Tadalafil 5 mg Once Daily Improved Each IPSS Subscore, QOL, and Nocturia in Elderly BPH Patients over 70 Years Old in a Real-World Clinical Setting
Conclusions: Tadalafil 5 mg once daily appeared effective in clinical settings for elderly BPH patients even over 70 years old.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - October 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Efficacy of Mitomycin C Combined with Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy for Urethral Strictures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: MMC combined with DVIU is a promising way to reduce the long-term recurrence rate of a short-segment anterior urethral stricture. It also increases the success rate of the first urethrotomy of the posterior urethra. However, more high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - October 20, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Comparing Prognosis Associated with Partial Cystectomy and Trimodal Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Patients
Conclusions: Patients who underwent PC had a better prognosis than those who received TT. In addition, for MIBC patients who required bladder-sparing therapy, advanced age ( ≥80 years), pathological type of squamous cell carcinoma, and tumor stage of T3–4, N2–3, and M1 were independent poor prognostic factors.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - October 14, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Primary Adrenal Glomus Tumor: The First Case Report
We report a unique case of a 25-year-old man who was incidentally identified to have a mass in the left adrenal gland region by computerized tomography scan. The image revealed a 1.8 × 1.6 cm, well-defined adrenal mass with moderately homogeneous enhancement. The mass was laparoscopically completely removed, and the diagnosis of a solid variant glomus tumor of the adrenal gland was rendered. There were no histologic features indicating atypia or malignance and no primary tumors anywhere else. The patient was free of disease at the 6-month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first case of primary adrenal glomus t...
Source: Urologia Internationalis - October 13, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Diagnostic Performance of [ < sup > 18 < /sup > F]-Labeled PET/CT Tracers for Lymph Node/Bone Metastasis and Biochemical Recurrence Detection in Advanced Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: [18F]-labeled tracers have high diagnostic efficacy for lymph node/bone metastasis and biochemical recurrence in advanced PCa.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - October 13, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Clinical Analysis of Pyocele of Tunica Vaginalis in 56 Newborns
Conclusions: Neonatal pyocele of tunica vaginalis is mostly secondary to intra-abdominal infection. Color Doppler ultrasound is helpful for the diagnosis. The percutaneous aspiration is a way of collecting pathogenic bacteria during the conservative treatment. If the color Doppler suggests testicular involvement, surgical exploration should be performed.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - October 12, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Psychosocial Distress in the Early Recovery Period after Radical Prostatectomy
Conclusions: Distress and incontinence decreased significantly during the 3 weeks of inpatient rehabilitation after RP. Patient age ≤69 years and tumor stage ≥pT3 are independent predictors of high psychosocial distress.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - October 7, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Erratum
Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - October 6, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Prediction of Treatment Response and Survival with Chemotherapy for Metastatic Penile Cancer by the Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score
Conclusions: Systemic inflammatory response and nutritional status as expressed by the mGPS are independent predictors of treatment response, chemotherapy-associated toxicity, and survival in metastatic penile carcinoma. In addition to other known pathological markers of tumor aggressiveness, the mGPS can be used as a clinical predictor of prognosis.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - October 5, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Subtrigonal Inlay Patch Technique with Buccal Mucosa Graft for Recurrent Bladder Neck Contractures
Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the feasibility and promising results of SIP technique with open surgical approach. Further experience is mandatory with larger patient cohorts and longer follow-up.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - October 5, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

The Impact of Preoperative Double-J Stent on Perioperative Complications, Recurrence, and Quality of Life in Adult Patients Undergoing Pyeloplasty
Conclusion: In a contemporary pyeloplasty cohort, the midterm success rate was good with 91%. Our findings suggest that preoperative DJ is associated with higher recurrence rates. However, QoL did not differ between patients with and without preoperative DJ.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A Prospective Study Comparing Cancer Detection Rates of Transperineal Prostate Biopsies Performed by Junior Urologists versus a Senior Consultant in a Real-World Setting
Conclusions: The residents could get similar PCa detection and complication rates compared with that of the consultant after a 2-week training. However, the residents still need more cases to shorten the time of the biopsy procedure.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 30, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Vesico-Vaginal Fistula Repair by a Vaginal Approach
Conclusion: Transvaginal closure of VVaFs with a Latzko technique is successful in about 79% in either 1 or 2 attempts, with few minor complications. A second attempt in closing the fistula with a transvaginal approach is useful, and a previous transvaginal attempt is not a contraindication for a second transvaginal attempt in closing the VVaF surgically.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 28, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Do Various Treatment Modalities of Vesicoureteral Reflux Have Any Adverse Effects in Pediatric Patients? A Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: Based on current research, we recommend that a child with a UTI and significant VUR be treated conservatively at first, with surgical care reserved for children who have issues with antimicrobials or have clinically significant VUR that persists after several years of follow-up.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 23, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Modification of the Indiana Pouch Ileo-Caecal Cutaneous Continent Urinary Diversion: Tubular Ileal Afferent Limb for Ureteral Anastomosis Has Low Stricture Rate and Allows Ileal Ureter Replacement
Conclusions: Our modification of the Indiana pouch cutaneous continent urinary diversion with the ureteral anastomosis to a tubular segment of the pouch is easy to perform and effective in reducing the rate of ureteral anastomotic strictures. By lengthening, the afferent tubular ileal segment, it additionally allows easy ureteral replacement.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 23, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Enhanced Recovery after Surgery for Radical Cystectomy Decreases Postoperative Complications at Different Times
Conclusion: Our study shows that ERAS has an early positive impact that lasts over time on postoperative complications. ERAS implementation has decreased early and 90-day postoperative complications without increasing 90-day readmission. In our cohort, length of stay was not improved with ERAS protocol.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 22, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Perioperative Outcomes of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate: A Systematic Review
Conclusions: HoLEP is a safe procedure, with a satisfactory low complication rate. The most common reported perioperative complications are not severe (Clavien-Dindo classification grades 1 –2). Further randomized studies are certainly warranted to fully determine the predictor of surgical complications in order to prevent them and improve this technique.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Association of a GATA Binding Protein 4 Polymorphism with the Risk of Hypospadias in the Chinese Children
Conclusions: The present results indicate that the functionalGATA4 rs12458 variant confers individuals ’ susceptibility to hypospadias, possibly through regulating theGATA4 expression level.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 20, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Counter-Irrigation as a Novel Technique versus the Standard Technique in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Prospective Randomized Trial
Conclusions: Our results indicate that our counter-irrigation technique has lower stone migration with subsequent significantly better stone-free rate versus the standard technique. We can recommend this technique as a potentially valid option for cases with large stone burden when the access to the upper calyx is feasible to minimize significant residual fragments.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 20, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Geriatric Assessments Can Predict Functional Outcome and Mortality after Urological Tumor Surgery
Conclusion: Our prospective evaluation confirms the high risk of incomplete functional recovery, high-grade complications, and mortality in older patients undergoing major urological tumor surgery. The EI is an easy-to-use preoperative assessment tool and therefore should be used in preoperative patient counseling.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 17, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Taguchi versus Lich-Gr égoir Extravesical Ureteroneocystostomy in Kidney Transplantation: A Systematic Review
Conclusion: Currently available evidence is not useful to determine the effect of Taguchi versus Lich-Gr égoir ureteroneocystostomy in kidney transplantation. There is a need for methodologically better designed and executed studies, such as randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up reporting baseline imbalances, co-interventions, and confounding factors.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 17, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Potential Targets for Overactive Bladder in Older Men Based on Urinary Analysis of Metabolomics
Conclusion: Abnormal urinary metabolites, including metabolites in the tryptophan (5-methoxyindoleacetic acid, 3-indoleacetonitrile, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid) and arachidonic acid (5-iPF2a-VI) pathways, play a role in the pathogenesis of OAB in older men.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 16, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Burden of Renal Cysts Imaging: A Survey of Patients among the Greater Plains Collaborative
Conclusion: Findings of this pilot study suggest a clear management plan for the renal cyst(s) management may be associated with a lower level of anxiety, thereby by emphasizing the importance of good communication, patient engagement and evidence-based guidance. More definitive, adequately powered studies are needed to evaluate this finding further. In addition, further studies exploring differences in imaging practices, patient symptomatology and patient engagement by different provider types would be insightful. Ultimately, tools to improve shared decision-making are needed to provide more patient-centered care.Urol Int...
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 15, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A Forgotten Ureteral Stent: Potential Risks for the Urinary Function
A 32-year-old man presented with painless macrohaematuria. An endoscopic stone removal of the upper moiety of a left double kidney with ureter duplex was performed 4 years ago. The inserted ureteral catheter (DJ) was not removed although it was communicated to the patient and written in the discharge report. The DJ led to a large bladder stone, a total incrustation of the DJ, and a staghorn calculus of the upper moiety. Furthermore, renal function scintigraphy showed no clinically significant function of the upper moiety. Therefore, a heminephrectomy was performed with corresponding ureterectomy and sectio alta for bladder...
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 14, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Penile Lichen Sclerosus and “Nevus Elasticus”
We describe one case of severe balanopreputial adhesions related to lichen sclerosus and this form of elastosis, with no concomitant neoplasia. Aggregates of elastic fibers were seen in deep dermis and in blood vessels. The lesion mirrors nevus elasticus and nevus elasticus vascularis – a well described cutaneous lesion with no known association with lichen sclerosus.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 14, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A Meta-Analysis of Erectile Dysfunction and Alcohol Consumption
Conclusion: A J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and risk of ED was observed. Alcohol should be taken in moderate quantities in order to obtain the dual effect of disinhibition and relaxation. If taken chronically, it could provoke vascular damages.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 14, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Effect of Statins on the Risk of Different Stages of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: It has been found that the use of statins is associated with a lower risk of advanced prostate cancer but was not related to the risk of localized, low-grade, or high-grade prostate cancer.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 8, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Silencing of lncRNA MEG8 Represses the Viability, Migration, and Invasion of Wilms ’ Tumor Cells through Mediating miR-23a-3p/CRK Axis
Conclusions: The cell viability, migration, and invasiveness of WT cells were repressed by MEG8 knockdown via targeting the miR-23a-3p/CRK axis.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 8, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Flexible Ureterorenoscopy under Spinal Anesthesia: Focus on Technique, Results, Complications, and Patients ’ Satisfaction from a Large Series
Conclusion: fURS can be performed safely and efficiently under SA, taking into account a few details of the technique. Patients ’ satisfaction with SA is very high, and complications are rare. Although SA is usually adopted in unfit patients for GA, it may be considered as a viable alternative in fit patients.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 8, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Primary Renal < b > < i > BCOR-CCNB3 < /i > < /b > Fusion Sarcoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
We report findings of primary renalBCOR-CCNB3 fusion sarcoma in a 16-year-old boy with a brief review of the literature.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 8, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

What Is the Interaction between Urine C-Reactive Protein, Prostatic Inflammation, and Doxazosin Treatment in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia? A Pilot Study
Conclusion: Our results showed that C-reactive protein was detectable in urine, alpha-blocker treatment significantly reduced urine C-reactive protein levels, and the decrease was more prominent in severely symptomatic patients.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 7, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Prognostic Analysis of Diagnostic Ureteroscopic Biopsy for Intravesical Recurrence of Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma
Conclusion: Diagnostic ureteroscopic biopsy before RNU should be carefully selected for patients with atypical preoperative UTUC. We believe that intravesical chemotherapy drug perfusion can be used after surgery to prevent IVR if biopsy is unavoidable, but this still requires further prospective studies.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 7, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Raman Spectrum-Based Diagnosis Strategy for Bladder Tumor
Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that can potentially serve as a molecular diagnosis method. This approach is excellent in many aspects for diagnosing bladder tumors, and over the last 20 years, there has been a rapid increase in the number of related studies. However, no review article has covered the wide use of Raman spectroscopy in bladder tumors. A total of 26 original studies have suggested that Raman spectroscopy shows good performance in diagnosing bladder tumors from 4 aspects, including tissue sections, endoscopic methods, cell screening, and biomarkers. However, Raman spectroscopy needs to be modified ...
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 7, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Comparison of Conservative and Surgical Treatments in Symptomatic Pregnancy Hydronephrosis
Conclusions: Surgical treatment should not be delayed in pregnant women who do not respond to conservative treatment and have impaired renal function and grade 3 –4 hydronephrosis. Early surgical intervention is necessary in patients with a renal pelvis AP diameter of #x3e;16.5 mm in the first 2 trimesters and #x3e;27.5 in the third trimester.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 6, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Erratum
Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - September 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Calyceal Diverticula Disease: Diagnosis and Management Options in the Era of Non-Contrast CT Scan
Conclusions: The delay in diagnosing CD with stone contributes significantly to the success rate and the number of treatments.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 31, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Discrepancy between German S3 Guideline Recommendations and Daily Urologic Practice in the Management of Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of a Binational Survey
Conclusions: We found a discrepancy between certain guideline recommendations and daily routine practice concerning the use of urine cytology for initial diagnostics, instillation therapy with a low monitoring rate of BCG response, and follow-up care with unnecessary second resection after pTa low-grade NMIBC in particular. Our survey showed a moderate overall adherence rate of 73%. These results demonstrate the need for sharpening awareness of German guideline recommendations by promoting more intense education of urologists to optimize NMIBC care thus decreasing morbidity and mortality rates.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 31, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

The Significance of INHBE Expression in the Cancer Cells of Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
Conclusions: INHBE might be involved in the pathogenesis of ccRCC and function as a tumor promoter.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 31, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

The Prognosis of Radical Prostatectomy, External Beam Radiotherapy plus Brachytherapy, and External Beam Radiotherapy Alone for Patients above 70 Years with Very High-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Population-Matched Study
Conclusions: For patients above 70 years with VHR PCa, RP was associated with better OS and similar PCSS than EBRT + BT. Both RP and EBRT + BT have better OS and PCSS than EBRT alone.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 26, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Prognostic Impact of Trial-Eligibility Criteria in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
Conclusions: In real-word, the substantial number of mRCC patients did not meet the trial-eligibility criteria, and their outcome was worse than that in the trial-eligible patients. Further studies focusing on the outcome in real-world trial-ineligible patients in the immune checkpoint inhibitor era are warranted.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 26, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Narrow Vagina as a Predictor of Obstructive Voiding Dysfunction after Transobturator Sling Surgery
Conclusions: Older age, narrow vagina, or preoperative voiding difficulty increases the chance for significant postoperative PVR. These patients should be chosen and counseled appropriately.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 26, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Impact of Male Patient Information on Quality of Urine Examination (PIQUE Study)
Conclusions: Similar to studies with females, no difference occurred in rates of contaminated UC, so detailed information regarding the US technique does not decrease rates of contaminated UC and vice versa does not increase the quality of midstream-sampled UC in male patients.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 26, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Impact of Preoperative Stenting on the Outcome of Flexible Ureterorenoscopy for Upper Urinary Tract Urolithiasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: POS clearly improves the stone-free rates after fURS. It might reduce the complications, especially ureteral injury. These findings might help solve the current debate and can be useful for urologists during patient counselling for a proper decision-making.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 25, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Clinical, Pathological, and Prognostic Analysis of Urachal Carcinoma
Conclusions: The results indicate that high-risk TNM stage and positive surgical margin are risk predictors of prognosis. Localized T stage, histologic grade, and surgical procedure cause no significant effect on patient prognosis. The extended partial cystectomy is the recommended surgical approach for patients with UrC. Active multimodal treatments may improve the survival of patients with recurrent and metastatic disease.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 25, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Do SARS-CoV-2 Infection (COVID-19) and the Medications Administered for Its Treatment Impair Testicular Functions?
Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that COVID-19 and its treatment with favipiravir and hydroxychloroquine did not affect spermatogenesis and serum androgen levels in the long-term period. Further clinical studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm and support our findings.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 25, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Comparison of PHI and PHI Density for Prostate Cancer Detection in a Large Retrospective Caucasian Cohort
Conclusions: Based on DCA, PHID had only a small advantage in comparison with PHI alone, while ROC analysis and precision-recall analysis showed similar results. In smaller prostates, PHI even outperformed PHID. The increment for PHID in this large Caucasian cohort is too small to justify a routine clinical use.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 25, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Double-Sheath Vacuum Suction Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for Management of Large Renal Stones
Conclusions: The double-sheath vacuum suction mini-PCNL is a safe and effective modality for large renal stones, which might increase the efficiency of stone extraction with low intrapelvic pressure.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 24, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Job Satisfaction and Intentions to Leave of Foreign-National Urologists Working at German Hospitals: Results of the Cross-Sectional EUTAKD Study
Conclusions: Various dimensions of job satisfaction have been identified, the improvement of which could contribute to the long-term retention of UCMBs at German urological clinics.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 24, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy Is Beneficial for the Health-Related Quality of Life of Older Patients with Primary Aldosteronism
Conclusion: The older PA patients showed lower mental HRQOL than the national standard populations. Although antihypertensive effects were limited for these patients, LADX was beneficial as PA treatment via improvement of mental HRQoL.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 20, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Symptomatic Nephroptosis of the Transplant: First Report of Diagnostic Workup and Successful Minimal-Invasive Treatment
In this report, we describe a case in which intermittent symptomatic hydronephrosis and an increase of the creatinine levels were the leading symptoms of nephroptosis. Moreover, we describe the diagnostic procedures and the successful minimal-invasive treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a symptomatic transplant nephroptosis with consecutive intermittent hydronephrosis and without complications of perfusion solved with a minimal-invasive approach.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)
Source: Urologia Internationalis - August 19, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research