Allergic reaction upon intravitreal administration of anti–vascular endothelial growth factor agents
Conclusion: Bevacizumab and ranibizumab are derivatives of murine monoclonal antibodies, whereas pegaptanib is an aptamer and aflibercept is a fusion protein of human origin. These chemical origins may allow patients to receive pegaptanib or aflibercept despite having allergy to bevacizumab or ranibizumab. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Igg4-related ophthalmic disease presenting as choroidal and orbital lesions
Conclusion: IgG4-related disease is a systemic fibroinflammatory disease, which often presents in another location, as in our patient. In cases of uncertain choroidal and orbital lesions, a thorough workup for other etiologies is indicated, and lymphoma must be ruled out. Steroids are the mainstay of treatment for IgG4-ROD, however, small case series and our patient responded well to rituximab. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of choroidal and orbital lesions secondary to IgG4-ROD. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Retinal phenotype in a case of lchad/tfp deficiency with late-stage diagnosis
Conclusion: We report the retinal phenotype of a patient with LCHAD/TFP deficiency diagnosed later in life. To date, this is the oldest patient reported with LCHAD/TFP–associated retinopathy. Macular retinoschisis may represent a feature of the end-stage retinopathy due to the progressive myopia. The diagnosis of LCHAD/TFP deficiency should be considered in adult patients with a history rhabdomyolysis, neuropathy, and retinopathy, as they would not have undergone routine newborn screening before the late 90s. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Re-intervention in de novo vitreous opacities after pars plana vitrectomy in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy ttr val30metportuguese patients
Conclusion: De novo vitreous amyloid opacities may occur several years after pars plana vitrectomy. Amyloid deposition in vitreous cavity was observed only in strong vitreous adherence locations (behind posterior lens capsule and at vitreous base area). The authors expect that this procedure, an extensive re-vitrectomy associated with posterior capsulectomy, will prevent de novo vitreous amyloid opacities. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Ocular toxicity after inadvertent intracameral injection of high dose of cefuroxime during cataract surgery: a case series
Conclusion: Anterior and posterior inflammation has been described after intracameral injection of high dose of cefuroxime. In this study, 10 mg to 12.5 mg of intracameral cefuroxime is shown to be, principally, toxic to the retina with transient or permanent retinal changes on optical coherence tomography which correlate with visual outcomes postoperatively. Protocols to avoid dilution errors should be available in theaters during cataract surgery where such commercial preparations are not available. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Massive subretinal gas after vitrectomy surgery: mechanism and management
Conclusion: Subretinal gas can rarely occur after pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. This complication can be successfully managed by way of external drainage, followed by evacuation of residual gas through fluid–air exchange and posterior retinotomy. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Multimodal imaging in vortex vein varices
Conclusion: The diagnosis of vortex vein varices can be confirmed through clinical examination through the use of digital pressure to the globe during ophthalmoscopic examination. Adjunctive multimodal imaging (fundus color photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine angiography, and spectral-domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography) was useful in the diagnosis of vortex vein varices in the authors' clinical cases. However, in more challenging clinical cases, the authors' novel use of the ultra-widefield contact lens for application of oc...
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Contralateral vision loss after endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy: a case report of purtscher-like retinopathy and treatment with intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator
Conclusion: Purtscher- like retinopathy may occur as a complication of endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy. Intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator may help relieve the embolization that occurs in Purtscher-like retinopathy. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Ophthalmic findings in late stage sjogren–larsson syndrome
Discussion: In adults with Sjogren–Larsson Syndrome, crystalline retinopathy can progress to macular atrophy and the appearance of lipofuscin accumulation. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Macular macrovessels associated with self-limiting leakage in a young patient
Conclusion: Congenital retinal macrovessels can be complicated by macular edema. The high levels of hormones during pregnancy can affect the vessels' permeability and make this condition symptomatic through cystoid macular edema development. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Short-term outcomes of hybrid 23-, 25-, and 27-gauge vitrectomy for complex diabetic tractional retinal detachment repair
Conclusion: Concurrent use of the 27-gauge vitreous cutter with 23-gauge or 25-gauge instrumentation was effective during diabetic tractional retinal detachment repair. This hybrid technique was not associated with any significant intraoperative or short-term postoperative complications. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Two cases of acute retinal necrosis due to varicella zoster despite prior shingles vaccination
Discussion: These two cases demonstrate that singles vaccination is not an absolute protection against varicella zoster virus–related acute retinal necrosis. However, such vaccination may reduce the severity of the acute retinal necrosis. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Multimodality ocular imaging in a case report of hyperviscosity syndrome associated with lymphoplasmacytic leukemia: the images tell the story
Conclusion: Hyperviscosity syndrome is a rare circulation sequelae that occurs when blood is thickened secondary to an increase in immunoglobulins or a hyperproliferation of blood components as in bone marrow dyscrasias. The increase in viscosity is plainly observable in the retinal circulation, and this syndrome is often diagnosed based on visual symptoms and fundus examination. We report a patient with Waldenström macroglobulinemia who presented with multiple ocular manifestations of hyperviscosity syndrome despite the absence of visual complaints. Ophthalmologists should be aware that regardless of the lack of an...
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Circinate partition-like findings on cone mosaic imaged by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with inner nuclear layer microcystic changes
Conclusion: We report cases that manifest dark, partition-like areas in the cone mosaic on AO-SLO images. Microcystic lesions in the INL may affect the images of the cone mosaic. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Changes in the posterior vitreous after cataract surgery assessed by swept-source optical coherence tomography
Conclusion: The height of the posterior vitreous membrane remained unchanged after surgery, although the posterior precortical vitreous pocket was dilated in three patients. Cataract surgery procedures seem to have little influence on the posterior vitreous membrane. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Acute idiopathic maculopathy: 7-year follow-up with development of outer retinal tubulations
Conclusion: Patients with acute idiopathic maculopathy may develop outer retinal tubulations similar to other entities that cause disturbance of retinal pigment epithelium or photoreceptors. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Management of metastatic breast carcinoma of iris with intraocular bevacizumab injections
Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab can offer a simpler and safer solution to treat metastatic iris tumors compared with other treatment options. This report of bevacizumab for treating iris metastasis from breast carcinoma may broaden the treatment options for similar neoplasms of the iris. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Bilateral visual field defects in a patient treated with the mek and braf inhibitors trametinib and dabrafenib for melanoma of unknown origin
Discussion: In addition to the widely known class-related retinal toxicity, MEK and BRAF inhibitor-associated adverse events may also involve the optic nerve head, causing visual field defects probably regressing spontaneously after discontinuation of targeted oncologic therapy. In such cases, repeat brain imaging and exclusion of melanoma-associated retinopathy is recommended. Reinitiation of treatment and subsequent dose escalation seem to be feasible, but should be monitored by an ophthalmologist. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Serous retinopathy associated with cisplatin treatment
Conclusion: Commonly used to treat various solid tumors, cisplatin is not without significant neurologic, ocular, and retinal toxicities. Multimodal imaging may further the authors' understanding of toxicity and this case highlights the benefits of optical coherence tomography, especially with color vision deviation or visual acuity change. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome causing progressive optic nerve edema in cryptococcal meningitis
Conclusion: Recurrent optic disk edema with loss of vision after treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in the setting of normal intracranial pressure may represent a unique manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome localized to the optic nerve without uveitis. This is consistent with the temporal relationship between starting highly active antiretroviral therapy, CD4+ count recovery, and the development of progressive disk edema in the study patient. Isolated optic nerve inflammation as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has not been widely reported. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Choroidal melanoma, sector melanocytosis, and retinal pigment epithelial microdetachments in birt–hogg–dubÉ syndrome
Conclusion: The BHDS can be associated with tumors of the skin and kidney. In this case, we noted ocular melanocytosis, malignant choroidal melanoma, and bilateral pinpoint retinal pigment epithelial detachments. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Successful closure of full-thickness macular holes secondary to macular vitelliform lesions
Conclusion: Vitrectomy surgery with gas tamponade may successfully close full-thickness macular holes secondary to macular vitelliform lesions. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Multimodal imaging of acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy with optical coherence tomography angiography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy
Conclusion: Multimodal imaging is valuable in evaluating patients with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - May 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Florid neovascularization of the retina in a diabetic patient undergoing induction and consolidation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia
Conclusion: Acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with ATRA may result in upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in retinal tissues. Subsequent development of NVD may occur; however, this resolves well by cessation of ATRA and intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. We recommend that all patients undergoing treatment with ATRA for acute promyelocytic leukemia be monitored by an ophthalmologist. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Blind-sided by cosmetic vein sclerotherapy: a case of ophthalmic arterial occlusion
Conclusion: Widely regarded as safe, and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the only published ocular side effects of foam sclerotherapy are transient visual disturbances or temporary scotomas. This case demonstrates irreversible loss of vision as a previously unreported complication. While undoubtedly rare, we believe physicians and surgeons using sclerosant in the orbital adnexa, face, nose, and sinuses should be aware of this sight-threatening complication of injection and counsel potential patients accordingly. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Central retinal vein occlusion in gata2 deficiency
Conclusion: On review of the literature, we determined that GATA2 deficiency–related MDS was a possible cause of this patient's CRVO although it is likely that her multiple risk factors worked synergistically to create a prothrombotic state. This case and review of the literature serve as an important reminder of the long and ever-evolving list of risk factors for the development of CRVO. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Hidden information in color fundus photographs is revealed by the decorrelation stretching method
Conclusion: The decorrelation stretching method has the potential to reveal hidden information in a color fundus photograph. Decorrelation stretching can be a powerful tool in a clinical setting in which only color fundus photography is available. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Spontaneous suprachoroidal hemorrhage associated with iatrogenic coagulopathy
Conclusion: Spontaneous expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage is a rare entity. Advanced age, systemic anticoagulation, and hypertension are strong risk factors. It is important to monitor international normalization ratio in warfarinized patients; particularly, uncontrolled high levels may cause spontaneous suprachoroidal hemorrhage in the absence of predisposing ocular pathology. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Zika-related maculopathy
Conclusion: We describe a case of unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy–like disease in a patient with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction–confirmed Zika virus infection. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Double arcuate relaxing retinotomy for a large macular hole
Conclusion: In cases of large macular holes, double arcuate relaxing retinotomy can reduce traction, leading to hole closure. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Hormonal supplementation triggering choroidal neovascularization in healthy young females
Discussion: Hormonal supplementation for fertility therapy is a common procedure that may be associated with the development of choroidal neovascularization in healthy young females. Further studies should be performed to evaluate this association, but both ophthalmologist and gynecologist should be aware of this potential complication. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Clinical features in a case of occult macular dystrophy with rp1l1 mutation
Conclusion: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and multifocal electroretinography can serve as diagnostic testings for patients with OMD. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Clinical pathologic correlation of sarcoidosis-associated multifocal chorioretinitis in an elderly patient
Conclusion: This case emphasizes the differences in presentation of ocular sarcoid in older Caucasian women as well as the histopathologic findings in multifocal peripheral chorioretinitis associated with sarcoidosis. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Relentless placoid chorioretinitis: successful long-term treatment with intravitreal triamcinolone
Conclusion: Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide therapy represents an important alternative in the treatment of relentless placoid chorioretinitis. By avoiding the potentially significant side effects of long-term systemic corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapies, IVTA can be an important alternative in the long-term management of this uncommon and complicated entity. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Endogenous nocardia endophthalmitis presenting as a mass lesion in a patient with metatstatic nonsmall cell carcinoma of the lung
Conclusion: Nocardia endogenous endophthalmitis can present as a mass retinal lesion in immunosuppressed patients with metastatic disease. Early vitreous and retinal biopsy may be required for definitive diagnosis and treatment. A pulmonary source of infection should be suspected and monitored closely. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Retinal metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: a case presentation
Conclusion: The lesion showed remarkable regression with subsequent systemic chemotherapy. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis accompanied by contralateral peripheral retinoschisis
Conclusion: Although peripheral schisis of the outer plexiform layer is often concomitant with central splitting in X-linked juvenile retinoschisis, this is the first known report of nonhereditary cleavage of the outer plexiform layer of the peripheral retina without central affection in a patient with documented stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis on the other eye. These findings suggest an accurate bilateral examination of the peripheral retina while confirming the diagnose of stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Large silicone droplets after intravitreal bevacizumab (avastin)
Conclusion: Patients should be carefully evaluated for this possibility, and the characteristic symptom of a round floater consisting of a dark ring surrounding a bright center, and the prominent reverberation pattern on B-scan ultrasonography may help increase detection. Changes in consent forms and discussion of this possibility are indicated while investigation into the cause of this increased incidence continues, especially if one is administering bevacizumab via the one-piece insulin syringes commonly used by compound pharmacies. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Abnormal vascular complex within an idiopathic epiretinal membrane imaged by optical coherence tomography angiography
Conclusion: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography, routinely performed in these patients, may underestimate the presence of abnormal vascularization, as both preretinal neovascular complexes and thick ERMs appear as hyperreflective structures. Optical coherence tomography angiography allows a fast and depth-resolved visualization of these abnormal vascular complexes inside idiopathic ERMs. Diagnosis of a vascularized epiretinal structure could be noteworthy before decision of retinal surgery. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Presumed retinal pigment epithelium tumor originating from unilateral retinal pigment epithelium dysgenesis
Conclusion: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a presumed RPE tumor described as originating from unilateral RPE dysgenesis. Multimodal imaging was crucial for establishing the diagnosis and showing that the patient's visual symptoms were a product of the exudation produced by the tumor's invasion of the retina. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Resolution of foveal cyst after the release of vitreomacular attachment in eye with macular telangiectasia type 2
Conclusion: At least in some cases, vitreous traction or attachment may play a role in the morphologic changes seen in macular telangiectasia Type 2. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Identification of increased blue light reflectivity in macular telangiectasia type 2 using scanning laser ophthalmoscopy versus red-free fundus photography
Conclusion: Detection of the hyperreflective area might help to identify macular telangiectasia in earlier disease stages. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope blue light reflectance should be preferred as a diagnostic tool when the suspicion of macular telangiectasia arises. However, red-free imaging offers a viable option to scanning laser ophthalmoscope blue light reflectance when good quality is achieved. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Cystoid macular edema secondary to rituximab
Conclusion Rituximab has been previously associated with macular edema. Macular edema causing visual loss shortly after receiving rituximab may respond to discontinuation of the rituximab and local steroid injection. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Clinically invisible retinoblastoma recurrence in an infant
Conclusion: Precise submillimeter imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for monitoring retinoblastoma is important and can allow detection of early recurrences that might be clinically invisible otherwise, as well as surveillance of the fovea. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Acute exudative paraneoplastic polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy during vemurafenib and pembrolizumab treatment for metastatic melanoma
Conclusion: This case report suggests that acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy may be directly associated with the use of BRAF inhibitors as treatment for metastatic cutaneous melanoma, or indirectly by triggering autoimmune–paraneoplastic processes. Future identification of similar associations is required to unequivocally link vemurafenib and/or pembrolizumab to acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy in metastatic melanoma. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Accelerated onset of retinal toxicity from hydroxychloroquine use with concomitant breast cancer therapy
Conclusion: Concomitant breast cancer therapy may have a synergistic effect with HCQ leading to accelerated retinal toxicity. As such potential acceleration is poorly understood, patients on HCQ who are treated with concomitant chemotherapy should be considered for more frequent retinal screenings to maximize safety and preservation of vision. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Hydroxychloroquine During Cancer Therapy
No abstract available (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Retinal cases & brief reports 2018 scientific reviewers
No abstract available (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - December 22, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Reviewers Source Type: research

Choroidal blood vessels in retinal pigment epithelial atrophy using optical coherence tomography angiography
Conclusion: Choroidal blood vessels in the normal sections of RPE were visualized in black on standard en-face OCT and OCTA with an 840-nm light source; however, those in the atrophic parts were observed as white, or with bloodstream, on OCTA images. Choroidal blood vessels cannot be evaluated accurately in commercially available OCTA systems because of blockage of light by the RPE. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - December 22, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Good visual outcome in a bilateral multifocal syphilitic chorioretinitis, despite late diagnosis
Conclusion: The diagnosis of ocular syphilis is a challenge; however, once it has been made, even lately, it is eminently treatable. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - December 22, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research