Trichomonas vaginalis.
PMID: 32526176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 13, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Aquino MFK, Hinderfeld AS, Simoes-Barbosa A Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

New Insights on Acute and Chronic Schistosomiasis: Do We Need a Redefinition?
Abstract A precise timeframe to differentiate acute schistosomiasis (AS) and chronic schistosomiasis (CS) is not well defined. Based on recent published literature, lung nodular lesions in AS and CS seem to have the same pathophysiology, that is, eggs laid in situ by adult worms, during an ectopic migration. Moreover, the occurrence of lung nodules due to clusters of eggs and the systemic immunoallergic reaction of AS (Katayama syndrome) may be two separate clinical entities, which may overlap during the early phase of infection. Consequently, the classical distinction between AS and CS loses much of its conceptua...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 3, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Gobbi F, Tamarozzi F, Buonfrate D, van Lieshout L, Bisoffi Z, Bottieau E, TropNet Schisto Task Force Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Precipitated Malaria: It Never Rains but It Pours.
Abstract Occasionally, Plasmodium falciparum malaria is apparently precipitated by traumatic events (e.g., a landmine accident) or by noninfectious events (e.g., pregnancy). The authors reporting such cases often seem as baffled as many of their readers probably are. However, the case reports may contain important clues regarding malaria pathogenesis and immunity. PMID: 32507384 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - June 2, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hviid L Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Building Parasitology Communities to Promote Gender Equality.
iacute;az E Abstract In an ideal world, there are equal opportunities for women to enter and progress in all scientific disciplines without bias or prejudice. Here, we share our experiences in building communities of women parasitology and offer easy-to-implement guidelines for scientists and institutions to overcome unconscious bias and create environments with better gender equality and diversity. PMID: 32407679 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 16, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: English ED, Power BJ, Gómez-Díaz E Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

A More Granular View of Neutrophils in Malaria.
Abstract Neutrophils are abundant innate immune cells with crucial roles in immunity and vascular inflammation. Recent evidence indicates that neutrophils have a dual role in malaria, contributing to both pathogenesis and control of Plasmodium. We discuss emerging mechanisms behind these opposing functions and identify key outstanding questions. PMID: 32407680 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 16, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Amulic B, Moxon CA, Cunnington AJ Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Vive la Diff érence: Exploiting the Differences between Rodent and Human Malarias.
Vive la Différence: Exploiting the Differences between Rodent and Human Malarias. Trends Parasitol. 2020 Jun;36(6):504-511 Authors: Kirkman LA, Deitsch KW Abstract Experimental research into malaria biology and pathogenesis has historically focused on two model systems, in vitro culture of the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo infections of laboratory animals using rodent parasites. While there is clear value in having a manipulatable animal model for studying malaria, there have occasionally been controversies around how representative the rodent model is of the human disease, a...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 16, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kirkman LA, Deitsch KW Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Plasmodium vivax in the Era of the Shrinking P. falciparum Map.
This article reviews the epidemiology and biology of P. vivax, how the parasite differs from P. falciparum, and the key features that render it more difficult to control and eliminate. Since transmission of the parasite is driven largely by relapses from dormant liver stages, its timely elimination will require widespread access to safe and effective radical cure. PMID: 32407682 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 16, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Price RN, Commons RJ, Battle KE, Thriemer K, Mendis K Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Environmental Factors and Host Microbiomes Shape Host-Pathogen Dynamics.
Abstract Microorganisms are increasingly recognized as ecosystem-relevant components because they affect the population dynamics of hosts. Functioning at the interface of the host and pathogen, skin and gut microbiomes are vital components of immunity. Recent work reveals a strong influence of biotic and abiotic environmental factors (including the environmental microbiome) on disease dynamics, yet the importance of the host-host microbiome-pathogen-environment interaction has been poorly reflected in theory. We use amphibians and the disease chytridiomycosis caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendroba...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 10, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bernardo-Cravo AP, Schmeller DS, Chatzinotas A, Vredenburg VT, Loyau A Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Control of Cystic Echinococcosis in Iran: Where Do We Stand?
Abstract Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important public health challenge in Iran that requires a One Health approach to control. Filling information gaps and research needs on different aspects of the disease, including parasite biology, disease ecology, human/animal infection, and administrative issues, is essential to address challenges faced by CE control programs. PMID: 32402838 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 8, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ebrahimipour M, Budke CM, Harandi MF Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

FDA-Approved Antiparasitic Drugs in the 21st Century: A Success for Helminthiasis?
Abstract Diseases caused by helminth infections affect more than a quarter of the population of the world, but the therapeutic arsenal is limited. The approval of moxidectin in 2018 and triclabendazole in 2019 by the FDA marked an important moment in the fight against diseases of poverty, such as helminthiases. PMID: 32387059 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 6, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: de Moraes J, Geary TG Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Roles of Symbiotic Microorganisms in Arboviral Infection of Arthropod Vectors.
Abstract Arthropod vectors serve as native reservoirs and transmitters of hundreds of arboviruses. In arthropod vectors, symbiotic microorganisms residing in the gut lumen and/or hemocoelic tissues maintain complicated relationships with their host and influence multiple aspects of vector physiology. Recently, accumulating evidence has established an important role for symbiotic microorganisms in vector-virus interactions which could potentially be used to control viral transmission. Herein, we review recent progress on symbiotic microbe-arbovirus interactions and summarize the molecular mechanisms by which commen...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 5, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Yin C, Sun P, Yu X, Wang P, Cheng G Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Diagnosis of Porcine Cysticercosis at Necropsy: When Is Enough, Enough?
Abstract Changes in the incidence of porcine cysticercosis is used commonly in the assessment of efforts to control the transmission of Taenia solium, the cause of human neurocysticercosis. Although cysticerci may occasionally occur in tissues other than the striated muscles, particularly the brain, infection in pigs can be diagnosed reliably by assessment of muscle tissue alone. PMID: 32376114 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - May 3, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lightowlers MW Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Transition from Plasmodial Hypnozoite to Schizont Demonstrated.
Abstract The progression to schizont formation of individual activated hypnozoites has been observed in vitro for the first time by Voorberg-van der Wel et al. Green-fluorescent protein-positive hypnozoites turned red-fluorescent (mCherry) upon activation. Thus, we now have empirical parasitological proof that supports the 40-year-old hypnozoite theory of relapse in malaria. PMID: 32298626 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - April 18, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Markus MB Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

An Omnivore's Dilemma: Toxoplasma gondii's Flexible Metabolic Networks.
Abstract Host cells provide protection from the environment for intracellular pathogens, but acquisition of nutrients and sensing of changes in the host cell bring new challenges. Krishnan et al. have recently developed a comprehensive genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) of the Toxoplasma gondii metabolic network that incorporates genetic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic data. PMID: 32298627 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - April 18, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kim K Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Connecting Female Genital Schistosomiasis and Menstrual Hygiene Initiatives.
Abstract Effective future control of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) requires an integrated and multisectoral approach, bringing together HIV, sexual and reproductive health, and reproductive rights sectors. In this article, an underappreciated but important connection between FGS and menstrual hygiene initiatives in Africa is highlighted. PMID: 32298628 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - April 18, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Stothard JR, Odiere MR, Phillips-Howard PA Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Malaria Parasite Clearance: What Are We Really Measuring?
Abstract Antimalarial drugs are vital for treating malaria and controlling transmission. Measuring drug efficacy in the field requires large clinical trials and thus we have identified proxy measures of drug efficacy such as the parasite clearance curve. This is often assumed to measure the rate of drug activity against parasites and is used to predict optimal treatment regimens required to completely clear a blood-stage infection. We discuss evidence that the clearance curve is not measuring the rate of drug killing. This has major implications for how we assess optimal treatment regimens, as well as how we prior...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - April 18, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Khoury DS, Zaloumis SG, Grigg MJ, Haque A, Davenport MP, Interdisciplinary Approaches to Malaria Consortium Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Reinventing the Wheel of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato Transmission to Humans.
Abstract Control of cystic echinococcosis (CE) relies on interrupting Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato transmission through interventions in dogs and livestock. However, primary prevention measures aimed at avoiding ingestion of Echinococcus eggs may help reduce the burden of human CE. CE is generally considered, to variable extents, to be foodborne, but there is little evidence on the actual contamination of matrices and sociocultural factors involved in parasite transmission. An overall appraisal of published literature suggests that environmental contamination, possibly through hand-to-mouth transmission, may...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - April 18, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tamarozzi F, Deplazes P, Casulli A Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

The Human Spleen in Malaria: Filter or Shelter?
Abstract The human spleen is an immune sentinel and controls red blood cell (RBC) quality. By mechanically retaining subsets of infected RBCs, the spleen may reduce the pace at which the parasite biomass increases before the adaptive immune response operates. Conversely, the spleen may contribute to malaria pathogenesis, particularly anemia that is associated with splenomegaly. Large spleens may also shelter parasites in chronic carriers. Upon treatment with artemisinins, the spleen clears circulating parasites by pitting and releases 'once-infected' RBCs in circulation. This triggers postartesunate delayed hemoly...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - April 18, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Henry B, Roussel C, Carucci M, Brousse V, Ndour PA, Buffet P Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Plasmodium vivax in Hematopoietic Niches: Hidden and Dangerous.
Abstract Estimation of Plasmodium vivax biomass based on circulating biomarkers indicates the existence of a predominant biomass outside of the circulation that is not captured by peripheral parasitemia, in particular in patients with complicated outcomes. A series of recent studies have suggested that the hematopoietic niche of the bone marrow (BM) is a major reservoir for parasite replication and the development of transmission stages. However, significant knowledge gaps remain in our understanding of host-parasite interactions, pathophysiology, and the implications for treatment and diagnosis of such a reservoi...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - April 18, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Silva-Filho JL, Lacerda MVG, Recker M, Wassmer SC, Marti M, Costa FTM Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Inflammasome Activation in Response to Intracellular Protozoan Parasites.
Abstract Inflammasomes are cytosolic complexes that assemble in response to cellular stress or upon sensing microbial molecules, culminating in cytokine processing and an inflammatory form of cell death called pyroptosis. Inflammasomes are usually composed of a sensor molecule, an adaptor protein, and an inflammatory caspase, such as Caspase-1, which cleaves and activates multiple substrates, including Gasdermin-D, pro-IL-1β, and pro-IL-18. Ultimately, inflammasome activation promotes inflammation and restriction of the microbial infection. In recent years, many studies have addressed the role of inflammasome...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - April 18, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: de Carvalho RVH, Zamboni DS Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Not Just from Blood: Mosquito Nutrient Acquisition from Nectar Sources.
Abstract Anthropophilic female mosquitoes are well known for their strong attraction to human hosts, but plant nectar is a common energy source in their diets. When sugar sources are scarce, female mosquitoes of some species can compensate by taking larger and more frequent blood meals. Male mosquitoes are exclusively dependent on plant nectar or alternative sugar sources. Plant preference is likely driven by an innate attraction that may be enhanced by experience, as mosquitoes learn to recognize available sugar rewards. Nectar-seeking involves the integration of at least three sensory systems: olfaction, vision ...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - April 18, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Barredo E, DeGennaro M Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxoplasma-induced Behavioral Changes: An Aspecific Consequence of Neuroinflammation.
Abstract A key strategy that many parasites use to facilitate transmission involves behavioral modification of their hosts. Toxoplasma gondii has been taken as an example for this strategy. A recent study by Boillat et al. reported that attraction to predator odor following Toxoplasma infection is not specific to felines. PMID: 32191847 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - March 20, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Xiao J Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Divergent Mitochondrial Ribosomes in Unicellular Parasitic Protozoans.
Abstract The mitochondrion in parasitic protozoans is a clinically proven drug target. A specialized ribosome (mitoribosome) is required to translate genes encoded on the mitochondrial (mt) DNA. Despite the significance, little is known about mitoribosomes in many medically and economically important unicellular protozoans. PMID: 32191848 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - March 20, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dass S, Mather MW, Ke H Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Lexis and Grammar of Mitochondrial RNA Processing in Trypanosomes.
Zíková A, Zhang L, Zimmer S, Aphasizhev R Abstract Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause African human and animal trypanosomiasis, a burden on health and economy in Africa. These hemoflagellates are distinguished by a kinetoplast nucleoid containing mitochondrial DNAs of two kinds: maxicircles encoding ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and proteins and minicircles bearing guide RNAs (gRNAs) for mRNA editing. All RNAs are produced by a phage-type RNA polymerase as 3' extended precursors, which undergo exonucleolytic trimming. Most pre-mRNAs proceed through 3' adenylation, uridine insertion/deletion editing, and 3' A/U-...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - March 20, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Aphasizheva I, Alfonzo J, Carnes J, Cestari I, Cruz-Reyes J, Göringer HU, Hajduk S, Lukeš J, Madison-Antenucci S, Maslov DA, McDermott SM, Ochsenreiter T, Read LK, Salavati R, Schnaufer A, Schneider A, Simpson L, Stuart K, Yurchenko V, Zhou ZH, Zíková Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Next-Generation Molecular Surveillance of TriTryp Diseases.
Abstract Elimination programs targeting TriTryp diseases (Leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, human African trypanosomiasis) significantly reduced the number of cases. Continued surveillance is crucial to sustain this progress, but parasite molecular surveillance by genotyping is currently lacking. We explain here which epidemiological questions of public health and clinical relevance could be answered by means of molecular surveillance. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for molecular surveillance will be an important added value, where we advocate that preference should be given to direct sequencing of the parasite's gen...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - March 20, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Domagalska MA, Dujardin JC Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin: Immune Evasion, Infectivity, and Tumorigenesis.
Ferreira A Abstract To successfully infect, Trypanosoma cruzi evades and modulates the host immune response. T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCalr) is a multifunctional, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperone that, translocated to the external microenvironment, mediates crucial host-parasite interactions. TcCalr binds and inactivates C1 and mannose-binding lectin (MBL)/ficolins, important pattern- recognition receptors (PRRs) of the complement system. Using an apoptotic mimicry strategy, the C1-TcCalr association facilitates the infection of target cells. T. cruzi infection also seems to confer protection against ...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - March 20, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ramírez-Toloza G, Sosoniuk-Roche E, Valck C, Aguilar-Guzmán L, Ferreira VP, Ferreira A Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Chimeras of P4-ATPase and Guanylate Cyclase in Pathogenic Protists.
Gupta N Abstract Apicomplexan parasites harbor chimeric proteins embodying P4-type ATPase and guanylate cyclase domains. Such proteins - serving as the actuator of cGMP signaling in this group of important pathogens - are indeed unusual in terms of their sheer size, modus operandi, and evolutionary repurposing. Much like the mythological Sphinx, a human-lion chimeric creature that posed challenging riddles, the P4-type ATPase-guanylate cyclase chimeras present both structural and functional conundrums. Here we review the function, topology, mechanism, and intramolecular coordination of the alveolate-specific chime...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - March 20, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Günay-Esiyok Ö, Gupta N Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Linking Mosquito Ecology, Traits, Behavior, and Disease Transmission.
ger C Abstract Mosquitoes are considered to be the deadliest animals on Earth because the diseases they transmit claim at least a million human lives every year globally. Here, we discuss the scales at which the effects of ecological factors cascade to influence epidemiologically relevant behaviors of adult mosquitoes. In particular, we focused our review on the environmental conditions (coarse-scale variables) that shape the life-history traits of larvae and adult mosquitoes (fine-scale traits), and how these factors and their association, in turn, modulate adult behaviors to influence mosquito-borne disease tran...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - March 20, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Chandrasegaran K, Lahondère C, Escobar LE, Vinauger C Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Spatial Lifecourse Epidemiology and Infectious Disease Research.
Abstract Spatial lifecourse epidemiology aims to utilize advanced spatial, location-aware, and artificial intelligence technologies to investigate long-term effects of measurable biological, environmental, behavioral, and psychosocial factors on individual risk for chronic diseases. It could also further the research on infectious disease dynamics, risks, and consequences across the life course. PMID: 32044243 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - February 7, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jia P, Dong W, Yang S, Zhan Z, Tu, Lai S Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito).
PMID: 32037135 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - February 6, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Benelli G, Wilke ABB, Beier JC Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Modeling Pathogen Dispersal in Marine Fish and Shellfish.
Abstract In marine ecosystems, oceanographic processes often govern host contacts with infectious agents. Consequently, many approaches developed to quantify pathogen dispersal in terrestrial ecosystems have limited use in the marine context. Recent applications in marine disease modeling demonstrate that physical oceanographic models coupled with biological models of infectious agents can characterize dispersal networks of pathogens in marine ecosystems. Biophysical modeling has been used over the past two decades to model larval dispersion but has only recently been utilized in marine epidemiology. In this revie...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - February 6, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Cantrell DL, Groner ML, Ben-Horin T, Grant J, Revie CW Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Update on BEI Resources for Parasitology and Arthropod Vector Research.
Abstract BEI Resources has contributed to the advancement of parasitic diseases research for over 16 years. The accessibility of our reference strains and reagents is relevant to the development of new therapeutics and vaccines. Here we provide a resource update with emphasis on the new assets for toxoplasmosis and vector research. PMID: 32035817 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - February 5, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Molestina RE, Stedman TT Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Phased Conditional Approach for Mosquito Management Using Sterile Insect Technique.
Abstract Mosquito-borne diseases represent a major threat to humankind. Recently, the incidence of malaria has stopped decreasing while that of dengue is increasing exponentially. Alternative mosquito-control methods are urgently needed. The sterile insect technique (SIT) has seen significant developments recently and may play an important role. However, testing and implementing SIT for vector control is challenging, and a phased conditional approach (PCA) is recommended, that is, advancement to the next phase depends on completion of activities in the previous one. We herewith present a PCA to test the SIT agains...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - February 5, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bouyer J, Yamada H, Pereira R, Bourtzis K, Vreysen MJB Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Single cell sequencing shines a light on malaria parasite relatedness in complex infections.
Abstract Recent genomic studies are investigating the wide-ranging implications of malaria complex infections on parasite diversity, transmission, and downstream disease eradication efforts. Using single cell sequencing, new work by Nkhoma et al. provides evidence that there is unexpectedly frequent co-transmission of related parasites in the intense transmission setting in Malawi. PMID: 31883706 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - December 31, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Siegel SV, Rayner JC Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Targeting Plasmodium Plasmepsin V: Hitting Two Birds with One Stone.
g C Abstract A recent report by Jennison et al. reveals an important role for plasmepsin V (PMV), an aspartyl protease, in the development of malaria transmission stages. The authors showed that PMV activity is critical for protein export in these stages and that specific PMV inhibitors block parasite transmission to mosquitoes. PMID: 31883707 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - December 31, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Brancucci NMB, Heussler VT, Grüring C Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Mosquito Microbiota and Implications for Disease Control.
Abstract Mosquito-transmitted diseases account for about 500 000 deaths every year. Blocking these pathogens in the mosquito vector before they are transmitted to humans is an effective strategy to prevent mosquito-borne diseases. Like most higher organisms, mosquitoes harbor a highly diverse and dynamic microbial flora that can be explored for prevention of pathogen transmission. Here we review the structure and function of the mosquito microbiota, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses, and discuss the potential of using components of the microbiota to thwart pathogen transmission. PMID: 31866183 [PubMed - ...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - December 19, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Gao H, Cui C, Wang L, Jacobs-Lorena M, Wang S Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Hardly Vacuous: The Parasitophorous Vacuolar Membrane of Malaria Parasites.
Abstract When a malaria parasite invades a host erythrocyte it pushes itself in and invaginates a portion of the host membrane, thereby sealing itself inside and establishing itself in the resulting vacuole. The parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) that surrounds the parasite is modified by the parasite, using its secretory organelles. To survive within this enveloping membrane, the organism must take in nutrients, secrete wastes, export proteins into the host cell, and eventually egress. Here, we review current understanding of the unique solutions Plasmodium has evolved to these challenges and discuss the rem...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - December 19, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Goldberg DE, Zimmerberg J Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Autoimmune Anemia in Malaria.
Abstract Severe anemia is a major cause of death by malaria. The loss of uninfected erythrocytes is an important contributor to malarial anemia; however, the mechanisms underlying this pathology are not well understood. Malaria-induced anemia is related to autoimmune antibodies against the membrane lipid phosphatidylserine (PS). In mice, these antibodies induce the clearance of uninfected erythrocytes after binding to PS exposed in their membrane. In human malaria patients there is a strong correlation between anemia and anti-PS antibodies. During malaria, anti-PS antibodies are produced by atypical B cells, whose...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - December 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rivera-Correa J, Rodriguez A Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Advances in Vaccine Development for Human Lymphatic Filariasis.
Abstract According to the World Health Organization, over 880 million people are currently at risk of acquiring lymphatic filariasis (LF) in over 52 countries worldwide. Current approaches to control LF by 2020 are short of the anticipated goal. Several studies suggest the existence of protective immunity against LF in humans. Thus, it is possible to develop a prophylactic vaccine against LF in humans. Several potential vaccine candidates were identified and tested for their potential against LF. To date, preclinical studies suggest that it is possible to develop a prophylactic vaccine against LF. Much work n...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - December 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kalyanasundaram R, Khatri V, Chauhan N Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Clinical and Preclinical Imaging of Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis.
Abstract Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease, is a major cause of chronic morbidity and disability, and premature death. The hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, liver fibrosis, portal hypertension, and esophageal varices, whose rupture may cause bleeding and death. We review currently available abdominal imaging modalities and describe their basic principles, strengths, weaknesses, and usefulness in the assessment of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS). Advanced imaging methods are presented that could be of interest for hepatosplenic schistosomiasis evaluation b...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - December 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Masi B, Perles-Barbacaru TA, Bernard M, Viola A Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Malaria in Pregnancy and Adverse Birth Outcomes: New Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities.
Abstract Malaria infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we discuss the impact of malaria in pregnancy on three pathways that are important regulators of healthy pregnancy outcomes: L-arginine-nitric oxide biogenesis, complement activation, and the heme axis. These pathways are not mutually exclusive, and they collectively create a proinflammatory, antiangiogenic milieu at the maternal-fetal interface that interferes with placental function and development. We hypothesize that targeting these host-response pathways would mitigate t...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - December 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ngai M, Weckman AM, Erice C, McDonald CR, Cahill LS, Sled JG, Kain KC Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Organoids for Liver Stage Malaria Research.
Abstract Plasmodium parasites cause malaria and are maintained between Anopheles mosquitoes and mammalian hosts in a complex life cycle. Malaria parasites occupy tissue niches that can be difficult to access, and models to study them can be challenging to recapitulate experimentally, particularly for Plasmodium species that infect humans. 2D culture models provide extremely beneficial tools to investigate Plasmodium biology but they have limitations. More complex 3D structural networks, such as organoids, have unveiled new avenues for developing more physiological tissue models, and their application to malaria re...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - December 14, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Mellin R, Boddey JA Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

HRP2: Transforming Malaria Diagnosis, but with Caveats.
Abstract The major growth in point-of-care malaria diagnosis over the past decade has been based on immunochromatographic malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), which generally detect Plasmodium falciparum via its abundant histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2). Here, we review the discovery and biology of HRP2, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of HRP2-based diagnosis compared with alternative antigens. We highlight recent studies describing HRP2 deletion in Latin America, Eritrea, and possibly other regions, and the methodological challenges of confirming deletion of the pfhrp2 gene. We also discuss the mechanis...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - December 14, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Poti KE, Sullivan DJ, Dondorp AM, Woodrow CJ Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Ungulate Helminth Transmission and Two Evolutionary Puzzles.
Abstract Grazing mammals, ungulates, pose two evolutionary puzzles as helminth hosts. First, why do some helminths infect intermediate hosts prior to infecting ungulates, given that grazers could directly consume propagules on vegetation? Second, ungulates are large and long-lived, so why are they occasionally intermediate instead of definitive hosts, as in taeniid cestodes? We comprehensively surveyed helminth life cycles and transmission involving ungulates. We identified six transmission routes and found that ungulate helminth parasitism has evolved some 25 times. Direct egg transmission to ungulates is rare, a...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - December 13, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Chubb JC, Benesh D, Parker GA Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

You Shall Not Pass: Memory CD8  T Cells in Liver-Stage Malaria.
You Shall Not Pass: Memory CD8 T Cells in Liver-Stage Malaria. Trends Parasitol. 2019 Dec 13;: Authors: Lefebvre MN, Harty JT Abstract Each year over 200 million malaria infections occur, with over 400 000 associated deaths. Vaccines formed with attenuated whole parasites can induce protective memory CD8 T cell responses against liver-stage malaria; however, widespread administration of such vaccines is logistically challenging. Recent scientific findings are delineating how protective memory CD8 T cell populations are primed and maintained and how such cells mediate immunity to liver-s...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - December 13, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lefebvre MN, Harty JT Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Mosquito Age Grading and Vector-Control Programmes.
Abstract An ability to characterize the age of mosquito populations could provide cost-effective and compelling entomological evidence for the potential epidemiological impacts of vector control. The average age of a mosquito population is the most important determinant of vectorial capacity and the likelihood of disease transmission. Yet, despite decades of research, defining the age of a wild-caught mosquito remains a challenging, impractical, and unreliable process. Emerging chemometric and existing transcriptional approaches may overcome many of the limitations of current morphological techniques, but their ut...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - December 10, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Johnson BJ, Hugo LE, Churcher TS, Ong OTW, Devine GJ Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Cryptosporidium parvum.
PMID: 31836286 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - December 10, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dumaine JE, Tandel J, Striepen B Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

The Journey to Discovering a Flatworm Target of Praziquantel: A Long TRP.
Abstract Infections caused by parasitic flatworms impose a considerable worldwide health burden. One of the most impactful is schistosomiasis, a disease caused by parasitic blood flukes. Treatment of schistosomiasis has relied on a single drug - praziquantel (PZQ) - for decades. The utility of PZQ as an essential medication is, however, intertwined with a stark gap in our knowledge as to how this drug works. No flatworm target has been identified that readily explains how PZQ paralyzes and damages schistosomes. Recently, a schistosome ion channel was discovered that is activated by PZQ and displays characteri...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - November 29, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Park SK, Marchant JS Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Organoids - New Models for Host-Helminth Interactions.
Abstract Organoids are multicellular culture systems that replicate tissue architecture and function, and are increasingly used as models of viral, bacterial, and protozoan infections. Organoids have great potential to improve our current understanding of helminth interactions with their hosts and to replace or reduce the dependence on using animal models. In this review, we discuss the applicability of this technology to helminth infection research, including strategies of co-culture of helminths or their products with organoids and the challenges, advantages, and drawbacks of the use of organoids for these studi...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - November 29, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Duque-Correa MA, Maizels RM, Grencis RK, Berriman M Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research

Microbiota, a Third Player in the Host-Plasmodium Affair.
a MM Abstract Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, is responsible for more than 200 million new infections and 400 000 deaths yearly. While in recent years the influence of the microbiota in homeostasis and a wide variety of disorders has taken center stage, its contribution during malaria infections has only now started to emerge. The few published studies suggest two distinct but complementary directions. Plasmodium infections can cause significant alterations in host (at least gut) microbiota, and host gut microbiota can influence the clinical outcome of malaria infections. In this opinion article, we hi...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - November 28, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Mukherjee D, Chora ÂF, Mota MM Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research