Anthropogenic changes and associated impacts on vector-borne diseases
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 19:S1471-4922(21)00238-5. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.013. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUrbanization impacts the community composition, abundance, and richness of mosquitoes. As urbanization processes increase globally, it is important to better understand the biodiversity loss caused by anthropogenic changes and associated impacts on vector-borne diseases. Mosquito surveillance and control are key for reducing the risk of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission.PMID:34686421 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.013 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 23, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Andr é B B Wilke Giovanni Benelli John C Beier Source Type: research

Degradation without ubiquitination: new function of a parasite effector
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 19:S1471-4922(21)00258-0. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.10.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLike many other pathogens, the obligate parasitic bacteria phytoplasmas reply on secreted effectors to cause diseases in their plant hosts. Huang et al. revealed that a phytoplasma effector degrades plant proteins independent of ubiquitination. Bypassing this degradation step makes arabidopsis plants resistant to this parasite effector.PMID:34686422 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.10.001 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 23, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jian Chen Daowen Wang Zheng Qing Fu Source Type: research

Anthropogenic changes and associated impacts on vector-borne diseases
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 19:S1471-4922(21)00238-5. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.013. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUrbanization impacts the community composition, abundance, and richness of mosquitoes. As urbanization processes increase globally, it is important to better understand the biodiversity loss caused by anthropogenic changes and associated impacts on vector-borne diseases. Mosquito surveillance and control are key for reducing the risk of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission.PMID:34686421 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.013 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 23, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Andr é B B Wilke Giovanni Benelli John C Beier Source Type: research

Degradation without ubiquitination: new function of a parasite effector
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 19:S1471-4922(21)00258-0. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.10.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLike many other pathogens, the obligate parasitic bacteria phytoplasmas reply on secreted effectors to cause diseases in their plant hosts. Huang et al. revealed that a phytoplasma effector degrades plant proteins independent of ubiquitination. Bypassing this degradation step makes arabidopsis plants resistant to this parasite effector.PMID:34686422 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.10.001 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 23, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jian Chen Daowen Wang Zheng Qing Fu Source Type: research

Human attractive cues and mosquito host-seeking behavior
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 18:S1471-4922(21)00237-3. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.012. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFemale mosquitoes use chemical and physical cues, including vision, smell, heat, and humidity, to orient toward hosts. Body odors are produced by skin resident bacteria that convert metabolites secreted in sweat into odorants that confer the characteristic body scent. Mosquitoes detect these compounds using olfactory receptors in their antennal olfactory receptor neurons. Such information is further integrated with the senses of temperature and humidity, as well as vision, processed in the brain into a behavior...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 22, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Iliano V Coutinho-Abreu Jeffrey A Riffell Omar S Akbari Source Type: research

Going ballistic: Leishmania nuclear subversion of host cell plasticity
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 16:S1471-4922(21)00234-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntracellular parasites have evolved intricate strategies to subvert host cell functions for their own survival. These strategies are particularly damaging to the host if the infection involves immune cells, as illustrated by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania that thrive inside mononuclear phagocytic cells, causing devastating immunopathologies. While the impact of Leishmania infection on host cell phenotype and functions has been well documented, the regulatory mechanisms underlying host cell subvers...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 20, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Herv é Lecoeur Eric Prina Maria Guti érrez-Sanchez Gerald F Sp äth Source Type: research

Going ballistic: Leishmania nuclear subversion of host cell plasticity
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 16:S1471-4922(21)00234-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntracellular parasites have evolved intricate strategies to subvert host cell functions for their own survival. These strategies are particularly damaging to the host if the infection involves immune cells, as illustrated by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania that thrive inside mononuclear phagocytic cells, causing devastating immunopathologies. While the impact of Leishmania infection on host cell phenotype and functions has been well documented, the regulatory mechanisms underlying host cell subvers...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 20, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Herv é Lecoeur Eric Prina Maria Guti érrez-Sanchez Gerald F Sp äth Source Type: research

Going ballistic: Leishmania nuclear subversion of host cell plasticity
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 16:S1471-4922(21)00234-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntracellular parasites have evolved intricate strategies to subvert host cell functions for their own survival. These strategies are particularly damaging to the host if the infection involves immune cells, as illustrated by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania that thrive inside mononuclear phagocytic cells, causing devastating immunopathologies. While the impact of Leishmania infection on host cell phenotype and functions has been well documented, the regulatory mechanisms underlying host cell subvers...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 20, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Herv é Lecoeur Eric Prina Maria Guti érrez-Sanchez Gerald F Sp äth Source Type: research

Going ballistic: Leishmania nuclear subversion of host cell plasticity
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 16:S1471-4922(21)00234-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIntracellular parasites have evolved intricate strategies to subvert host cell functions for their own survival. These strategies are particularly damaging to the host if the infection involves immune cells, as illustrated by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania that thrive inside mononuclear phagocytic cells, causing devastating immunopathologies. While the impact of Leishmania infection on host cell phenotype and functions has been well documented, the regulatory mechanisms underlying host cell subvers...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 20, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Herv é Lecoeur Eric Prina Maria Guti érrez-Sanchez Gerald F Sp äth Source Type: research

Beyond cuts and scrapes: plasmin in malaria and other vector-borne diseases
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 11:S1471-4922(21)00233-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.008. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPlasmodium and other vector-borne pathogens have evolved mechanisms to hijack the mammalian fibrinolytic system to facilitate infection of the human host and the invertebrate vector. Plasmin, the effector protease of fibrinolysis, maintains homeostasis in the blood vasculature by degrading the fibrin that forms blood clots. Plasmin also degrades proteins from extracellular matrices, the complement system, and immunoglobulins. Here, we review some of the mechanisms by which vector-borne pathogens interact with c...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 15, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zarna Rajeshkumar Pala Medard Ernest Brendan Sweeney Yeong Je Jeong Tales Vicari Pascini Thiago Luiz Alves E Silva Joel Vega-Rodr íguez Source Type: research

Beyond cuts and scrapes: plasmin in malaria and other vector-borne diseases
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 11:S1471-4922(21)00233-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.008. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPlasmodium and other vector-borne pathogens have evolved mechanisms to hijack the mammalian fibrinolytic system to facilitate infection of the human host and the invertebrate vector. Plasmin, the effector protease of fibrinolysis, maintains homeostasis in the blood vasculature by degrading the fibrin that forms blood clots. Plasmin also degrades proteins from extracellular matrices, the complement system, and immunoglobulins. Here, we review some of the mechanisms by which vector-borne pathogens interact with c...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 15, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zarna Rajeshkumar Pala Medard Ernest Brendan Sweeney Yeong Je Jeong Tales Vicari Pascini Thiago Luiz Alves E Silva Joel Vega-Rodr íguez Source Type: research

Beyond cuts and scrapes: plasmin in malaria and other vector-borne diseases
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 11:S1471-4922(21)00233-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.008. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPlasmodium and other vector-borne pathogens have evolved mechanisms to hijack the mammalian fibrinolytic system to facilitate infection of the human host and the invertebrate vector. Plasmin, the effector protease of fibrinolysis, maintains homeostasis in the blood vasculature by degrading the fibrin that forms blood clots. Plasmin also degrades proteins from extracellular matrices, the complement system, and immunoglobulins. Here, we review some of the mechanisms by which vector-borne pathogens interact with c...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 15, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zarna Rajeshkumar Pala Medard Ernest Brendan Sweeney Yeong Je Jeong Tales Vicari Pascini Thiago Luiz Alves E Silva Joel Vega-Rodr íguez Source Type: research

Beyond cuts and scrapes: plasmin in malaria and other vector-borne diseases
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 11:S1471-4922(21)00233-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.008. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPlasmodium and other vector-borne pathogens have evolved mechanisms to hijack the mammalian fibrinolytic system to facilitate infection of the human host and the invertebrate vector. Plasmin, the effector protease of fibrinolysis, maintains homeostasis in the blood vasculature by degrading the fibrin that forms blood clots. Plasmin also degrades proteins from extracellular matrices, the complement system, and immunoglobulins. Here, we review some of the mechanisms by which vector-borne pathogens interact with c...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 15, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zarna Rajeshkumar Pala Medard Ernest Brendan Sweeney Yeong Je Jeong Tales Vicari Pascini Thiago Luiz Alves E Silva Joel Vega-Rodr íguez Source Type: research

Beyond cuts and scrapes: plasmin in malaria and other vector-borne diseases
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 11:S1471-4922(21)00233-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.008. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPlasmodium and other vector-borne pathogens have evolved mechanisms to hijack the mammalian fibrinolytic system to facilitate infection of the human host and the invertebrate vector. Plasmin, the effector protease of fibrinolysis, maintains homeostasis in the blood vasculature by degrading the fibrin that forms blood clots. Plasmin also degrades proteins from extracellular matrices, the complement system, and immunoglobulins. Here, we review some of the mechanisms by which vector-borne pathogens interact with c...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 15, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zarna Rajeshkumar Pala Medard Ernest Brendan Sweeney Yeong Je Jeong Tales Vicari Pascini Thiago Luiz Alves E Silva Joel Vega-Rodr íguez Source Type: research

Emerging roles of pathogen-secreted host mimics in plant disease development
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 6:S1471-4922(21)00232-4. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPlant pathogens and parasites use multiple virulence factors to successfully infect plants. While most plant-pathogen interaction studies focus on pathogen effectors and their functions in suppressing plant immunity or interfering with normal cellular processes, other virulence factors likely also contribute. Here we highlight another important strategy used by pathogens to promote virulence: secretion of mimics of host molecules, including peptides, phytohormones, and small RNAs, which play diverse roles in pla...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 10, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dousheng Wu Lifeng Wang Yong Zhang Lianyang Bai Feng Yu Source Type: research

Emerging roles of pathogen-secreted host mimics in plant disease development
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 6:S1471-4922(21)00232-4. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPlant pathogens and parasites use multiple virulence factors to successfully infect plants. While most plant-pathogen interaction studies focus on pathogen effectors and their functions in suppressing plant immunity or interfering with normal cellular processes, other virulence factors likely also contribute. Here we highlight another important strategy used by pathogens to promote virulence: secretion of mimics of host molecules, including peptides, phytohormones, and small RNAs, which play diverse roles in pla...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 10, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dousheng Wu Lifeng Wang Yong Zhang Lianyang Bai Feng Yu Source Type: research

Emerging roles of pathogen-secreted host mimics in plant disease development
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 6:S1471-4922(21)00232-4. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPlant pathogens and parasites use multiple virulence factors to successfully infect plants. While most plant-pathogen interaction studies focus on pathogen effectors and their functions in suppressing plant immunity or interfering with normal cellular processes, other virulence factors likely also contribute. Here we highlight another important strategy used by pathogens to promote virulence: secretion of mimics of host molecules, including peptides, phytohormones, and small RNAs, which play diverse roles in pla...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 10, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dousheng Wu Lifeng Wang Yong Zhang Lianyang Bai Feng Yu Source Type: research

Emerging roles of pathogen-secreted host mimics in plant disease development
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 6:S1471-4922(21)00232-4. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPlant pathogens and parasites use multiple virulence factors to successfully infect plants. While most plant-pathogen interaction studies focus on pathogen effectors and their functions in suppressing plant immunity or interfering with normal cellular processes, other virulence factors likely also contribute. Here we highlight another important strategy used by pathogens to promote virulence: secretion of mimics of host molecules, including peptides, phytohormones, and small RNAs, which play diverse roles in pla...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 10, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dousheng Wu Lifeng Wang Yong Zhang Lianyang Bai Feng Yu Source Type: research

Molecular surveillance of malaria scales up
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 5:S1471-4922(21)00235-X. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTParasite and vector genetic data can guide malaria control, and technological advances are enabling more informative genetic data generation at unprecedented scales. Jacob et al. employ multiplexed amplicon sequencing to profile parasite genetic diversity from thousands of malaria samples, illuminating spatiotemporal patterns of drug resistance to inform regional drug policy change.PMID:34625343 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.010 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 9, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Philipp Schwabl Daniel E Neafsey Source Type: research

Molecular surveillance of malaria scales up
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 5:S1471-4922(21)00235-X. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTParasite and vector genetic data can guide malaria control, and technological advances are enabling more informative genetic data generation at unprecedented scales. Jacob et al. employ multiplexed amplicon sequencing to profile parasite genetic diversity from thousands of malaria samples, illuminating spatiotemporal patterns of drug resistance to inform regional drug policy change.PMID:34625343 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.010 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 9, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Philipp Schwabl Daniel E Neafsey Source Type: research

Progress and challenges in virus genomic epidemiology
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 4:S1471-4922(21)00205-1. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGenomic epidemiology, which links pathogen genomes with associated metadata to understand disease transmission, has become a key component of outbreak response. Decreasing costs of genome sequencing and increasing computational power provide opportunities to generate and analyse large viral genomic datasets that aim to uncover the spatial scales of transmission, the demographics contributing to transmission patterns, and to forecast epidemic trends. Emerging sources of genomic data and associated metadata provid...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 8, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Verity Hill Christopher Ruis Sumali Bajaj Oliver G Pybus Moritz U G Kraemer Source Type: research

Progress and challenges in virus genomic epidemiology
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Oct 4:S1471-4922(21)00205-1. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGenomic epidemiology, which links pathogen genomes with associated metadata to understand disease transmission, has become a key component of outbreak response. Decreasing costs of genome sequencing and increasing computational power provide opportunities to generate and analyse large viral genomic datasets that aim to uncover the spatial scales of transmission, the demographics contributing to transmission patterns, and to forecast epidemic trends. Emerging sources of genomic data and associated metadata provid...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 8, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Verity Hill Christopher Ruis Sumali Bajaj Oliver G Pybus Moritz U G Kraemer Source Type: research

The rise of big data in disease ecology
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 30:S1471-4922(21)00228-2. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.003. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBig data have become readily available to explore patterns in large-scale disease ecology. However, the rate at which these public databases are exploited remains unknown. We highlight trends in big data usage in disease ecology during the past decade and encourage researchers to integrate big data into their study framework.PMID:34602364 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.003 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 4, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jean-Fran çois Doherty Xuhong Chai Laurie E Cope Daniela de Angeli Dutra Marin Milotic Steven Ni Eunji Park Antoine Filion Source Type: research

The rise of big data in disease ecology
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 30:S1471-4922(21)00228-2. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.003. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBig data have become readily available to explore patterns in large-scale disease ecology. However, the rate at which these public databases are exploited remains unknown. We highlight trends in big data usage in disease ecology during the past decade and encourage researchers to integrate big data into their study framework.PMID:34602364 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.003 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 4, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jean-Fran çois Doherty Xuhong Chai Laurie E Cope Daniela de Angeli Dutra Marin Milotic Steven Ni Eunji Park Antoine Filion Source Type: research

The rise of big data in disease ecology
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 30:S1471-4922(21)00228-2. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.003. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBig data have become readily available to explore patterns in large-scale disease ecology. However, the rate at which these public databases are exploited remains unknown. We highlight trends in big data usage in disease ecology during the past decade and encourage researchers to integrate big data into their study framework.PMID:34602364 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.003 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 4, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jean-Fran çois Doherty Xuhong Chai Laurie E Cope Daniela de Angeli Dutra Marin Milotic Steven Ni Eunji Park Antoine Filion Source Type: research

Ligula intestinalis
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 29:S1471-4922(21)00230-0. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.005. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34600836 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.005 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 3, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jorge S Guti érrez Dave Hoole Source Type: research

Ligula intestinalis
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 29:S1471-4922(21)00230-0. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.005. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34600836 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.005 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 3, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jorge S Guti érrez Dave Hoole Source Type: research

Parasite protein pirates host cytoskeletal modulator during invasion
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 28:S1471-4922(21)00229-4. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHost cytoskeletal rearrangements are an essential yet poorly understood component of Cryptosporidium invasion. Guérin et al. demonstrate that actin rearrangements occur immediately during adherence and capture a unique mechanism of invasion using live-cell imaging. The authors identify a parasite-secreted effector, ROP1, recruited by a host protein, LMO7, involved in pathogenesis.PMID:34598896 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.004 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 2, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sayo McCowin Chelsea Marie William A Petri Source Type: research

Parasite protein pirates host cytoskeletal modulator during invasion
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 28:S1471-4922(21)00229-4. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.004. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHost cytoskeletal rearrangements are an essential yet poorly understood component of Cryptosporidium invasion. Guérin et al. demonstrate that actin rearrangements occur immediately during adherence and capture a unique mechanism of invasion using live-cell imaging. The authors identify a parasite-secreted effector, ROP1, recruited by a host protein, LMO7, involved in pathogenesis.PMID:34598896 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.004 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - October 2, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sayo McCowin Chelsea Marie William A Petri Source Type: research

Commandeering the mammalian Ago2 miRNA network: a newly discovered mechanism of helminth immunomodulation
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 25:S1471-4922(21)00225-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that contribute to a broad range of biological processes through post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Helminths exploit this system to target mammalian gene expression, to modulate the host immune response. Recent discoveries have shed new light on the mechanisms involved.PMID:34583903 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.001 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 29, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sheila Donnelly Nham Tran Source Type: research

Commandeering the mammalian Ago2 miRNA network: a newly discovered mechanism of helminth immunomodulation
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 25:S1471-4922(21)00225-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that contribute to a broad range of biological processes through post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Helminths exploit this system to target mammalian gene expression, to modulate the host immune response. Recent discoveries have shed new light on the mechanisms involved.PMID:34583903 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.001 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 29, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sheila Donnelly Nham Tran Source Type: research

Commandeering the mammalian Ago2 miRNA network: a newly discovered mechanism of helminth immunomodulation
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 25:S1471-4922(21)00225-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that contribute to a broad range of biological processes through post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Helminths exploit this system to target mammalian gene expression, to modulate the host immune response. Recent discoveries have shed new light on the mechanisms involved.PMID:34583903 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.001 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 29, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sheila Donnelly Nham Tran Source Type: research

Genome-scale RNAi screens in African trypanosomes
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 24:S1471-4922(21)00226-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGenome-scale genetic screens allow researchers to rapidly identify the genes and proteins that impact a particular phenotype of interest. In African trypanosomes, RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown screens have revealed mechanisms underpinning drug resistance, drug transport, prodrug metabolism, quorum sensing, genome replication, and gene expression control. RNAi screening has also been remarkably effective at highlighting promising potential antitrypanosomal drug targets. The first ever RNAi library screen was...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 28, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: David Horn Source Type: research

Genome-scale RNAi screens in African trypanosomes
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 24:S1471-4922(21)00226-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.09.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGenome-scale genetic screens allow researchers to rapidly identify the genes and proteins that impact a particular phenotype of interest. In African trypanosomes, RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown screens have revealed mechanisms underpinning drug resistance, drug transport, prodrug metabolism, quorum sensing, genome replication, and gene expression control. RNAi screening has also been remarkably effective at highlighting promising potential antitrypanosomal drug targets. The first ever RNAi library screen was...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 28, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: David Horn Source Type: research

Drug-induced hypersensitivity to artemisinin-based therapies for malaria
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 21:S1471-4922(21)00224-5. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.011. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn the early 2000s, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was introduced as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in virtually all endemic countries. However, despite the well-known excellent tolerability of ACTs, hypersensitivity to artemisinin derivatives remains a repeatedly documented adverse drug reaction of still unknown frequency. The clinical features of an artemisinin-induced hypersensitivity reaction range from mild to life-threatening severity, and a significant n...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 25, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tamara Nordmann Steffen Borrmann Michael Ramharter Source Type: research

Drug-induced hypersensitivity to artemisinin-based therapies for malaria
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 21:S1471-4922(21)00224-5. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.011. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn the early 2000s, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was introduced as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in virtually all endemic countries. However, despite the well-known excellent tolerability of ACTs, hypersensitivity to artemisinin derivatives remains a repeatedly documented adverse drug reaction of still unknown frequency. The clinical features of an artemisinin-induced hypersensitivity reaction range from mild to life-threatening severity, and a significant n...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 25, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tamara Nordmann Steffen Borrmann Michael Ramharter Source Type: research

Drug-induced hypersensitivity to artemisinin-based therapies for malaria
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 21:S1471-4922(21)00224-5. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.011. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn the early 2000s, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was introduced as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in virtually all endemic countries. However, despite the well-known excellent tolerability of ACTs, hypersensitivity to artemisinin derivatives remains a repeatedly documented adverse drug reaction of still unknown frequency. The clinical features of an artemisinin-induced hypersensitivity reaction range from mild to life-threatening severity, and a significant n...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 25, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tamara Nordmann Steffen Borrmann Michael Ramharter Source Type: research

Plasmodium development in Anopheles: a tale of shared resources
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 18:S1471-4922(21)00207-5. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInteractions between the Anopheles mosquito vector and Plasmodium parasites shape how malaria is transmitted in endemic regions. The long association of these two organisms has led to evolutionary processes that minimize fitness costs of infection and benefit both players through shared nutrient resources, parasite immune suppression, and mosquito tolerance to infection. In this review we explore recent data describing how Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite, associates with one of its most im...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 22, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: W Robert Shaw Perrine Marcenac Flaminia Catteruccia Source Type: research

Skin bacterial volatiles: propelling the future of vector control
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 18:S1471-4922(21)00208-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe skin microbiota plays an essential role in the protection against pathogens. It is our skin microbiota that makes us smell different from each other, rendering us more or less attractive to mosquitoes. Mosquitoes exploit skin bacterial odours to locate their hosts and are vectors of pathogens that can cause severe diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. A novel solution for long-lasting protection against insect vectors of disease could be attained by manipulating the bacterial commensals on human skin. ...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 22, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dani Lucas-Barbosa Matthew DeGennaro Alexander Mathis Niels O Verhulst Source Type: research

Plasmodium development in Anopheles: a tale of shared resources
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 18:S1471-4922(21)00207-5. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInteractions between the Anopheles mosquito vector and Plasmodium parasites shape how malaria is transmitted in endemic regions. The long association of these two organisms has led to evolutionary processes that minimize fitness costs of infection and benefit both players through shared nutrient resources, parasite immune suppression, and mosquito tolerance to infection. In this review we explore recent data describing how Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite, associates with one of its most im...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 22, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: W Robert Shaw Perrine Marcenac Flaminia Catteruccia Source Type: research

Skin bacterial volatiles: propelling the future of vector control
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 18:S1471-4922(21)00208-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe skin microbiota plays an essential role in the protection against pathogens. It is our skin microbiota that makes us smell different from each other, rendering us more or less attractive to mosquitoes. Mosquitoes exploit skin bacterial odours to locate their hosts and are vectors of pathogens that can cause severe diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. A novel solution for long-lasting protection against insect vectors of disease could be attained by manipulating the bacterial commensals on human skin. ...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 22, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dani Lucas-Barbosa Matthew DeGennaro Alexander Mathis Niels O Verhulst Source Type: research

Plasmodium development in Anopheles: a tale of shared resources
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 18:S1471-4922(21)00207-5. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInteractions between the Anopheles mosquito vector and Plasmodium parasites shape how malaria is transmitted in endemic regions. The long association of these two organisms has led to evolutionary processes that minimize fitness costs of infection and benefit both players through shared nutrient resources, parasite immune suppression, and mosquito tolerance to infection. In this review we explore recent data describing how Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite, associates with one of its most im...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 22, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: W Robert Shaw Perrine Marcenac Flaminia Catteruccia Source Type: research

Skin bacterial volatiles: propelling the future of vector control
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 18:S1471-4922(21)00208-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe skin microbiota plays an essential role in the protection against pathogens. It is our skin microbiota that makes us smell different from each other, rendering us more or less attractive to mosquitoes. Mosquitoes exploit skin bacterial odours to locate their hosts and are vectors of pathogens that can cause severe diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. A novel solution for long-lasting protection against insect vectors of disease could be attained by manipulating the bacterial commensals on human skin. ...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 22, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dani Lucas-Barbosa Matthew DeGennaro Alexander Mathis Niels O Verhulst Source Type: research

The ecology of zoonotic parasites in the Carnivora
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 17:S1471-4922(21)00204-X. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe order Carnivora includes over 300 species that vary many orders of magnitude in size and inhabit all major biomes, from tropical rainforests to polar seas. The high diversity of carnivore parasites represents a source of potential emerging diseases of humans. Zoonotic risk from this group may be driven in part by exceptionally high functional diversity of host species in behavioral, physiological, and ecological traits. We review global macroecological patterns of zoonotic parasites within carnivores, and e...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 21, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Barbara A Han Adrian A Castellanos John Paul Schmidt Ilya R Fischhoff John M Drake Source Type: research

Hatching of parasitic nematode eggs: a crucial step determining infection
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 16:S1471-4922(21)00206-3. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.008. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAlthough hatching from eggs is fundamental for nematode biology it remains poorly understood. For animal-parasitic nematodes in particular, advancement has been slow since the 1980s. Understanding such a crucial life-cycle process would greatly improve the tractability of parasitic nematodes as experimental systems, advance fundamental knowledge, and enable translational research. Here, we review the role of eggs in the nematode life cycle and the current knowledge on the hatching cascade, including the differe...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 20, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tapoka T Mkandawire Richard K Grencis Matthew Berriman Mar ía A Duque-Correa Source Type: research

Hatching of parasitic nematode eggs: a crucial step determining infection
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 16:S1471-4922(21)00206-3. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.008. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAlthough hatching from eggs is fundamental for nematode biology it remains poorly understood. For animal-parasitic nematodes in particular, advancement has been slow since the 1980s. Understanding such a crucial life-cycle process would greatly improve the tractability of parasitic nematodes as experimental systems, advance fundamental knowledge, and enable translational research. Here, we review the role of eggs in the nematode life cycle and the current knowledge on the hatching cascade, including the differe...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 20, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tapoka T Mkandawire Richard K Grencis Matthew Berriman Mar ía A Duque-Correa Source Type: research

Ongoing host-shift speciation in Plasmodium simium
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 14:S1471-4922(21)00203-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.005. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPlasmodium simium, a malaria parasite that infects platyrrhine monkeys and humans in the New World, is nearly identical to Plasmodium vivax. Recent genomic comparative analyses of these sister species have identified elevated divergence in a gene that may underlie P. simium adaptation to non-human primates during its gradual speciation process.PMID:34535396 | DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2021.08.005 (Source: Trends in Parasitology)
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 18, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tha ís C de Oliveira Priscila T Rodrigues Ana Maria R C Duarte Lu ísa D P Rona Marcelo U Ferreira Source Type: research

Understanding and interpreting mosquito blood feeding studies: the case of Aedes albopictus
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 6:S1471-4922(21)00178-1. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.07.013. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBlood feeding is a fundamental mosquito behavior with consequences for pathogen transmission and control. Feeding behavior can be studied through two lenses - patterns and preference. Feeding patterns are assessed via blood meal analyses, reflecting mosquito-host associations influenced by environmental and biological parameters. Bias can profoundly impact results, and we provide recommendations for mitigating these effects. We also outline design choices for host preference research, which can take many forms, ...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 9, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kara Fikrig Laura C Harrington Source Type: research

Understanding and interpreting mosquito blood feeding studies: the case of Aedes albopictus
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 6:S1471-4922(21)00178-1. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.07.013. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBlood feeding is a fundamental mosquito behavior with consequences for pathogen transmission and control. Feeding behavior can be studied through two lenses - patterns and preference. Feeding patterns are assessed via blood meal analyses, reflecting mosquito-host associations influenced by environmental and biological parameters. Bias can profoundly impact results, and we provide recommendations for mitigating these effects. We also outline design choices for host preference research, which can take many forms, ...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 9, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kara Fikrig Laura C Harrington Source Type: research

Understanding and interpreting mosquito blood feeding studies: the case of Aedes albopictus
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Sep 6:S1471-4922(21)00178-1. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2021.07.013. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBlood feeding is a fundamental mosquito behavior with consequences for pathogen transmission and control. Feeding behavior can be studied through two lenses - patterns and preference. Feeding patterns are assessed via blood meal analyses, reflecting mosquito-host associations influenced by environmental and biological parameters. Bias can profoundly impact results, and we provide recommendations for mitigating these effects. We also outline design choices for host preference research, which can take many forms, ...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 9, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kara Fikrig Laura C Harrington Source Type: research