Usefulness of Oral Care-related Information Provision at Drugstores to Prevent Pneumonia.
This study examined the usefulness of oral care-related information provision for the elderly by pharmacists working at drugstores. A questionnaire survey was conducted, involving 387 pharmacists working at drugstores and 51 elderly individuals who visited such stores. Oral care-related information had been actively provided by 14.5% of the pharmacists, and 62.5% of all oral care products were being sold as care products. When focusing on the elderly, 70.6% showed interest in oral care, but the proportion of those who had performed self-care to promote such health was limited to 5.9%. After being provided with oral care-in...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - December 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mizoguchi M, Kuwano S, Suzuki I, Shigeyama M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Probable Serotonin Syndrome and Withdrawal Symptoms Caused by Milnacipran.
Abstract  A 70-year-old woman, residing in a nursing home, was admitted to our hospital because of cerebral hemorrhage. She had excessive sweating, a temperature above 37°C, and intermittent muscle spasm such as myoclonus, since the time of admission. We suspected that these symptoms were related to side effects caused by the milnacipran she was taking for depression, prior to hospitalization. After we discontinued milnacipran, the patient began exhibiting withdrawal symptoms such as excitement and insomnia. When we substituted milnacipran with mianserin, the withdrawal symptoms diminished and the excessi...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - December 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Koshiishi T, Okuyama K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of Heteroatom-introducing Methodologies Based on Ate Complex Formation: Perfluoroalkylation, Borylation, Aromatic Hydroxylation, and Amination Reactions.
Abstract  We have developed regio- and chemoselective heteroelement-introducing reactions based on ate complex formation. This review is focused on novelly designed reactive species for efficient access to perfluoroalkylated aliphatic and aromatic compounds as well as Csp(2)-borylated compounds. PMID: 27803476 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - November 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hirano K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Pharmaceutical Investigation for Individualized and Optimal Cancer Pharmacotherapy.
Abstract  After the year 2000, the treatment of cancer remarkably changed, including the development of outpatient cancer chemotherapy. Meanwhile, we have encountered many clinical problems related to cancer patient pharmacy services. To resolve these problems, I have tried to establish the individualized and optimal cancer pharmacotherapy utilizing the findings of basic research. In this review, three topics of my research will be introduced. 1) In 2005, information regarding the genetic polymorphism of UGT1A1*28 was described in the package insert of the drug irinotecan in the United States. At that time, h...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - November 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Terada T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of a Drug Delivery System for Cancer Immunotherapy.
Abstract  Delivery systems are a powerful technology for enhancing the effect of cancer immunotherapy. We have been in the process of developing lipid-based delivery systems for controlling the physical properties and dynamics of immunofunctional molecules such as antigens and adjuvants. The lipid nanoparticulation of these molecules improves their physical properties, resulting in a good water dispensability, greater stability, and small size. The cell wall skeleton of bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG-CWS) could be used to replace live BCG as a drug for treating bladder cancer, but problems associated with the p...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - November 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nakamura T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Analysis of Vascular Cell Response to Hypertension Induced by Pressure Loading and Its Application as a Tool for Exploring Pharmacological Modes of Action.
Abstract  Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is induced by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), resulting in the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandins such as PGI2. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 in cultured VSMCs isolated from 6-7-week-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) is significantly lower than in cells of normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). These reductions are also found in cells exposed to pulsatile atmospheric pressure between 80-160 mmHg at a rate of 4 cycles/min, which simul...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - November 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Machida T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Synthesis of Nucleic Acid Mimics and Their Application in Nucleic Acid-based Medicine.
Abstract  Nucleic acid-based drugs (NABDs) have recently attracted considerable attention as next-generation medicines, following the development of low molecular-weight and antibody drugs, because it is likely that they will have fewer side effects and greater target specificity than conventional medicines. Short double-stranded RNAs contain a 2-nucleotide overhang at the 3'-end of each strand. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) inhibit gene expression by RNA interference (RNAi) and thus have great potential as NABDs. However, naked RNA strands have many problems that hinder their applica...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - November 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kitamura Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Improved Therapeutic Efficacy in Bone and Joint Disorders by Targeted Drug Delivery to Bone.
We present some pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties of the L-Asp hexapeptide-tagged drugs. PMID: 27803481 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - November 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Takahashi T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of Novel Genetically Engineered Adenoviruses Based on Functional Analyses of Adenovirus-encoded Small RNAs.
Abstract  The adenovirus (Ad) genome encodes two small noncoding RNAs, VA-RNA I and II, which support Ad replication by antagonizing the antiviral action associated with the Ad-induced activation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). VA-RNAs are also processed in a manner similar to microRNAs (miRNAs), resulting in the production of VA-RNA-derived miRNAs (mivaRNAs). mivaRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and exhibit posttranscriptional silencing in a manner similar to miRNAs. However, it remained to be clarified whether Dicer-mediated processing of VA-RNAs and...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - November 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Machitani M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Efficient Synthesis of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon via a Formal [2+2] Cycloaddition.
Abstract  A potassium base-promoted formal [2+2] cycloaddition of 2-acyl-2'-vinyl-1,1'-biaryls was developed to afford benzo-fused polycyclic cyclobutanols in a highly stereoselective manner. We demonstrated synthesis of substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and these heterocyclic derivatives via this cyclization, followed by an acid-promoted rearrangement. Furthermore, asymmetric total synthesis of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloid (-)-tylophorine was achieved using our methodology and late-stage asymmetric hydrogenation of a cyclic imine. PMID: 27803483 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zass...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - November 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yamaoka Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Regulation of the Expression of Iron-acquisition System Genes in Pathogenic Vibrio Species.
Abstract  The genus Vibrio includes>70 species, of which roughly a dozen cause vibriosis such as gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. Most bacteria, including Vibrio species, require iron for survival and growth. However, the bioavailability of iron is extremely low because it is usually present as an insoluble ferric complex in an aerobic environment or is bound to iron-binding proteins in mammalian hosts. Therefore many bacteria have developed iron acquisition systems, including biosynthesis and secretion of low-molecular-mass iron-chelating compounds called siderophores, and uptake of iron...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - November 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tanabe T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of a Multi-functional Nano-device for Safe and Effective Gene Delivery to Target Organs.
Abstract  Nucleic acids are expected as novel effective medicines, although they require a drug delivery system (DDS). Complexes of nucleic acids with cationic liposomes and cationic polymers have been mainly used as DDS for clinical use. However, most cationic complexes have disadvantages such as strong cytotoxicity and low biocompatibility. We previously found that a plasmid DNA (pDNA) complex coated with biodegradable γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) provided adequate gene expression without cytotoxicity. Based on these results, we developed a new DDS (multi-functional Nano-device) of pDNA using bio...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - November 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kodama Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Efforts by Pharmacists in Community Pharmacy in Peacetime for Headache Medical Care in Emergencies, Such as Great Earthquake and Disaster.
Abstract  We herein analyzed the issues that pharmacists in a community pharmacy in peacetime need to prepare for regarding headache medical care in emergencies (the state that supply of medical supplies is difficult) using a questionnaire intended for doctors and pharmacists in a community pharmacy. Recovery rates were 48.0% (96/200) for doctors and 37.3% (112/300) for pharmacists. In order to distinguish between patients for whom pharmacists need to "recommend OTC drugs" and those who need to be encouraged "to consult a hospital or clinic", doctors indicated that pharmacists need to use ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - November 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ishii M, Katoh H, Ishibashi M, Ichikawa M, Kurokawa S, Tsukada S, Kasai H, Kiuchi Y, Iwamoto S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Improvement of Predictivity of Teicoplanin Serum Trough Concentrations at Steady State Calculated by Vancomycin Pharmacokinetic Parameter.
This study aimed to establish TEIC personalized medicine at a steady state calculated by VCM pharmacokinetic parameters. Bayesian forecasting and population mean methods were employed to estimate individual total VCM clearance (CL) using existing population pharmacokinetics (PPK) parameter, and the differences between the CL calculated by these two methods were defined as ΔCL. Serum drug concentration data for patients treated with TEIC were collected at a steady state concentration (>96 h post infusion). There was a significant relationship between the prediction error of TEIC trough level and ΔCL. The rela...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - November 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kobayashi R, Otomo S, Shiba Y, Ebinuma K, Sudoh T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

A Survey of Introductory Statistics Courses at University Faculties of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Japan.
Abstract  A survey of introductory statistics courses at Japanese medical schools was published as a report in 2014. To obtain a complete understanding of the way in which statistics is taught at the university level in Japan, it is important to extend this survey to related fields, including pharmacy, dentistry, and nursing. The current study investigates the introductory statistics courses offered by faculties of pharmaceutical sciences (six-year programs) at Japanese universities, comparing the features of these courses with those studied in the survey of medical schools. We collected relevant data from th...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - November 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Matsumura M, Nakayama T, Sozu T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

The Relationship between Occurrence Timing of Dispensing Errors and Subsequent Danger to Patients under the Situation According to the Classification of Drugs by Efficacy.
In this study, dispensing errors and incidents in three categories (drug name errors, drug strength errors, drug count errors) were classified into two groups in terms of its drug efficacy (efficacy similarity (-) group, efficacy similarity (+) group), into three classes in terms of the occurrence timing of dispensing errors (initial phase errors, middle phase errors, final phase errors). Then, the rates of damage shifting from "dispensing errors" to "damage to patients" were compared as an index of danger between two groups and among three classes. Consequently, the rate of damage in "efficacy sim...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - November 4, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tsuji T, Nagata K, Kawashiri T, Yamada T, Irisa T, Murakami Y, Kanaya A, Egashira N, Masuda S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

WASHOKU and Health: New Approach with Dashi/Umami in the Medical and Nutritional Health Care.
PMID: 27725380 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - October 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Oikawa T, Uneyama H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Food Science of Dashi and Umami Taste.
Abstract  Umami is a basic tastes, along with sweet, salty, bitter and sour, which is imparted by glutamate, one of the free amino acids in foods. Since its discovery of umami by a Japanese scientist in 1908, umami is now perceived globally a basic taste. Recent collaboration among chefs and researchers on traditional soup stocks showed a difference in taste profiles of Japanese soup stock 'dashi' and Western style soup stock. The free amino acids profile's in dashi and soup stock showed how Japanese have traditionally adopted a simple umami taste. The exchange of knowledge on cooking methods and diverse type...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - October 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ninomiya K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Food Application of Newly Developed Handy-type Glutamate Sensor.
Abstract  Tests on physiological functions of umami have been actively conducted and a need recognized for a high-performance quantification device that is simple and cost-effective, and whose use is not limited to a particular location or user. To address this need, Ajinomoto Co. and Tanita Corp. have jointly been researching and developing a simple device for glutamate measurement. The device uses L-glutamate oxidase immobilized on a hydrogen peroxide electrode. L-glutamate in the sample is converted to α-ketoglutaric acid, which produces hydrogen peroxide. Subsequently, the electrical current from th...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - October 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mukai Y, Oikawa T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Numerical Evaluation of Efficacy of Glutamate on Gastrointestinal Motility: Rapid MRI Study.
In conclusion, the present observations of rapid MRI indicate that MSG accelerates gastric emptying by facilitating duodenal motility, at least in healthy subjects with positive responses to MSG. This suggests the possible use of MSG as a prokinetic nutrient for improving the quality of life in hospitalized patients after a clinical assessment. PMID: 27725383 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - October 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nakayama S, Teramoto H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Novel Bio-imaging Tools Based on the Precise Design of Functional Fluorescence Probes.
Abstract  Fluorescence imaging is one of the most powerful techniques currently available for continuous observation of intracellular processes in living cells and tissues, and so it would be useful to have a large toolset of fluorescence probes suitable for visualizing bioactive molecules or biological phenomena. However, design strategies for small molecule-based fluorescence probes have been limited. Therefore, we are interested in establishing novel rational design strategies for developing functional fluorescence probes. For this purpose, we have focused on the intramolecular spirocyclization reaction of...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - October 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kamiya M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of Novel Diagnostic Agents for Atherosclerosis Using Fluorescence-labeled Peptides.
Abstract  The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Therefore, probes for detection of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) in atherosclerotic plaques and plasma are expected to be useful for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis. Recently, we found that four fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled heptapeptides (Lys-Trp-Tyr-Lys-Asp-Gly-Asp, KP6)-(FITC)KP6 and (FITC-AC)KP6- and then substitution with D-Lys at the N-terminus-(FITC)dKP6 and (FITC-AC)dKP6- bind with high specificity and high affinity to two oxidized forms of LDL, heavi...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - October 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sato A Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanism of Dihydropyridine Ca(2+) Channel Blockers in Pulmonary Hypertension.
Abstract  Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a progressive and fatal disease of unidentified pathogenesis. IPAH is pathologically characterized as sustained vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling of the pulmonary artery. In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) triggers vasoconstriction and stimulates cell proliferation leading to vascular remodeling. However, dihydropyridine-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel blockers are only effective in very few patients with IPAH (
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - October 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yamamura A Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Investigation into the Establishment of Indicators for Pharmaceutical Intervention in Cancer Pharmacotherapy.
Abstract  The present study was conducted to establish pharmaceutical intervention guidelines to enable hospital pharmacists to provide optimal pharmacotherapy to cancer patients. Many patients who use oral anticancer agents showed favorable drug compliance but insufficient drug adherence. It was demonstrated that in order to improve drug adherence, it is important to conduct interventions tailored to the patients' conditions so as to encourage interest in their medications, as well as to gain their understanding on the necessity and the side effects of their medications. In adjuvant chemotherapy with tegafur...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - October 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kimura M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Design of Novel Ophthalmic Formulation Containing Drug Nanoparticles and Its Usefulness as Anti-glaucoma Drugs.
In this study, we attempted to establish a new method for preparing solid drug nanoparticles by using a bead mill and various additives, and succeeded in preparing a high quality dispersion containing drug nanoparticles. For a more concrete example, a mean particle size of disulfiram (DSF) treated with bead mill is 183 nm. The corneal penetration and corneal residence time of DSF from the ophthalmic dispersion containing DSF nanoparticles were significantly higher than those from a 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin solution containing DSF (DSF solution). It is known that the administration of DSF has intraocular pressure...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - October 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nagai N Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Effect of Mixing Time and Storage Condition on Characterization of Heparinoid Admixtures with Corticosteroids.
In this study, we prepared admixtures of moisturizer with steroids and examined their usability and the amount of principal agent in formulations, particularly focusing on the moisturizer content. Four heparinoid semisolid formulations were selected: Hirudoid(®) soft ointment 0.3% (Formulation A) and 3 generic agents [(Besoften(®) oil-based cream 0.3% (Formulation B), Kuradoido(®) ointment 0.3% (Formulation C), and Hepadaerm ointment 0.3% (Formulation D)], and Antebate(®) ointment 0.05% (Formulation E) were used as steroids. Formulation A and B are water-in-oil emulsions, and Formulation C and D are oil-in-...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - October 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sugiyama I, Takahashi N, Sadzuka Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Whether Visual Information Loss of Expression by Community Pharmacist Masks to Effect a Change in Feeling of Trust among Help-seeker?
Abstract  Pharmacy is required to shift toward human service such as hearing the complaints of health. But the study about help-seeking behavior to pharmacist is not really investigated. We hypothesized that a decrease in expression visibility, due to pharmacists' typical masks, may negatively impact help-seeker' trust in pharmacist. The sample included 100 drugstore customers aged ≥18 years. Participants were stratified by gender and randomly assigned to two groups: evaluation of clear-masked and normal-masked pharmacists. After viewing a video with either male or female pharmacists wearing either clear o...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - October 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kishimoto K, Hasaka A, Yamaura K, Fukushima N Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

How Patient-Pharmacist Communication Using the Drug Profile Book Relates to Patient's Behavior regarding Its Use.
Abstract  This survey aimed to examine how patient-pharmacist communication using the drug profile book relates patient's behavior regarding its use. Among patients who visited one of the five pharmacies during the 4 months between July and October of 2013, 245 patients who had been prescribed antihypertensives were asked to complete a questionnaire. Items included patient attributes, whether the patient thought the drug profile book was useful to them ("sense of utility"), whether the patient has ever been questioned by a pharmacist while showing the drug profile book ("experience of being que...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - October 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shoji M, Iwade K, Fujii K, Hirota M, Kanou A, Moriya M, Ishii M, Shimoji S, Onda M, Arakawa Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Effects Induced by Organic Acids in a Human Lung Alveolar Carcinoma Cell Line A549.
Abstract  The present study examined the effects of formic acid and acetic acid on human adenocarcinoma-derived alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells. The organic acids were administered either individually or in combination, into either the culture medium (aqueous phase) or the gaseous phase of an air-liquid interface. When either of the acids was administered into the aqueous phase, cell proliferation was inhibited at doses of 1-10 mg/mL. In contrast, when the acids were administered either individually or in combination, into the gaseous phase of the air-liquid interface, cell proliferation was not altered....
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - October 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Okubo T, Suzuki T, Hosaka M, Nakae D Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of the Virtual Physical Assessment Learning Material That Allows the Learners to Check Drug Efficacy and Early Detection of Adverse Effects through Virtual Experience.
Abstract  We utilized the information and communication technology to develop the physical assessment (PA) learning materials in the virtual experience type. This learning material consists of two parts which include case learning and basic learning. We created example scenarios about various conditions that a pharmacist may experience in medical scenes such as in a hospital ward, community pharmacy, home, and drugstore. Illustrations of a virtual patient's avatar before and after taking the medicines were incorporated in the learning materials. The virtual training includes a stethoscope that was used in exa...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - October 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tokunaga J, Takamura N, Kourogi Y, Imada M, Kozasa A, Komori K, Ono C, Nishimura A, Ogata K, Setoguchi N, Matsuoka T, Kai M, Sato K, Arimori K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Chemical Compounds in Natural Medicines That Affect Macropharges and Adipocyte Cells.
Abstract Macrophages play major roles in inflammation, immunity and host defense mechanisms. Once activated they produce and release cytokines, oxygen and nitrogen species, and eicosanoids. The best characterized stimuli to induce the transcription of genes encoding pro-inflammatory proteins in macrophages in vitro is bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS could be used alone or in combination with recombinant mouse interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Such stimulation results in cytokine release and the synthesis of enzymes such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The nitric oxid...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - September 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kitanaka S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Efficient Approaches to S-alkyl-N-alkylisothioureas and Application to Novel Histamine H3R Antagonists.
Abstract S-Alkyl-N-alkylisothiourea compounds, which contain various cyclic amines, were synthesized using 3-phenylpropionyl isothiocyanate (PPI) to discover novel non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonists. The synthetic route was improved remarkably by using 2-nitrophenylacetyl isothiocyanate (NPAI). Among the synthesized compounds, N-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)butyl]-S-[3-piperidin-1-yl)propyl]isothiourea (1k, OUP-186) exhibited potent and selective antagonism against human H3R but not human H4R, in vitro. Of particular interest, they did not show antagonism for the histamine release in rat brain microdialys...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - September 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yoneyama H, Yamamoto D, Yamatodani A, Harusawa S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Assessment of Assistance in Smoking Cessation Therapy by Pharmacies in Collaboration with Medical Institutions- Implementation of a Collaborative Drug Therapy Management Protocol Based on a Written Agreement between Physicians and Pharmacists.
This study built a protocol for drug therapy management (hereinafter "the protocol") that would enable continuous support from the decision making of smoking cessation therapy to the completion of therapy through the collaboration of physicians and community pharmacists, after which we evaluated whether the use of this protocol would be helpful to smoking cessation therapy. This study utilized the "On the Promotion of Team-Based Medical Care", a Notification by the Health Policy Bureau as one of the resources for judgment, and referred to collaborative drug therapy management (CDTM) in the United States...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - September 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Watanabe F, Shinohara K, Dobashi A, Amagai K, Hara K, Kurata K, Iizima H, Shimakawa K, Shimada M, Abe S, Takei K, Kamei M Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Possible Gender Difference in Anti-stress Effect of β-Cryptoxanthin.
Possible Gender Difference in Anti-stress Effect of β-Cryptoxanthin. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2016;136(9):1255-62 Authors: Unno K, Noda S, Kawasaki Y, Iguchi K, Yamada H Abstract Beta-cryptoxanthin [β-CRX, (3R)-β, β-caroten-3-ol] is a provitamin A and a potent antioxidant that is abundant in Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu MARC.), which is the most popular fruit in Japan. The anti-stress effect of β-CRX on humans was evaluated in fifth-year university students during both routine daily life at the university and at pharmacy practice. The study design was a double-blind group co...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - September 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Unno K, Noda S, Kawasaki Y, Iguchi K, Yamada H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Reduction of Medical Cost through Pharmaceutical Inquiries by Community Pharmacists and Relation with Iyaku Bungyo Rates: A Nationwide Survey on Prescription Inquiries.
Abstract This nationwide survey aimed to evaluate reduction of drug and medical costs due to prevention of serious adverse drug reactions through pharmaceutical inquires by community pharmacist, and investigate relation with iyaku bungyo (separation of dispensing from medical practice) rates. Using the national list of pharmacies, 10% of pharmacies were randomly selected by prefecture and asked to participate in an Internet-based survey. The survey period was 7 days, from July 21 to July 27, 2015. Of the 5575 pharmacies queried, 818 responded to the survey (response rate: 14.7%). The proportion of inquiries to tot...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - September 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shikamura Y, Mano Y, Komoda M, Negishi K, Sato T, Miyazaki S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Proof of Learning Outcome by the Advanced Clinical Competency Examination Trial after the Long-term Student's Practice in Pharmaceutical Education.
Abstract At Setsunan University, a debrief session (a poster session) is commonly performed by the students who have completed the long-term students' practice. Since the valuable changes in practical competency of the students cannot be evaluated through this session, we specified items that can help evaluate and methods that can help estimate the students' competency as clinical pharmacists. We subsequently carried out a trial called the "Advanced Clinical Competency Examination". We evaluated 103 students who had concluded the students' practice for the second period (Sep 1, 2014, to Nov 16, 2014): 70...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - September 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Komori K, Kataoka M, Kuramoto N, Tsuji T, Nakatani T, Yasuhara T, Mitamura S, Hane Y, Ogita K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

The Comparative Analysis of Antioxidant and Biological Activity for the Dendropanax morbifera LEV. Leaves Extracted by Different Ethanol Concentrations.
Abstract The different concentrations of ethanol (20-100%) and distilled water extract for Dendropanax morbifera LEV. leaves were evaluated to induce antioxidant and biological activity employed by variety of assays. The 20%, 80%, and 100% ethanol extract demonstrated the relatively higher activity, whereas distilled water, 40%, and 60% ethanol extracts exhibited the lower antioxidant and biological activity. Especially, 80% ethanol extract showed the remarkably higher radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenol and flavonoid content, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and alcoh...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - September 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nakamura M, Ra JH, Kim JS Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Influence of High-fat and High-cholesterol Diet on Major CYP Activities in the Liver.
Abstract We previously reported that a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet for 12 weeks induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and influenced major CYP subtype gene expression levels and activities in a mouse model. In the present study, we determined the effects of the HFHC diet on CYP expression levels and activities prior to the establishment of NASH. When male C57BL/6J mice were fed the HFHC or a normal chow diet (Control) ad libitum for 4 weeks, body weights were significantly lower, whereas liver weights and hepatic lipid contents were significantly higher in the HFHC group than in the Control gr...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - September 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Suzuki S, Sato Y, Umegaki K, Chiba T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Trends in Non-prescription Drug Recalls in Japan.
In conclusion, non-prescription drug recalls can occur for any drug regardless of the dosage form and therapeutic category. PMID: 27592833 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - September 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yamamoto C, Ishida T, Osawa T, Naito T, Kawakami J Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Long-term Treatment of Teicoplanin for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sternal Osteomyelitis with Renal Impairment: A Case of High Teicoplanin Trough Levels Maintained by Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.
We report a 79-year-old man who received long-term teicoplanin treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia due to postoperative sternal osteomyelitis with renal impairment. Plasma teicoplanin trough levels were maintained at a high range (20-30 μg/mL). Although the patient required long-term teicoplanin treatment, a further decline in renal function was not observed, and blood culture remained negative after the start of treatment. Teicoplanin treatment that is maintained at a high trough level by therapeutic drug monitoring might be beneficial for severe methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aur...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - September 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shiohira H, Nakamatsu M, Kise Y, Higa F, Tateyama M, Hokama N, Kuniyoshi Y, Ueda S, Nakamura K, Fujita J Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

An Analysis of the Educational Effects of Studying Basic Life Support.
Abstract We set students' learning goal of basic life support (BLS) education at "being able to describe all the steps of BLS in an appropriate order", and objectively analyzed the appropriateness of the learning goal we set and educational effects of lecture contents. Before delivering a lecture, we provided students with an assignment which asked them to "Describe the steps of BLS in an appropriate order", and investigated students' levels of acquiring knowledge on BLS. As the results, the majority of students failed to perform this assignment. Since many students did not understand the proce...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - September 8, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Watanabe T, Itoh K, Yonezawa A Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Effect of patient education for diabetic outpatients by a hospital pharmacist: a retrospective study.
Abstract   The number of patients with diabetes continues to increase in Japan, which means that education in disease management is important. However, there have been few investigations into the importance of hospital pharmacists performing outpatient education for diabetes mellitus in Japan. In the diabetes outpatient department of Kitakyushu City Moji Hospital, a pharmacist commenced patient education using check sheets before patients saw the physicians from 2012. We divided the patients into groups with an increase or decrease of HbA1c level after 6 months from the start of patient education. To ass...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - August 29, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ichiki Y, Kobayashi D, Kubota T, Ozono S, Murakami A, Yamakawa Y, Zeki K, Shimazoe T Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of Magnetic Resonance Based Functional Imaging Techniques Heading Up to Theranostics ~Creating Next Generation Functional Contrast Agents~.
PMID: 27477719 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - August 2, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Takeshita K, Matsumoto K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of Magnetic Resonance-based Functional Imaging: The Past, the Present, and the Future.
Abstract The term "theranostics" is a compound word combining "therapeutics" and "diagnostics". Discovery of the X-ray made an extraordinary contribution to the field of medical science. Development of computer science after World War II has been absolutely imperative for the development of medical imaging technology to date. The invention of X-ray computed tomography (CT) has revolutionized medical image diagnostic systems. Several functional imaging modalities emerged not only in the radiological field but also in magnetic resonance and ultrasonic fields. The fusion of three digital...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - August 2, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Matsumoto K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Evaluation of Brain Redox Status and Its Association with Cognitive Dysfunction in Diabetic Animal Models by Redox Molecular Imaging (ReMI).
Abstract Oxidative stress contributes to the development of diabetic complications. Increasing epidemiologic evidence suggests that diabetes mellitus is associated with dementia and cognitive decline. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We have evaluated brain redox status and its association of cognitive dysfunction in diabetic animal models by dynamic nuclear polarization-magnetic resonance imaging (DNP-MRI) and other oxidative stress markers. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in the development of diabetes-related dementia and clinical regulation of the redox state...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - August 2, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sonoda N, Inoguchi T, Minami Y, Hyodo F, Ichikawa K, Yamato M, Utsumi H, Takayanagi R Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Nano-theranostics and Nitroxyl Radical-labeled Antitumor Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
Abstract The advent of functional contrast agents and nanoparticle drug delivery systems (nano-DDS) is opening new pathways to understanding pathophysiology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Nitroxyl radical compounds are promising functional contrast agents for redox evaluation. We have developed a novel nitroxyl radical theranostic compound for noninvasive real-time imaging of blood-brain barrier-permeable antitumor drugs. Divalent manganese ions (Mn(2+)) can also be used as an intracellular functional MRI contrast agent. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) provides a unique opportunity to study neuronal activa...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - August 2, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Aoki I Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of a Functional Contrast Agent for Targeting Lipid-derived Radicals.
Abstract Lipid derived radicals and their metabolic products are closely involved in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress diseases, such as inflammation and angiogenesis, through the formation of a protein or DNA complex. The starting point of lipid peroxide generation is lipid-derived radicals, which increase explosively via radical chain reaction. Therefore, the trapping of lipid-derived radicals is useful in understanding the mechanism of the formation of oxidative stress diseases, and in suppressing the following chain reaction. On the other hand, nitroxides with a stable unpaired electron allow for spin trapp...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - August 2, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yamada K Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Prediction of Cancer Treatment Response by Physiologic and Metabolic Imaging.
Abstract Tumors develop a characteristic microenvironment depending on their specific genetic mutations. The direct products of mutant genes and the resulting microenvironmental changes provoke metabolic changes in the tumor. If noninvasive imaging techniques including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be used to detect such microenvironmental and metabolic changes in tumors, we might be able to provide more effective treatment strategies for individual tumors in patients. In addition to conventional imaging techniques, this review article introduces quantitative 3D oxygen imaging using electron paramagnetic ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - August 2, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Matsumoto S Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Development of Redox Metabolic Imaging Using Endogenous Molecules.
We present a spectroscopic imaging technology with DNP-MRI, which enables the imaging of multiple free radical intermediates such as FADH and CoQH. DNP-MRI can also identify various endogenous free radical intermediates derived from redox transformations. PMID: 27477725 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - August 2, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hyodo F, Ito S, Eto H, Nakaji T, Yasukawa K, Kobayashi R, Utsumi H Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research

Collaborative Approach to Heart Failure Care.
PMID: 27477726 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan)
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - August 2, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Takano H, Sato Y Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research