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Frontiers in Researches of Allergy.
PMID: 28458278 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nishida K, Kashiwakura JI Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Regulatory Mechanism of Mast Cell Activation by Zinc Signaling.
Abstract  Mast cells are hematopoietic-lineage cells that participate in immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated immune responses, including allergic reactions and parasite resistance. Recent studies have shown that zinc (Zn) ion can behave as an intracellular signaling molecule and that Zn is involved in mast cell activation. We demonstrated that mast cells stimulated through the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) rapidly release intracellular Zn from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and we named this phenomenon the "Zn wave". Furthermore, we found that the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) is the gatekeeper for the Zn w...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nishida K, Uchida R Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Immunological Regulation by Bioactive Lipids.
Abstract  Mast cells originate from hematopoietic stem cells and undergo terminal maturation in the extravascular tissues, in which they are ultimately resident. Mast maturation, phenotype, and function are dictated by the local microenvironment, which has a significant influence on the ability of mast cells to recognize and respond to stimuli. Activation of mast cells can lead to the release of three distinct classes of mediators, including preformed mediators stored in secretory granules, newly transcribed cytokines and chemokines, and de novo-synthesized bioactive lipid mediators. It is currently recognized t...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Taketomi Y, Murakami M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Role of Histamine-releasing Factor in Allergic Inflammatory Reactions.
Abstract  Mast cells are effector cells in immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated immediate hypersensitivity and allergic diseases such as asthma and food allergy. Mast cells are activated by the aggregation of the IgE-bound high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI with multivalent antigen. Activated mast cells secrete proinflammatory mediators such as histamine, serotonin, and proteases and produce cytokines and chemokines. However, it has been reported that mast cells are activated by crosslinking of FcεRI with monomeric IgE in the absence of antigen. We have recently demonstrated that histamine-releasing factor (HRF) is i...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kashiwakura JI, Ando T, Kawakami T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Antibody-Drug Conjugates: Element Technology and General Technology.
PMID: 28458282 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Manabe S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

The Characterization of Drug-to-Antibody Ratio and Isoforms of ADCs Using LC and MS Technologies.
Abstract  Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) and MS are leading techniques for the characterization of the critical quality attributes (CQA) of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). This includes the average drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) and drug loading distribution. A workflow that effectively utilizes the synergy between chromatography and detection technologies has been developed and was assessed using cysteine-conjugated ADCs. The DAR of low, moderate and high drug-loaded ADC samples were calculated from the chromatographic peak areas using LC(HIC)/UV or the deconvoluted mass spectra using native LC(SEC...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Iizuka R, Kotch F, Xu A, Porter T, Shion H, Birdsall R, Chen W Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Cancer Stromal Targeting Therapy.
Abstract  Recent advances in antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) technology have shown considerable promise in targeted cancer therapy. The ADC strategy should be confined to highly toxic anticancer agents and not to ordinary anti-cancer agents (ACAs) because the affinity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) diminishes if more than three ACA molecules are conjugated. According to this principle, higher amounts of ADC should be administered so that each of the ACAs is conjugated to the mAbs. Therefore for an ordinary ACA, nanoparticles should be the preferred drug delivery system (DDS). A large body of clinical evidence ind...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Matsumura Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of ADCs Using Molecular Imaging.
We present our work on the development of ADC using a molecular imaging technique. PMID: 28458285 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yasunaga M, Manabe S, Tsuji A, Furuta M, Ogata K, Koga Y, Fujiwara Y, Saga T, Matsumura Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of New ADC Technology with Topoisomerase I Inhibitor.
Abstract  Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) selectively deliver large amounts of antitumor drugs to tumor tissue and show significant antitumor effects with a wide therapeutic window. We developed a new linker-drug technology platform with an exatecan derivative, which is a highly potent topoisomerase I inhibitor. The major advantages of the technology are: 1) high and homogeneous drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) availability; 2) potent antitumor activity in conjunction with bystander killing; 3) few safety concerns because of the stable linker limiting release of free drug; and 4) a wide application to therapeutic an...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Agatsuma T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

The Usefulness of Silkworms as a Model Animal for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Medicine and Food.
Abstract  Development of novel medicines is an important responsibility of researchers in the field of pharmaceutical sciences. However, the discovery of new therapeutically effective without side effects is not an easy job. I think the limiting step of drug discovery is the process of evaluating the therapeutic effects of candidate drugs. To overcome this problem, I would like to propose a novel approach, "drug discovery with silkworms". PMID: 28458287 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sekimizu K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Neuropharmacological Study of ATP Receptors, Especially in the Relationship between Glia and Pain.
We reported that several molecules of microglia are activated after peripheral nerve injury in a neuropathic pain model. In particular, P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) expressed in microglia play a critical role in evoking neuropathic pain. P2X4Rs are upregulated in spinal microglia after nerve injury by several factors such as the CC chemokine receptor CCR2, fibronectin in the spinal cord, interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 8, and IRF5 expressed in microglia. The inhibition of P2X4R action suppresses the functions of microglia and neuropathic pain. These results indicate that overexpressing P2X4Rs on microglia are a central playe...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Inoue K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Application of Natural Ingredients to Preventive Medicine.
In this study, the effectiveness of Goishi tea (postfermented tea) and Flos Lonicerae (Japanese honeysuckle) for metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders, respectively, was explored. Multicomponent foods and natural ingredients have diverse effects produced by the actions of individual components as well as the interactions among different components. Additionally, when using natural ingredients and similar materials, it is necessary to consider the different extraction efficiencies of various methods and their absorption, deposition, metabolism, and excretion after consumption. The influence of intestinal bacteria and oth...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yokota J Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Study of Safety Evaluation in Dispensing of Medicines-Analysis of Relationship between Dispensing Error Rate, Inspecting Error Rate, and Malpractice Rate.
In this study, we established a methodology to calculate the rate of overlooking a dispensing error (inspecting error rate) as a new index for the purpose of determining dispensing error and malpractice rates. Using data obtained from analyses of these error rates at our and two other hospitals, an inspecting error rate was calculated for each institution. Our results showed that inspecting errors occurred at a frequency 3-5 times greater as compared to dispensing errors at each of the examined hospitals. We concluded that construction of a higher quality safety management system would be enabled by incorporation of an ins...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Soeda S, Takayanagi R, Watanabe M, Yamada Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Similarities of Water-soluble Vitamin Components among Non-prescription Pharmaceutical Vitamin Products Generally Available on the Domestic Market.
Abstract  Similarities among non-prescription pharmaceutical vitamin products generally available in community pharmacies were examined based on their vitamin components, and a chart was constructed to differentiate products to assist in appropriate product choice. In the analysis of the similarities, two hundred and seventy-six data entries on vitamin products were extracted from the database on the package inserts of the pharmaceutical products provided by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, and they were reviewed for the amounts of vitamins they contained, in which the B vitamins, or vitamin B1, B...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Suzuki K, Kojina M, Aiba T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

The Effect of Pharmacist-led Psychiatric Pharmacotherapy Conferences on the Appropriate Use of Antipsychotics.
Abstract  The Hakodate Watanabe Hospital has held pharmacist-led multidisciplinary psychiatric pharmacotherapy conferences since September 2013 in order to optimize pharmacotherapy. The effects of holding regular conferences on the correction of high-dose antipsychotic polypharmacy, prevention and reduction of adverse reactions to antipsychotics, and reduction of the drug costs were investigated in psychiatric inpatients prescribed 4 or more antipsychotics. The results revealed that the number of antipsychotics and number of all drugs were significantly reduced by 1, the chlorpromazine (CP)-equivalent dose was s...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sano T, Inoue M, Takizawa M, Shimamori Y, Kurosawa N Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Construction of the Database of Rat Repeated-dose Toxicity Tests of Pesticides for the Toxicological Characterization of Hepatocyte Hypertrophy.
Abstract  Liver and hepatocyte hypertrophy can be induced by exposure to chemical compounds, but the mechanisms and toxicological characteristics of these phenomena have not yet been investigated extensively. In particular, it remains unclear whether the hepatocyte hypertrophy induced by chemical compounds should be judged as an adaptive response or an adverse effect. Thus, understanding of the toxicological characteristics of hepatocyte hypertrophy is of great importance to the safety evaluation of pesticides and other chemical compounds. To this end, we have constructed a database of potentially toxic pesticid...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Masuda A, Masuda M, Kawano T, Kitsunai Y, Nakayama H, Nakajima H, Kojima H, Kitamura S, Uramaru N, Hosaka T, Sasaki T, Yoshinari K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Deprescribing Using the Guidelines for Medical Treatment and Its Safety in the Elderly and Changes in Patient QOL and Activities of Daily Living.
Abstract  Pharmacists applied deprescribing, which is a process for the rational use of drugs, for 13 at-home patients. The standard used for the rational use of drugs was the "Guidelines for Medical Treatment and Its Safety in the Elderly" (the Guidelines). The results of the deprescribing were discussed with physicians to determine prescriptions. After the prescription change, activities of daily living (ADL) and QOL were assessed using the Barthel Index and SF-36v2, respectively. Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) were detected in 10 of the 13 patients (76.9%). This detection rate is higher than pre...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ohshima S, Hara A, Abe T, Akimoto H, Ohara K, Negishi A, Okita M, Oshima S, Inoue N, Numajiri S, Ogawa E, Saiki M, Kobayashi D Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Improvement of Dissolution Rate and Stability in a Pirenoxine Ophthalmic Suspension by the Bead Mill Methods.
In conclusion, we showed that the dissolution rate and dispersion stability of CA-pirenoxine eye drops were enhanced by the bead mill method. These findings provide significant information that can be used in the design of ophthalmic suspension. PMID: 28458295 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ueno A, Yamaoka S, Ito Y, Kotake T, Nakazawa Y, Nagai N Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a Computer-facilitated, Pharmacist-driven Antimicrobial Stewardship Program for Infection Management.
Abstract  In recent years, hospitals have routinely implemented antimicrobial stewardship (AS) programs, and it is important that these programs are effective. Consequently, we utilized a customized computer system to support infection management and implemented a pharmacist-driven AS program in our hospital. Using this computer system, a pharmacist monitored the daily usage of carbapenems and agents against anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and generated a patient database. With the use of this computer system, we found that the patient database entry time significantly decreased from 24 to 12 mi...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - May 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ohashi K, Matsuoka T, Shinoda Y, Yoshida S, Arai K, Kato M, Mori T, Yoshimura T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Frontier of Pharmaceutical Microbiology: To Combat Multidrug-resistant Bacterial Pathogens.
PMID: 28381707 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Morita Y, Nishino K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Analysis of Drug Resistance Using Experimental Evolution.
Abstract  The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria is a growing concern for global public health. One possible strategy to deal with the problem of resistant bacteria is to understand the dynamics of adaptive evolution under antibiotics and then develop methods to suppress such adaptive evolution. For this purpose, we performed experimental evolution of Escherichia coli under various antibiotics and obtained resistant strains. The phenotypic changes in these resistant strains were quantified by transcriptome analysis, and the genomic changes were analyzed using next-generation sequencers. The results demonstrate...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Furusawa C Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Structural Analysis and New Drug Development against Multidrug Efflux Pumps.
Abstract  Multidrug efflux pumps are important in the multidrug resistance of Gram-negative pathogens. However, despite efforts to develop efflux inhibitors, clinically useful inhibitors are not available at present. ABI-PP (a pryridopyrimidine derivative) is a MexB-specific inhibitor that does not inhibit MexY; MexB and MexY are principal pumps in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We previously found that drugs were exported through tandem proximal and distal multisite drug-binding pockets. Here we describe the first inhibitor-bound structures of pumps. ABI-PP binds tightly to a narrow pit located in the distal pocket an...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yamasaki S, Nakashima R, Sakurai K, Yamaguchi A, Nishino K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Search for Novel Antibacterial Compounds and Targets.
Abstract  Drug-resistant bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been spreading; however, the development of new antibacterial drugs has not progressed accordingly. Novel antibacterial drugs or their candidate seeds need to be developed for effective antibiotic therapy. Under these conditions, the search for novel compounds and novel targets is important. In Okayama University, as a part of the Drug Discovery for Intractable Infectious Diseases project, we are proceeding with the development...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kuroda T, Ogawa W Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of Novel Antibiotic Lysocin E Identified by Silkworm Infection Model.
Abstract  In this symposium, we reported the identification and mechanistic analysis of a novel antibiotic named lysocin E. Lysocin E was identified by screening for therapeutic effectiveness in a silkworm Staphylococcus aureus infection model. The advantages of the silkworm infection model for screening and purification of antibiotics from the culture supernatant of soil bacteria are: 1) low cost; 2) no ethical issues; 3) convenient for evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness of antibiotics; and 4) pharmacokinetics similar to those of mammals. Lysocin E has remarkable features compared with known antibiotic...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hamamoto H, Sekimizu K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Startup of Pedagogy in Pharmaceutical Education-What to See, How to Consider and What Is Revealed.
PMID: 28381712 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Arita E, Ishikawa S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

The Purpose and Scope of Pedagogy in Pharmaceutical Education.
Abstract  The WHO and International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) introduced the concept of the "seven-star pharmacist" in which a pharmacist is described as a caregiver, communicator, decision-maker, teacher, lifelong learner, leader and manager. In six-year pharmaceutical education programs, which have been provided in schools of pharmacy since 2006, 5th year students participate in on-site practice experiences in hospitals and community pharmacies. Thus, Japanese pharmacists also began to have a role in pharmaceutical education as teachers in clinical settings. Not only pharmacists in clinical settings, but...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nakamura A Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Status and Problems of Humanities Education with Respect to Pharmacy Education.
Abstract  In 2006, a model core curriculum in pharmaceutical studies was developed prior to the outset of the 6-year pharmacy degree. In the 10 years that followed, medical care and life science technology has progressed, pharmaceutical laws have been revised, and the responsibilities of pharmacists have increased. In response to such social changes and needs, the Model Core Curriculum for Pharmacy Education was revised in December 2013. In order to play an active role as a pharmacist in any medical workplace, it is important for pharmacy students to develop their communication skills and attitudes in order to f...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ishikawa S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Current Status and Issues in Basic Pharmaceutical Education.
Abstract  Basic research in pharmaceutical sciences has a long and successful history. Researchers in this field have long given prime importance to the knowledge they have gained through their pharmaceutical education. The transition of pharmacy education to a 6-year course term has not only extended its duration but also placed more emphasis on practical clinical education. The School Education Act (in article 87, second paragraph) determines that "the term of the course, whose main purpose is to cultivate practical ability in clinical pharmacy, shall be six years" (excerpt). The 6-year pharmacy education is a...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yasuhara T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

The Future of Pharmaceutical Education Based on Our Experience of Medical Education.
Abstract  We have experienced a series of big revolutions in medical education in Japan. In undergraduate courses, common guidelines had been established for medical education (the model core-curriculum of medical education). Then, from 2005, a standard achievement testing system [objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and computer based testing (CBT)] was begun, and clinical clerkships were accordingly promoted. In post-graduate courses, a new clinical resident training system was initiated in 2004, and there are currently approximately 40000 clinical instructors nationwide. Accreditation of Japanese ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Moriya R Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Recommendation of Regulatory Science Education in Pharmaceutical Science.
PMID: 28381717 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Niimi S, Shiragami M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Greeting and General Statement by the Organizer.
Abstract  Regulatory science is growing increasingly important, and the Health and Medical Strategy of the Japanese government reflects this. How regulatory science is covered in pharmaceutical education is an urgent issue. Education on regulatory science is also part of the modified version of the model core curriculum in the six-year pharmaceutical course that was introduced from 2015. The Regulatory Science Task Force of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, in response to a commission of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, conducted a study on the development of teaching materi...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shiragami M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Practice of Regulatory Science (Drug Development).
Abstract  The practice of regulatory science (RS) for drug development is described. In the course material for education in pharmaceutical sciences drafted by the RS Division of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, RS for pharmaceuticals is defined as the science of predicting, assessing, and judging the quality, efficacy, and safety of pharmaceutical products throughout their lifespan. RS is also described as an integrated science based on basic and applied biomedical sciences, including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, genetics, biostatistics, epidemiology, and clinical trial meth...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kawanishi T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Practice of Regulatory Science (Development of Medical Devices).
Abstract  Prototypes of medical devices are made in accordance with the needs of clinical practice, and for systems required during the initial process of medical device development for new surgical practices. Verification of whether these prototypes produce the intended performance specifications is conducted using basic tests such as mechanical and animal tests. The prototypes are then improved and modified until satisfactory results are obtained. After a prototype passes through a clinical trial process similar to that for new drugs, application for approval is made. In the approval application process, medic...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Niimi S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Regulatory Science in Practice (Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency).
Abstract  Review, safety, and relief services of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency are primarily focused on scientifically evaluating pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and cellular and tissue-based products referring to their quality, efficacy, and safety, which requires a variety of scientific knowledge and methods. Pharmaceutical regulation should be established based on the most advanced scientific expertise at all times. In order to evaluate products that use cutting-edge technology such as induced pluripotent stem cells and information and communication technology adequately, since fiscal year ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hojo T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Pharmacists and Regulatory Science.
Abstract  For providing appropriate pharmacotherapy, "Doing the right things, and doing things right" are necessary. Additionally, vigilance is required for the appropriate use of pharmaceuticals. Evidence-based medicine has been a common approach to healthcare, and many guidelines have been published. In addition, risk management plans (RMPs) are developed upon the approval of new drugs. Therefore an environment to provide the best healthcare based on scientific evidence has been developed. When putting RMPs into practice, it is necessary to understand and utilize regulatory science (RS). If pharmaceuticals are...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Masada M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Regulatory Science in Professional Education.
Abstract  In the field of pharmaceutical sciences, the subject of regulatory science (RS) includes pharmaceuticals, food, and living environments. For pharmaceuticals, considering the balance between efficacy and safety is a point required for public acceptance, and in that balance, more importance is given to efficacy in curing disease. For food, however, safety is the most important consideration for public acceptance because food should be essentially free of risk. To ensure food safety, first, any hazard that is an agent in food or condition of food with the potential to cause adverse health effects should b...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Akiyama H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Current Status of Regulatory Science Education in Faculties of Pharmaceutical Science in Japan.
Abstract  I introduce the current pharmaceutical education system in Japan, focusing on regulatory science. University schools or faculties of pharmaceutical science in Japan offer two courses: a six-year course for pharmacists and a four-year course for scientists and technicians. Students in the six-year pharmaceutical course receive training in hospitals and pharmacies during their fifth year, and those in the four-year life science course start research activities during their third year. The current model core curriculum for pharmaceutical education requires them to "explain the necessity and significance o...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tohkin M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Pursuit of Neurotransmitter Functions: Being Attracted with Fascination of the Synapse.
Abstract  In the beginning of the 1970s, only two chemical substances, acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), had been definitely established as neurotransmitters. Under such circumstances, I started my scientific career in Professor Masanori Otsuka's lab searching for the transmitter of primary sensory neurons. Until 1976, lines of evidence had accumulated indicating that the undecapeptide substance P could be released as a transmitter from primary afferent fibers into spinal synapses, although the substance P-mediated synaptic response had yet to be identified. Peripheral synapses could serve as a good...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Konishi S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Preparation and Evaluation of Modified Mohs Paste without Starch.
Abstract  Mohs paste is an external preparation containing zinc hydrochloride and zinc oxide starch as the main ingredient, and it is used for the palliative treatment of patients with surgically untreatable malignant tumors. However, it has problems, such as changes in hardness and viscoelasticity with time and liquefaction by exudate. To overcome these problems, we modified the formulation of Mohs paste by excluding starch, which is the cause of physical changes, and investigated the base. In the modified Mohs paste using the macrogol ointment for the base, no marked change with time was noted in the hardness,...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - April 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Taguchi M, Shigeyama M, Ito N, Ogawa N, Takahashi C, Murata M, Hanioka N, Yamamoto H, Teramachi H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Further Improvement of Risk Assessment of Pharmaceutical and Chemicals in Humans and Animals-From the View Point of Metabolic Activation, Species Differences, and Epigenetic Regulation.
PMID: 28250316 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sanoh S, Kimura T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Strategic Drug Design to Avoid the Metabolic Activation of Hepatotoxic Drugs.
Abstract  Adverse reactions are one of the most important issues in drug development, as well as in the therapeutic usage of drugs during the post-approval stage. Specifically, idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (IDR) occur in only a small group of patients who are treated with certain drugs, and are unpredictable. It is widely accepted that drug-induced IDR is often associated with CYP-mediated bioactivation. Benzbromarone (BBR) is effective in the treatment of hyperuricemia, and has been used as an effective drug in Japan for a long time. However, BBR has been associated with hepatotoxicity, including fatal ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ohe T, Takahashi K, Nakamura S, Mashino T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Characterization of Species Differences in Xenobiotic Metabolism in Non-experimental Animals.
Abstract  The ability to metabolize xenobiotics in organisms has a wide degree of variation among organisms. This is caused by differences in the pattern of xenobiotic bioaccumulation among organisms, which affects their tolerance. It has been reported in the veterinary field that glucuronidation (UGT) activity in cats, acetylation activity in dogs and sulfation (SULT) activity in pigs are sub-vital in these species, respectively, and require close attention when prescribing the medicine. On the other hand, information about species differences in xenobiotics metabolism remains insufficient, especially in non-ex...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mizukawa H, Ikenaka Y, Kakehi M, Nakayama S, Ishizuka M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

The Current State and Future Development of Epigenetic Toxicology.
Abstract  Epigenetics has drawn much attention as a mechanism of transcriptional regulation involving modifications to genomic DNA and histone, without changes to nucleotide sequences. Epigenetics is related to various biological phenomena. We defined one of these phenomena as "epigenetic toxicity", in which chemicals affect epigenetic regulation and result in undesirable effects on living organisms. We then detailed the importance of epigenetics and the need for intensive research. Epigenetics is a mechanism that might explain the long-lasting effects of chemicals in an organism, and the formation of a predispo...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Igarashi K, Ideta-Otsuka M, Narita M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Metal-mediated Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression.
Abstract  Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without alterations in the DNA sequence. Several studies have shown that environmental chemicals can alter epigenetic modifications, including histone modifications and DNA methylation. Environmental chemicals may show toxic effects via epigenetic mechanism-regulated changes in gene expression. Previously, we reported that zinc treatment rapidly decreased Lys(4)-trimethylated and Lys(9)-acetylated histone H3 in the metallothionein (MT) promoter, and also decreased total histone H3. The chromatin structure in the MT promoter may...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kimura T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Chemical Biology for Pharmaceutical Sciences (Novel Ideas for "Drug" Discovery).
PMID: 28250321 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sohma Y, Itoh Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

"Drug" Discovery with the Help of Organic Chemistry.
Abstract  The first step in "drug" discovery is to find compounds binding to a potential drug target. In modern medicinal chemistry, the screening of a chemical library, structure-based drug design, and ligand-based drug design, or a combination of these methods, are generally used for identifying the desired compounds. However, they do not necessarily lead to success and there is no infallible method for drug discovery. Therefore, it is important to explore medicinal chemistry based on not only the conventional methods but also new ideas. So far, we have found various compounds as drug candidates. In these stud...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Itoh Y, Suzuki T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of Damaged Nucleoside Mimics for Inhibition of Their Repair Enzymes.
Abstract  8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) is a representative of nucleoside damage, which is generated by the reaction of the 8 position of dG with reactive oxygen species. Abundant 8-oxo-dG in DNA exhibits genotoxicity and has been linked to aging and disease, such as cancer. As the metabolism of cancer cells is much faster than that of normal cells, the oxidized product of the oligonucleotides and the nucleotide pool produces 8-oxo-dG and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP), respectively. Human oxoguanine glycosylase (hOGG1) shows base excision activity for 8-oxo-dG in duplex DNA. On the other...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Taniguchi Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Unexplored Chemical Reactions of Endogenous Acrolein: Detection, Toxicity, and Biological Roles.
Abstract  Acrolein, a highly toxic α, β-unsaturated aldehyde, occurs as pollutant in the environment (e.g., tobacco smoke and exhaust gas) and is ubiquitously generated in biosystems (e.g., the lipid peroxidation process and metabolism of polyamine or amino acids). High accumulation of acrolein in biosystems is often linked pathologically with several oxidative stress-related diseases, including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, acrolein holds great potential as a key biomarker in oxidative stress-related diseases, and direct measurement of acrolein in biological samples is important to provide info...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pradipta AR, Tanaka K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Pharmacists' Roles regarding the Prescription of Drugs That Influence Driving.
PMID: 28250325 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kizu J, Momose Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Medication and Driving-Appropriate Interventions.
Abstract  Sudden illness while driving has been identified as a major cause of vehicle collisions, accounting for approximately 1 in 10 collisions. Because most drivers who experience sudden illnesses while driving do not perform avoidance maneuvers, the improvement of drivers' health is being promoted as a traffic safety strategy. Although stroke, heart disease, and epilepsy are common causes of sudden illness, common symptoms, such as abdominal cramps, vertigo, and syncope can also cause problems during driving. We found that regular referral to physicians was significantly less common among drivers who experi...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - March 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hitosugi M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research