, Ozawa S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Quantitative Prediction of Drug-Drug Interaction Caused by CYP Inhibition and Induction from In Vivo Data and Its Application in Daily Clinical Practices-Proposal for the Pharmacokinetic Interaction Significance Classification System (PISCS)].
This article outlines our approach to improving methods for evaluating and providing drug information relative to the effects of DDIs. In a previous study, total exposure changes to many substrate drugs of CYP caused by the co-administration of inhibitor or inducer drugs were successfully predicted using in vivo data. There are two parameters for the prediction: the contribution ratio of the enzyme to oral clearance for substrates (CR), and either the inhibition ratio for inhibitors (IR) or the increase in clearance of substrates produced by induction (IC). To apply these predictions in daily pharmacotherapy, the clinical ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ohno Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Dynamic Simulation of Drug-Drug Interactions by Using Multi-level Physiological Modeling & Simulation Platforms].
[Dynamic Simulation of Drug-Drug Interactions by Using Multi-level Physiological Modeling & Simulation Platforms]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2018;138(3):347-351 Authors: Yamashita F Abstract  Drug-drug interactions mediated by drug metabolizing enzymes are serious, clinically relevant issues. Prediction and evaluation of the probability and consequences of drug-drug interactions are essential during drug development, as well as during clinical application. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, which considers the hierarchical structure of the physiological behavior of drugs, has been demo...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yamashita F Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

[Effect of Food Thickeners on the Disintegration, Dissolution, and Drug Activity of Rapid Oral-disintegrating Tablets].
Abstract  For patients with dysphagia in medical facilities and nursing homes, food thickeners are routinely used to aid the ingestion of medicines such as tablets. However, some types of thickeners affect the disintegration and dissolution of tablets, such as rapidly-disintegrating magnesium oxide tablets and donepezil hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets. Additionally, delayed disintegration and dissolution of tablets affect a drug's efficacy. As an example, with Voglibose orally disintegrating tablets, marked differences are observed in changes in glucose levels during glucose tolerance testing. When u...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tomita T, Kohda Y, Kudo K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research