Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Diffuse chorioretinopathy without serous detachment associated with cardiac transplantation
Conclusion: Serous retinopathy is well known after organ transplantations, but this patient had retinal pigment epithelium and retinal damage well into the periphery and no leakage. Retinal dystrophy was deemed unlikely given the relatively good electroretinography. The indocyanine green vascular changes raise the possibility of a transient choroidal ischemic event during or shortly after cardiac surgery. The event altered retinal pigment epithelium diffusely, but allowed for enough regeneration to sustain retinal function. Diffuse transplant chorioretinopathy may be discovered if postcardiac transplant patients get peri...
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Intravitreal aflibercept in the treatment of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy associated with morning glory syndrome
Conclusion: Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy can occur in morning glory syndrome and it can be successfully treated with anti–vascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal injections of aflibercept. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Paracentral acute middle maculopathy in purtscher retinopathy
Conclusion: Paracentral acute middle maculopathy is one of the optical coherence tomography findings in Purtscher retinopathy. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Ophthalmic artery occlusion after forehead autologous fat injection
Conclusion: Physicians performing cosmetic facial surgery involving autologous fat injection need to be aware of this potential risk and should inform the patient before the surgery. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Tamoxifen retinopathy during treatment of an inoperable desmoid tumor
Conclusion: The development of tamoxifen retinopathy in the treatment of a desmoid tumor makes this case a rare entity, and this is the first reported case of these two concomitant conditions to our knowledge. With the use of long-term tamoxifen as a primary treatment, we recommend screening at regular intervals by an ophthalmologist as an integral part of treatment. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Long-term observation of multifocal metastatic intraocular carcinoid with acquired iris heterochromia
Conclusion: We conclude, in cases of metastatic carcinoid in which visual acuity is excellent and the patient is asymptomatic, that observation of the ocular lesions is an acceptable course of action. The iris heterochromia is believed to have been caused by secretory factors produced by the tumor. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Bilateral uveal metastases secondary to prostate adenocarcinoma
Conclusion: Uveal metastases can be the first site of systemic metastasis even long after initial diagnosis and treatment of prostate adenocarcinoma; the 17 years between this patient's treatment for adenocarcinoma and commencement of his ocular symptoms is the longest interval reported. Hormonal therapy, in conjunction with radiation therapy, can successfully reduce tumor burden in these patients and improve visual symptoms over time. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Reopening of macular hole after intravitreal aflibercept for neovascular age-related macular degeneration
Conclusion: In wet AMD eyes with previously closed macular holes, hole reopening may occur as a rare complication of aflibercept therapy. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Severe immune-mediated thrombocytopenia after intravitreal bevacizumab injection
Conclusion: The case presented shows apparent severe immune-mediated thrombocytopenia after intravitreal bevacizumab administration. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Long-term multimodal imaging of ocular findings associated with thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia
Conclusion: Ocular manifestations in thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia are uncommon and variable. In this case, multimodal imaging and electroretinogram findings are consistent with cone–rod degeneration. The patient is taking daily thiamine supplementation, and visual acuity, funduscopic examination, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and autofluorescence remained stable over a 5-year period. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Macular hole formation after pars plana vitrectomy for primary vitreoretinal lymphoma
Conclusion: Macular hole closure can be accomplished in eyes receiving intravitreal methotrexate injections for treating primary vitreoretinal lymphoma. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Cuticular drusen in an indigenous australian
Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published report of cuticular drusen in an indigenous Australian. We hypothesize that this may be secondary to ancestral mixing of the gene pool. An unusual staining pattern witnessed on indocyanine green angiography suggests widespread disturbance of lipoprotein deposition in the Bruch membrane. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Cat scratch disease imitating a toxocara granuloma of the optic disk
Conclusions: Young patients presenting with leukocoria need a full work up, which includes ruling out retinoblastoma. CSD can present as a granulomatous mass similar to toxocariasis, which can rarely lead to debilitating and irreversible vision loss. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Nonhereditary idiopathic foveal retinoschisis associated with new-onset proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Conclusion: This is the first reported case of idiopathic acquired macular schisis with new-onset nontractional proliferative diabetic retinopathy in the same eye. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Acute frosted retinal periphlebitis in a patient with mediterranean fever
Conclusion: This case demonstrates a possible association between unilateral frosted branch periphlebitis and familial Mediterranean fever. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Macular burn during an attempted yag laser capsulotomy by inadvertent use of selective laser trabeculoplasty mode of a dual-mode laser
Conclusion: Inadvertent selection of the selective laser trabeculoplasty mode when attempting to perform a YAG laser capsulotomy with a dual-mode laser may cause a macular burn with impairment of central vision. We encourage all users of dual-mode lasers to actively choose and verify the appropriate settings to minimize the risk of inadvertent retinal damage. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Paracentral acute middle maculopathy in pregnancy
Conclusion: Paracentral acute middle maculopathy lesions have been described in eyes with retinal vascular disease and in people with systemic vascular diseases or events. This is the first described case of a PAMM lesion in the absence of associated factors other than an uncomplicated pregnancy. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Choriocapillaris flow voids in cryptococcal choroiditis using optical coherence tomography angiography
Conclusion: This case illustrates that optical coherence tomography angiography was useful in demonstrating that the cryptococcal choroidal lesions impaired choriocapillaris perfusion but spared the superficial and deep retinal plexuses. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Dislodgement of fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant into the infusion cannula during vitrectomy for retinal detachment
Conclusion: Increasing the intraocular pressure and performing fluid–air exchange were not sufficient to eject the implant probably because of the strong surface adherence between the infusion cannula and the implant's coating material. We, therefore, recommend removing and flushing the infusion cannula if the implant cannot be localized in the eye. In addition, clinicians should be aware that a fluctuating intraocular pressure might be the first sign of a partially blocked infusion cannula by the implant. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Invisible, honeycomb-like, cavitary retinal astrocytic hamartoma
Conclusion: Multimodal imaging is important in revealing causes of visual loss and in the detection of subclinical fundus tumors. In this case, clinically invisible RAHs were detected only by OCT and surrounding vascular flow by OCTA. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Diffuse retinal vascular leakage and cone–rod dystrophy in a family with the homozygous missense c.1429g>a (p.gly477arg) mutation in crb1
Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, diffuse vascular leakage without telangiectasia or exudation, with bull's eye maculopathy, has not been reported previously in CRB1-cone rod dystrophy. This expands the phenotype complexity associated with CRB1 mutations and confirms that dystrophies associated with mutations in this gene may appear with features of uveitis. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Safety of consecutive same-day bilateral intravitreal dexamethasone implant (ozurdex)
Conclusion: Consecutive same-day bilateral intravitreal dexamethasone (Ozurdex) is safe and well tolerated. There were no significant complications, and patients preferred continuing bilateral implantation after their initial trial. Same-day treatment may optimize efficiency and decrease patient visits and ultimate treatment burden without compromising patient safety or clinical efficacy. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Popper maculopathy: long-term follow-up and case series
Conclusion: Popper maculopathy may show complete resolution of signs on long-term follow-up, even after chronic popper ingestion. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Clostridium perfringens panophthalmitis after intravitreal anti–vascular endothelial growth factor injection
Conclusion: Reporting rare causes and common clinical findings of C. perfringens ocular infection may lead to earlier detection and intervention. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Citrobacter endogenous endophthalmitis: a case report and review of the literature
Conclusion: Cases of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Citrobacter are very limited, and a review of all published cases in the English literature and the present case revealed that endogenous Citrobacter endophthalmitis arose almost entirely from Citrobacter renal infection. Early recognition and drainage of renal abscess may lower the chance of uncontrolled infection and endogenous spread to the eyes. Despite prompt and intensive treatment, the clinical outcome of Citrobacter endogenous endophthalmitis seems to be poor. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Capnocytophaga canimorsus endophthalmitis after cataract surgery linked to salivary dog-to-human transmission
Conclusion: Although very rare, this complication suggests that patients undergoing ocular surgery should avoid contact with salivary secretions of pets during the early postoperative period. Diagnostic broad-range bacterial polymerase chain reaction is useful to detect unconventional or slow-growing agents in vitreous samples. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Novel case of clostridium perfringens endophthalmitis after anti–vascular endothelial growth factor injection
Conclusion: This case describes a unique and virulent pathogen leading to globe loss after an anti–vascular endothelial growth factor injection. C. perfringens, naturally living in feces or soil, is more commonly associated with dirty traumatic open-globe injuries. However, it is an important pathogen to consider when there is rapid destruction of eye structures associated with endophthalmitis. Based on a root cause analysis of this case, our department has introduced patient information leaflets on hand hygiene to educate patients having intraocular injections. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Inducible transient central retinal artery vasospasm: a case report
Conclusion: Idiopathic primary vasospasm is a rare cause of transient vision loss that is difficult to confirm because of the transient nature. We obtained imaging showing the initiation and resolution of the vasospastic event. The patient was then successfully treated with a calcium-channel blocker. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Opacification of scleral-sutured akreos ao60 intraocular lens after vitrectomy with gas tamponade: case series
Conclusion: Although still an excellent option for the management of surgical aphakia in the absence of capsular support, caution should be taken when using a hydrophilic secondary intraocular lens, such as Akreos AO60, during vitreoretinal surgery if gas is required. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Spontaneous improvement of syphilis chorioretinitis: case report and review of the literature
Conclusion: Spontaneous improvement of syphilis chorioretinitis is possible. Clinicians should keep a high index of suspicion and consider syphilis chorioretinitis in diseases that affect the outer retina even with spontaneous improvement. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Vitreous treponemal antibody as a supplementary test to serology for the confirmation of syphilitic chorioretinitis
Conclusion: Intraocular fluid analysis of nontreponemal and treponemal antibody may play an important role in ruling out suspected ocular syphilis in settings without a polymerase chain reaction facility, especially immunocompromised patients who are at risk of multiple infections. Further studies are needed to establish the sensitivity and specificity of nontreponemal and treponemal antibody test on vitreous samples. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Paracentral acute middle maculopathy in primary congenital glaucoma
Conclusion: This is the first case of primary congenital glaucoma associated with paracentral acute middle maculopathy in the literature, and primary congenital glaucoma might be a predisposing factor. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Paracentral acute middle maculopathy associated with bilateral optic disk swelling and meningitis
Conclusion: This case demonstrates a novel association between paracentral acute middle maculopathy and bilateral optic disk swelling secondary to central nervous system inflammation and possible infection. Although spectral domain optical coherence tomography is valuable in detecting paracentral acute middle maculopathy, optical coherence tomography angiography with vessel analysis can provide additional insight into the disease mechanism. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Paracentral acute middle maculopathy in susac syndrome
Conclusion: Paracentral acute middle maculopathy can occur in association with Susac syndrome. Susac syndrome may present only with multifocal retinal ischemia, and such patients with paracentral acute middle maculopathy should be checked for characteristic magnetic resonance imaging lesions and hearing loss. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Acquired vitelliform lesions that respond to immune suppression in a patient with sarcoidosis
Conclusion: Patients with ocular sarcoidosis can rarely develop vitelliform lesions. Our patient responded to systemic immune suppression. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Intravitreal injection of air for the treatment of vitreomacular traction
Conclusion: Intravitreal injection of air could offer a minimally invasive, low-cost alternative treatment in patients with symptomatic, persisting vitreomacular traction. Additional studies on a larger number of patients are required. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Novel surgical technique for inducing posterior vitreous detachment during pars plana vitrectomy for pediatric patients using a flexible loop
Conclusion: Posterior vitreous detachment induction with a flexible loop instead of pharmacologic vitreolysis seems a promising tool as demonstrated in this clinical case. Further studies to demonstrate long-term safety and anatomical results are needed. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

An elderly patient with acute transient outer retinal disruption resembling bilateral multiple evanescent white dot syndrome
Conclusion: Our case demonstrates multimodal retinal imaging findings resembling multiple evanescent white dot syndrome in an elderly patient. The bilateral presentation, presence of subretinal deposits before symptom onset, and older age of the patient were atypical features for this entity. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

A case of retinal metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with histopathologic confirmation by vitrectomy-assisted en block extraction
Conclusion: We must keep in mind that retinal metastasis can be one of the differential diagnoses for white retinal lesions of unknown cause. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Immune retinopathy associated with nivolumab administration for metastatic non–small cell lung cancer
Conclusion: The checkpoint inhibitors, including nivolumab, have significant ocular side effects. All patients receiving nivolumab should undergo a baseline comprehensive eye examination and should be counseled to seek medical attention immediately if visual changes occur. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Therapeutic vitrectomy as an adjunct treatment to systemic chemotherapy for intraocular lymphoma
Conclusion: Therapeutic vitrectomy may be a useful adjunct to systemic chemotherapy in vitreoretinal lymphoma, particularly in cases of vitreous predominant disease manifestation. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin plus intravitreal bevacizumab for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma: 4 years of follow-up
Conclusion: Combination therapy was associated with a rapid and persistent resolution of subretinal fluid, improvement of best-corrected visual acuity, and visual stability at 4 years of follow-up. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Closure of small macular holes using vitrectomy surgery with internal limiting membrane peeling without the use of intraocular gas tamponade: broadening the understanding of the macular hole pathophysiology
Purpose: To determine whether small macular hole closure can be achieved with 25-G vitrectomy surgery with internal limiting membrane peeling without the use of intraocular gas tamponade or facedown positioning. Methods: 25-G vitrectomy surgery with internal limiting membrane peeling without the use of intraocular gas tamponade or positioning was performed on 20 eyes with a small ( (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

How Much Surgery Is Enough? What Is Necessary to Repair a Macular Hole?
No abstract available (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Retinal cases & brief reports 2019 scientific reviewers
No abstract available (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - December 18, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Reviewers Source Type: research

A case of neurofibromatosis type 2 with unusual clinical features
Conclusion: A case of neurofibromatosis Type 2 with some possibly novel or rare findings, namely, focal choroidal excavation, ash leaf spots, and intracranial calcifications was presented. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - December 18, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Simultaneous choroidal and retinal metastases from lung carcinoma
Conclusion: The final diagnosis was presumed choroidal metastasis in the right eye and retinal metastasis in the left eye from underlying mucinous carcinoma of the lung. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - December 18, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

A novel large homozygous deletion in the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein gene (rlbp1) in a patient with retinitis punctata albescens
Conclusion: We describe a novel large homozygous deletion in the RLBP1 gene encoding the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein in a patient of Iranian descent with retinitis punctata albescens. Genotype–phenotype studies may provide more information about the functions of the RLBP1 encoding proteins and the disease course, because RLBP1 mutations are associated with high phenotypic variability and are therefore a necessity for future tailored individual therapies. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - December 18, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Artefactually dampened flash stimulus visual evoked responses in a silicone oil–filled eye
Conclusion: Intraocular silicone oil could be responsible for this false delay in the latency and reduction in flash stimulus visual evoked response amplitudes. Assessment of flash stimulus visual evoked responses in the presence of silicone oil after vitreoretinal surgery may produce unreliable responses. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - December 18, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research