Killing of Plasmodium vivax by Primaquine and Tafenoquine.
Abstract Primaquine administration results in H2O2 accumulation in bone marrow, where gametocytes and asexual parasites are therefore killed. This finding, by Camarda et al., supports the theory that the nonperipheral blood origin of recurrent Plasmodium vivax malaria is both hypnozoites (relapse source) and merozoites (recrudescence source), not hypnozoites only. PMID: 31522991 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 12, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Markus MB Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Evaluating the Evidence for Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination.
Abstract In the global drive for elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF), 15 countries have achieved validation of elimination as a public health problem (EPHP). Recent empirical evidence has demonstrated that EPHP does not always lead to elimination of transmission (EOT). Here we show how the probability of elimination explicitly depends on key biological parameters, many of which have been poorly characterized, leading to a poor evidence base for the elimination threshold. As more countries progress towards EPHP it is essential that this process is well-informed, as prematurely halting treatment and surveillanc...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 7, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Davis EL, Reimer LJ, Pellis L, Hollingsworth TD Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxo XV: A Congress at the Birthplace of Toxoplasma.
Authors: PMID: 31501031 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 6, 2019 Category: Parasitology Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Immune Regulation of Metabolic Homeostasis by Helminths and Their Molecules.
Abstract Since time immemorial, humans have coevolved with a wide variety of parasitic helminths that have contributed to shape their immune system. The recent eradication of helminth infections in modern societies has coincided with a spectacular rise in inflammatory metabolic diseases, such as obesity, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and type 2 diabetes. Landmark studies in the emerging field of immunometabolism have highlighted the central role of the immune system in regulating metabolic functions, notably in adipose tissue, liver, and the gut. In this review we discuss how helminths, which are among the stronge...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 3, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: van der Zande HJP, Zawistowska-Deniziak A, Guigas B Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxoplasma and Dendritic Cells: An Intimate Relationship That Deserves Further Scrutiny.
Abstract Toxoplasma gondii (Tg), an obligate intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, infects a wide range of animals, including humans. A hallmark of Tg infection is the subversion of host responses, which is thought to favor parasite persistence and propagation to new hosts. Recently, a variety of parasite-secreted modulatory effectors have been uncovered in fibroblasts and macrophages, but the specific interplay between Tg and dendritic cells (DCs) is just beginning to emerge. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on Tg-DC interactions, including innate recognition, cytokine production, an...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 3, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Poncet AF, Blanchard N, Marion S Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Malaria Hotspots: Is There Epidemiological Evidence for Fine-Scale Spatial Targeting of Interventions?
Abstract As data at progressively granular spatial scales become available, the temptation is to target interventions to areas with higher malaria transmission - so-called hotspots - with the aim of reducing transmission in the wider community. This paper reviews literature to determine if hotspots are an intrinsic feature of malaria epidemiology and whether current evidence supports hotspot-targeted interventions. Hotspots are a consistent feature of malaria transmission at all endemicities. The smallest spatial unit capable of supporting transmission is the household, where peri-domestic transmission occurs. Whi...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - August 29, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Stresman G, Bousema T, Cook J Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

The Challenge of Developing a Single-Dose Treatment for Scabies.
Abstract Scabies is a common skin disease with an estimated worldwide incidence of 200 million people infected per year. Its morbidity and mortality is principally due to secondary bacterial infections, a link now well recognized and prompting the recent inclusion of this disease-complex in the WHO list of neglected tropical diseases. The few treatments available are poorly effective against Sarcoptes scabiei eggs and appear to induce resistance in the parasite. An ideal alternative would be a single-dose regimen that kills all developmental stages, including eggs. Drugs used in the veterinary field and applied to...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - August 29, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bernigaud C, Samarawickrama GR, Jones MK, Gasser RB, Fischer K Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Unique Aspects of rRNA Biogenesis in Trypanosomatids.
Abstract Trypanosomatids are protozoan parasites that cycle between an insect and a mammalian host. The large-subunit rRNA of these organisms undergoes unique processing events absent in other eukaryotes. Recently, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) that mediate these specific cleavages were identified. Trypanosomatid rRNA is rich in RNA modifications such as 2'-O-methylation (Nm) and pseudouridylation (Ψ) that are also guided by these snoRNAs. A subset of these modifications is developmentally regulated and increased in the parasite form that propagates in the mammalian host. Such hypermodification contributes th...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - August 28, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rajan KS, Chikne V, Decker K, Waldman Ben-Asher H, Michaeli S Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

More than Microtubules: The Structure and Function of the Subpellicular Array in Trypanosomatids.
Abstract The subpellicular microtubule array defines the wide range of cellular morphologies found in parasitic kinetoplastids (trypanosomatids). Morphological studies have characterized array organization, but little progress has been made towards identifying the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for array differentiation during the trypanosomatid life cycle, or the apparent stability and longevity of array microtubules. In this review, we outline what is known about the structure and biogenesis of the array, with emphasis on Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania, which cause life-threaten...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - August 27, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sinclair AN, de Graffenried CL Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Impact of the Microbiome on the Human Genome.
Abstract Humans live in a microbial world that includes pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi that cause lethal infections. In addition, a large number of microbial communities inhabit mucosal surfaces where they provide key metabolic activities, facilitating adaptation to changing environments. New genome technologies enable both sequencing of the human genome and sequence-based cataloging of microbial communities inhabiting human mucosal surfaces. These have revealed intricate two-way relationships between the microbiome and the genome, including strong effects of human genotypes on the composition and activit...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - August 23, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jeyakumar T, Beauchemin N, Gros P Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Comments on T. De Mee ûs et al.'s Article.
Comments on T. De Meeûs et al.'s Article. Trends Parasitol. 2019 Aug 22;: Authors: Lord JS PMID: 31447306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - August 22, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lord JS Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Indirect Effects Explain the Role of Parasites in Ecosystems.
Abstract Parasites are increasingly recognized as integral members of ecological communities, but their ecological effects remain less clear. Here, I propose that, to uncover the unique role of parasites, we must understand their indirect effects, which differ in important ways from those caused by predators. Similar to predators, parasites can cause density-mediated indirect effects (DMIEs) through their consumptive effects, and trait-mediated indirect effects (TMIEs) through their nonconsumptive effects; however, because they can consume a host without killing it, parasites can also trigger TMIEs through their c...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - August 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Buck JC Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Response to the Comments of J.S. Lord.
er J PMID: 31431328 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - August 17, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: De Meeûs T, Ravel S, Solano P, Bouyer J Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Delayed Death by Plastid Inhibition in Apicomplexan Parasites.
Abstract The discovery of a plastid in apicomplexan parasites was hoped to be a watershed moment in the treatment of parasitic diseases as it revealed drug targets that are implicitly divergent from host molecular processes. Indeed, this organelle, known as the apicoplast, has since been a productive therapeutic target for pharmaceutical interventions against infections by Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Babesia, and Theileria. However, some inhibitors of the apicoplast are restricted in their treatment utility because of their slow-kill kinetics, and this characteristic is called the delayed death effect. Here we review ...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - August 16, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kennedy K, Crisafulli EM, Ralph SA Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Targeting Pregnant Women for Malaria Surveillance.
r PGT Abstract Women attending antenatal care (ANC) are a generally healthy, easy-access population, contributing valuable data for infectious disease surveillance at the community level. ANC-based malaria surveillance would provide a routine measure of the malaria burden in pregnancy, which countries lack, whilst potentially improving pregnancy outcomes. It could also offer contemporary information on temporal trends and the geographic distribution of malaria burden as well as intervention coverage in the population to guide resource allocation and to assess progress towards elimination. Here, we review the facto...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - August 5, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Mayor A, Menéndez C, Walker PGT Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Combining Sterile and Incompatible Insect Techniques for Aedes albopictus Suppression.
Abstract Traditional control strategies are failing to contain Aedes albopictus as an emerging major vector for dengue. A combination of approaches (Zheng et al., Nature, 2019) involving an artificial triple Wolbachia superinfection and low-dose irradiation enabled mass production of adult sterile males for release. The resulting suppression of field populations suggests feasibility for area-wide vector control. PMID: 31375435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 31, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dimopoulos G Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Symbiotic Bacteria as Potential Agents for Mosquito Control.
Abstract Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus species are symbiotic bacteria of the insect-pathogenic soil nematodes that produce insecticidal compounds lethal to prey insects. Recently, there has been much interest in adapting these insecticidals for mosquito control. Here, I advocate the potential of Xenorhabdus/Photorhabdus as natural sources of mosquitocides (larvicides, adulticides) and feeding-deterrents. PMID: 31375436 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 30, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kajla MK Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Using Protozoan Surface Proteins for Effective Oral Vaccination.
;n HD Abstract The Global Vaccine Action Plan of the World Health Organization (WHO) calls for nonsyringe delivery mechanisms, thermostable vaccines, and new bioprocessing technologies as priority research areas. Here we discuss the use of protozoan surface proteins to develop a safe, stable, and efficient versatile oral vaccine platform. PMID: 31362858 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 27, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rupil LL, Serradell MDC, Luján HD Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Foodborne Parasites in Europe: Present Status and Future Trends.
Abstract Although foodborne parasites (FBPs) are becoming recognized as important foodborne pathogens, they remain neglected compared with bacterial and viral foodborne pathogens. As drivers for infection with FBPs are variable, it is often unclear for funding bodies where research should be prioritized. Through a COST Action (Euro-FBP; FA1408), we harnessed Europe-wide expertise to address these questions, using an Expert Knowledge Elicitation approach. Eating habits, lack of food-chain control, lack of awareness from relevant agencies, globalization, and water quality were identified as major drivers for FBP inf...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 26, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Trevisan C, Torgerson PR, Robertson LJ Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

The Symbiotic Spectrum: Where Do the Gregarines Fit?
Abstract Gregarine apicomplexans are closely related to parasites such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium, which are causing severe health and economic burdens. Colonizing only invertebrates and having no obvious medical relevance, they are mostly ignored in 'omics' studies, although gregarines are the most basal apicomplexans and therefore key players in the understanding of the evolution of parasitism in the Apicomplexa from free-living ancestors. They belong to the largest exclusively parasitic phylum, but is this perception actually true? The effects of gregarines on their hosts seem to cover the w...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 22, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rueckert S, Betts EL, Tsaousis AD Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxoplasma gondii.
PMID: 31345768 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 22, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lourido S Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Evolutionary Insights into the Tick Hologenome.
A, de la Fuente J Abstract Recently, our knowledge of the composition and complexity of tick microbial communities has increased and supports microbial impact on tick biology. Results support a phylogenetic association between ticks and their microbiota across evolution; this is known as phylosymbiosis. Herein, using published datasets, we confirm the existence of phylosymbiosis between Ixodes ticks and their microbial communities. The strong phylosymbiotic signal and the phylogenetic structure of microbial communities associated with Ixodid ticks revealed that phylosymbiosis may be a widespread phenomenon in tick...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 19, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Díaz-Sánchez S, Estrada-Peña A, Cabezas-Cruz A, de la Fuente J Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Mosquito Host-Seeking Regulation: Targets for Behavioral Control.
Abstract Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes require protein from blood to develop eggs. They have evolved a strong innate drive to find and bite humans and engorge on their blood. Decades of research have revealed that attraction to hosts is suppressed for days after blood-feeding. During this time, females coordinate complex physiological changes, allowing them to utilize blood protein to develop eggs: clearing excess fluid, digesting protein, and egg maturation. How do mechanosensation, nutrient consumption, and reproductive pathways combine to produce the full expression of host-seeking suppression? Understanding ...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 17, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Duvall LB Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Noncoding RNAs in Parasite-Vector-Host Interactions.
Abstract Systems biology approaches, especially in the big data era, have revolutionized modern parasitology. Of the many different molecules participating in parasite-host interactions, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are now known to be (i) transmitted by the vector to possibly modulate vertebrate host responses and favor vector survival and (ii) regulated in the host by parasites to favor parasite survival. Here we provide an overview of the involvement of ncRNAs in the parasite-vector-host triad and their effect on host homeostasis based on recent advances and accumulating knowledge about the role of endogenous verteb...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 15, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bensaoud C, Hackenberg M, Kotsyfakis M Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Bed Nets, Insecticides, and Antimalarials: Where to Next?
Abstract Insecticide-impregnated bed nets have saved millions from fatal malaria, but their effectiveness is waning due to mosquito insecticide resistance. A new strategy (Paton et al., Nature, 2019) to deliver parasiticidal compounds into mosquitoes to kill transmission-stage parasites could enhance the effectiveness of bed nets and get around the perennial problems of resistance. PMID: 31303446 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 11, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Buchanan HD, McFadden GI, Goodman CD Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Naegleria fowleri.
na M, Lorenzo-Morales J PMID: 31300281 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 9, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Piñero JE, Chávez-Munguía B, Omaña-Molina M, Lorenzo-Morales J Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Leishmania Viannia guyanensis.
PMID: 31292065 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 8, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Olivier M, Minguez-Menendez A, Fernandez-Prada C Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Babesiosis Vaccines: Lessons Learned, Challenges Ahead, and Future Glimpses.
Abstract The incidence and prevalence of babesiosis in animals and humans is increasing, yet prevention, control, or treatment measures remain limited and ineffective. Despite a growing body of new knowledge of the biology, pathogenicity, and virulence of Babesia parasites, there is still no well-defined, adequately effective and easily deployable vaccine. While numerous published studies suggest that the development of such anti-Babesia vaccines should be feasible, many others identify significant challenges that need to be overcome in order to succeed. Here, we review historic and recent attempts in babesiosis v...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 4, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rathinasamy V, Poole WA, Bastos RG, Suarez CE, Cooke BM Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Giardia Cysteine Proteases: The Teeth behind the Smile.
Abstract Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent human enteropathogens and a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. Cysteine proteases (CPs) have been identified as major virulence factors in protozoan parasites, playing important roles in disease pathogenesis and in parasitic life cycles. G. duodenalis exhibits high proteolytic activity, and CPs play significant roles in giardiasis. Giardia CPs are directly involved in intestinal epithelial junctional complex disruption, intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and degradation of host immune factors, including chemokines and immunoglobulins. Giardia CPs...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 3, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Allain T, Fekete E, Buret AG Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

The Uncertainty Surrounding the Burden of Post-acute Consequences of Dengue Infection.
Abstract Post-acute consequences currently form a significant component of the dengue disability-adjusted life year (DALY) burden estimates. However, there is considerable uncertainty regarding the incidence, duration, and severity of these symptoms. Further research is needed to more accurately estimate the health and economic burden of these dengue manifestations. PMID: 31279656 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 3, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hung TM, Wills B, Clapham HE, Yacoub S, Turner HC Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Causal Inference in Spatial Mapping.
Abstract Disease mapping has evolved to a powerful field in epidemiology and public health to focus interventions. Increased precision has come at the expense of interpretability. We propose that future efforts should focus on causal inference to evaluate and predict the effectiveness of intervention strategies to guide decisions more effectively. PMID: 31279657 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - July 3, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kraemer MUG, Reiner RC, Bhatt S Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Tying up Loose Ends in the Malaria Antigenic Variation Story.
Abstract A recent paper (Wang et al., PLoS Biol., 2019) shines remarkable new light onto the malaria antigenic variation story. Using CRISPR/Cas9-targeted chromosome breaks and long-read whole-genome sequencing, they followed the fate of detached subtelomeric PfEMP1/var genes and demonstrated that these initiate cascades of recombination at sites far from the original break. PMID: 31266710 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 29, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Arnot DE Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis as a Reservoir for Visceral Leishmaniasis Transmission.
Abstract Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a parasitic skin infection which can occur after visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Recent xenodiagnosis studies (Mondal et al., Clin. Infect. Dis., 2018) have uncovered the infectiousness of PKDL. When including this in a transmission model, PKDL cases appear as an important reservoir of infection, likely frustrating the VL elimination efforts on the Indian subcontinent. PMID: 31266711 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 29, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Le Rutte EA, Zijlstra EE, de Vlas SJ Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Sex Sorting for Pest Control: It's Raining Men!
Abstract In the pursuit of better pest- and vector-control strategies, attention returns to an old proven technology, the sterile insect technique (SIT) and related insect population-suppression methods. A major obstacle for any of these approaches that involves the release of sterile males is the separation of males from females during the mass rearing stage, in order to improve the cost-efficiency of these methods and to prevent the release of biting and disease-vectoring females. This review describes recent sex-sorting developments in dipteran flies with an emphasis on assessing the suitability of these method...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 26, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lutrat C, Giesbrecht D, Marois E, Whyard S, Baldet T, Bouyer J Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Mosquito Adaptation to the Extreme Habitats of Urban Construction Sites.
Abstract The construction industry employs millions of workers in the USA. However, little is known about how environmental disturbances caused by the construction industry impacts vector mosquito ecology and behavior, and whether it is responsible for increasing the abundance of mosquitoes. There is a major scientific gap on how to assess the occupational exposure risk of mosquito biting and arbovirus transmission among outdoor worker populations who spend a disproportionate amount of time working outdoors. In our opinion, it is critical to address how construction workers and the surrounding communities may be g...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wilke ABB, Caban-Martinez AJ, Ajelli M, Vasquez C, Petrie W, Beier JC Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

'Hang on a Tick' - Are Ticks Really the Vectors for Australian Trypanosomes?
Abstract Trypanosomes are global blood parasites that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Several species of Trypanosoma cause disease in humans and domesticated animals, and the majority are transmitted between hosts by haematophagous invertebrate vectors. Ticks have long been speculated as vectors for Australian trypanosomes. Recent studies using advanced molecular techniques have refocused attention on these arthropods, and whilst they have renewed discussions about Trypanosoma species and their vectors, these reports have simultaneously led to premature conclusions concerning the role of ticks as vectors....
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 19, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Krige AS, Thompson RCA, Clode PL Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Negative Density-dependent Dispersal in Tsetse Flies: A Risk for Control Campaigns?
er J Abstract Tsetse flies are vectors of parasites that cause diseases responsible for significant economic losses and health issues in sub-Saharan Africa, including sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in domestic animals. Efficient vector-control campaigns require good knowledge of the demographic parameters of the targeted populations. In the last decade, population genetics emerged as a convenient way to measure population densities and dispersal in tsetse flies. Here, by revealing a strong negative density-dependent dispersal in two dimensions, we suggest that control campaigns might unleash dispersal from...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 11, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: De Meeûs T, Ravel S, Solano P, Bouyer J Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Malaria Vectors and Species Complexes in Thailand: Implications for Vector Control.
Abstract There are seven Anopheles species incriminated as important (primary) malaria vectors in Thailand. These vectors belong to species complexes or are in closely related groups that are difficult to separate morphologically. Precise species identification, using molecular methods, enables control operations to target only important vectors and to increase understanding of their specific ecological requirements, bionomic characteristics, and behavioral traits. This review focuses on adult mosquito behavior, vector transmission capacity, and geographical distribution of malaria vectors in Thailand identified u...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 7, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tananchai C, Manguin S, Bangs MJ, Chareonviriyaphap T Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Echinococcus multilocularis.
PMID: 31182385 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 7, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Casulli A, Barth TFE, Tamarozzi F Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato.
PMID: 31182386 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 7, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Casulli A, Siles-Lucas M, Tamarozzi F Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Plasmodium vivax.
PMID: 31176582 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 5, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Flannery EL, Markus MB, Vaughan AM Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Next-Generation Phenotypic Screening in Early Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases.
Abstract Cell-based phenotypic screening has proven to be valuable, notably in recapitulating relevant biological conditions, for example, the host cell/pathogen niche. However, the corresponding methodological complexity is not readily compatible with high-throughput pipelines, and fails to inform either molecular target or mechanism of action, which frustrates conventional drug-discovery roadmaps. We review the state-of-the-art and emerging technologies that suggest new strategies for harnessing value from the complexity of phenotypic screening and augmenting powerful utility for translational drug discovery. Ad...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 5, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Aulner N, Danckaert A, Ihm J, Shum D, Shorte SL Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Ozonide Antimalarial Activity in the Context of Artemisinin-Resistant Malaria.
Abstract The ozonides are one of the most advanced drug classes in the antimalarial development pipeline and were designed to improve on limitations associated with current front-line artemisinin-based therapies. Like the artemisinins, the pharmacophoric peroxide bond of ozonides is essential for activity, and it appears that these antimalarials share a similar mode of action, raising the possibility of cross-resistance. Resistance to artemisinins is associated with Plasmodium falciparum mutations that allow resistant parasites to escape short-term artemisinin-mediated damage (elimination half-life ~1 h). Importan...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 5, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Giannangelo C, Fowkes FJI, Simpson JA, Charman SA, Creek DJ Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Rethinking Graduate Education in Parasitology: A Case Study.
PMID: 31153720 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 29, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: McKay DM, Summers M, Buret AG, Emmett T, Gilleard JS Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Helminth Therapy - From the Parasite Perspective.
Jirků Pomajbíková K Abstract Studies in animal models and humans suggest that intentional exposure to helminths or helminth-derived products may hold promise for treating chronic inflammatory-associated diseases (CIADs). Although the mechanisms underlying 'helminth therapy' are being evaluated, little attention has been paid to the actual organisms in use. Here we examine the notion that, because of the complexity of biological symbiosis, intact helminths rather than helminth-derived products are likely to prove more useful for clinical purposes. Further, weighing potential cost/benefit ratios of v...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 29, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sobotková K, Parker W, Levá J, Růžková J, Lukeš J, Jirků Pomajbíková K Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Transmission-Blocking Vaccines for Malaria: Time to Talk about Vaccine Introduction.
Abstract Malaria kills more than 600 000 people yearly, mainly children, and eradication is a global priority. Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines are advancing in clinical trials, and strategies for their introduction must be prioritized among stakeholders and the vulnerable populations exposed to the disease. PMID: 31153722 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 29, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Coelho CH, Rappuoli R, Hotez PJ, Duffy PE Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Can We Recommend Practical Interventions to Prevent Neurocysticercosis?
Abstract The cystiSim model was used to compare strategies for the control of Taenia solium. A three-monthly intervention in pigs for 3 years was substantially more effective than biannual treatment for taeniasis in the human population for 5 years. The intervention period could be shortened further by combining pig and human interventions. PMID: 31151880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 28, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Braae UC, Lightowlers MW, Donadeu M Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Blood-Brain Barrier in Cerebral Malaria: Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Intervention.
r D Abstract Cerebral malaria is a life-threatening complication of malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The growing problem of drug resistance and the dearth of new antiparasitic drugs are a serious threat to the antimalaria treatment regimes. Studies on humans and the murine model have implicated the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the lethal course of the disease. Therefore, efforts to alleviate the BBB dysfunction could serve as an adjunct therapy. Here, we review the mechanisms associated with the disruption of the BBB. In addition, we discuss the current, still limited, knowle...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 27, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Nishanth G, Schlüter D Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Coalition Politics: Linking Malaria Transmission to Mosquito Reproduction.
Abstract Female anopheline mosquito reproduction is intimately linked to the Plasmodium sporogonic cycle, whereby malaria parasites ostensibly compete for the same resources required for mosquito egg development. However, in a recent study, Werling and colleagues (Cell 2019;177:315-325) uncovered a parasitic strategy supporting coexistence, exploiting mosquito nutrients without affecting mosquito fitness and reproductivity. PMID: 31138514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 25, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kirchner S, Waters AP Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Parasite Removal for Malaria Elimination in Costa Rica.
, Chaves LF Abstract In Costa Rica, malaria parasite removal via treatment shift and focalized mass drug administration (MDA) largely decreased malaria transmission between 2006 and 2009, and led to malaria elimination from 2013 to 2015. These results can help to shape a regional strategy for malaria elimination in Mesoamerica and México. PMID: 31129039 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 22, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Marín Rodríguez R, Chaves LF Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research