Socioeconomic position and use of healthcare in the last year of life: A systematic review and meta-analysis
by Joanna M. Davies, Katherine E. Sleeman, Javiera Leniz, Rebecca Wilson, Irene J. Higginson, Julia Verne, Matthew Maddocks, Fliss E. M. Murtagh BackgroundLow socioeconomic position (SEP) is recognized as a risk factor for worse health outcomes. How socioeconomic factors influence end-of-life care, and the magnitude of their effect, is not understood. This review aimed to synthesise and quantify the associations between measures of SEP and use of healthcare in the last year of life. Methods and findingsMEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ASSIA databases were searched without language restrictions from inception to 1 Feb...
Source: PLoS Medicine - April 23, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Joanna M. Davies Source Type: research

Lay health supporters aided by mobile text messaging to improve adherence, symptoms, and functioning among people with schizophrenia in a resource-poor community in rural China (LEAN): A randomized controlled trial
ConclusionsThe addition of texting to patients and their lay health supporters in a resource-poor community setting was more effective than a free-medicine program alone in improving medication adherence and reducing relapses and re-hospitalizations. Future studies may test the effectiveness of customization of the texting to individual patients. Trial registrationChinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-ICR-15006053. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - April 23, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Dong (Roman) Xu Source Type: research

Host-response-based gene signatures for tuberculosis diagnosis: A systematic comparison of 16 signatures
ConclusionsWe found that host-response-based diagnostics could accurately identify patients with ATB and predict individuals with high risk of progression from LTBI to ATB prior to sputum conversion. We found that a higher number of genes in a signature did not increase the accuracy of the signature. Overall, the Sweeney3 signature performed robustly across all comparisons. Our results provide strong evidence for the potential of host-response-based diagnostics in achieving the WHO goal of ending tuberculosis by 2035, and host-response-based diagnostics should be pursued for clinical implementation. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - April 23, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Hayley Warsinske Source Type: research

Controlling latent TB tuberculosis infection in high-burden countries: A neglected strategy to end TB
by Gavin J. Churchyard, Sue Swindells In a Perspective, Gavin Churchyard and Sue Swindells discuss the importance of strategies to target latent tuberculosis infection in high risk populations and thus disrupt a reservoir for new infections in high burden countries. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - April 23, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Gavin J. Churchyard Source Type: research

Tuberculosis vaccines: Rising opportunities
by Johan Vekemans, Katherine L. O ’Brien, Jeremy Farrar Johan Vekemans, Katherine O'Brien, and Jeremy Farrar discuss recent breakthroughs in the search for a highly effective tuberculosis vaccine. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - April 23, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Johan Vekemans Source Type: research

Screening for breech presentation using universal late-pregnancy ultrasonography: A prospective cohort study and cost effectiveness analysis
ConclusionsAccording to our estimates, universal late pregnancy ultrasound in nulliparous women (1) would virtually eliminate undiagnosed breech presentation, (2) would be expected to reduce foetal mortality in breech presentation, and (3) would be cost effective if foetal presentation could be assessed for less than £19.80 per woman. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - April 16, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: David Wastlund Source Type: research

Discovery and validation of a prognostic proteomic signature for tuberculosis progression: A prospective cohort study
ConclusionsBoth proteomic TB risk signatures predicted progression to incident TB within a year of diagnosis. To our knowledge, these are the first validated prognostic proteomic signatures. Neither meet the minimum criteria as defined in the WHO Target Product Profile for a progression test. More work is required to develop such a test for practical identification of individuals for investigation of incipient, subclinical, or active TB disease for appropriate treatment and care. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - April 16, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Adam Penn-Nicholson Source Type: research

Effects of repeat prenatal corticosteroids given to women at risk of preterm birth: An individual participant data meta-analysis
ConclusionsIn this study, we found that repeat prenatal corticosteroids given to women at ongoing risk of preterm birth after an initial course reduced the likelihood of their infant needing respiratory support after birth and led to neonatal benefits. Body size measures at birth were lower in infants exposed to repeat prenatal corticosteroids. Our findings suggest that to provide clinical benefit with the least effect on growth, the number of repeat treatment courses should be limited to a maximum of three and the total dose to between 24 mg and 48 mg. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - April 12, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Caroline A. Crowther Source Type: research

Lipoarabinomannan in sputum to detect bacterial load and treatment response in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: Analytic validation and evaluation in two cohorts
In this report, we evaluated the ability of a novel immunoassay to measure concentrations of LAM in sputum as a biomarker of bacterial load prior to and during treatment in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. Methods and findingsPhage display technology was used to isolate monoclonal antibodies binding to epitopes unique in LAM from MTB and slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Using these antibodies, a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LAM-ELISA) was developed to quantitate LAM concentration. The LAM-ELISA had a lower limit of quantification of 15 pg/mL LAM, corresponding to 121 colony-forming units ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - April 12, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Masanori Kawasaki Source Type: research

The incidence of pregnancy hypertension in India, Pakistan, Mozambique, and Nigeria: A prospective population-level analysis
by Laura A. Magee, Sumedha Sharma, Hannah L. Nathan, Olalekan O. Adetoro, Mrutynjaya B. Bellad, Shivaprasad Goudar, Sal écio E. Macuacua, Ashalata Mallapur, Rahat Qureshi, Esperança Sevene, John Sotunsa, Anifa Valá, Tang Lee, Beth A. Payne, Marianne Vidler, Andrew H. Shennan, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Peter von Dadelszen, the CLIP Study Group BackgroundMost pregnancy hypertension estimates in less-developed countries are from cross-sectional hospital surveys and are considered overestimates. We estimated population-based rates by standardised methods in 27 intervention clusters of the Community-Level Interve...
Source: PLoS Medicine - April 12, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Laura A. Magee Source Type: research

Preferences for HIV testing services among men who have sex with men in the UK: A discrete choice experiment
ConclusionsOur results suggest that preferences in the context we examined are broadly dichotomous. One group, containing the majority of MSM, appears comfortable testing for HIV but prefers face-to-face testing by HCPs rather than remote testing. The other group is much smaller, but contains MSM who are more likely to be at high infection risk. For these people, the availability of remote testing has the potential to significantly increase net testing rates, particularly if provided for free. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - April 11, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Alec Miners Source Type: research

Risk score for predicting mortality including urine lipoarabinomannan detection in hospital inpatients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: Derivation and external validation cohort study
by Ankur Gupta-Wright, Elizabeth L. Corbett, Douglas Wilson, Joep J. van Oosterhout, Keertan Dheda, Helena Huerga, Jonny Peter, Maryline Bonnet, Melanie Alufandika-Moyo, Daniel Grint, Stephen D. Lawn, Katherine Fielding BackgroundThe prevalence of and mortality from HIV-associated tuberculosis (HIV/TB) in hospital inpatients in Africa remains unacceptably high. Currently, there is a lack of tools to identify those at high risk of early mortality who may benefit from adjunctive interventions. We therefore aimed to develop and validate a simple clinical risk score to predict mortality in high-burden, low-resource settings. M...
Source: PLoS Medicine - April 5, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Ankur Gupta-Wright Source Type: research

Octreotide-LAR in later-stage autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ALADIN 2): A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial
ConclusionsIn this study we observed that in later-stage ADPKD, octreotide-LAR slowed kidney growth and delayed progression to ESRD, in particular in CKD stage 4. Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01377246; EudraCT: 2011-000138-12. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - April 5, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Norberto Perico Source Type: research

Tuberculosis drugs ’ distribution and emergence of resistance in patient’s lung lesions: A mechanistic model and tool for regimen and dose optimization
ConclusionsOur results suggest that the ability to reach and maintain therapeutic concentrations is both lesion and drug specific, indicating that stratifying patients based on disease extent, lesion types, and individual drug-susceptibility profiles may eventually be useful for guiding the selection of patient-tailored drug regimens and may lead to improved TB treatment outcomes. We provide a web-based tool to further explore this model and results at http://saviclab.org/tb-lesion/. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - April 2, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Natasha Strydom Source Type: research

Community health workers to improve uptake of maternal healthcare services: A cluster-randomized pragmatic trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
ConclusionsA home-based CHW intervention in urban Tanzania significantly reduced the proportion of women who reported having delivered at home, in an area that already has very high uptake of facility-based delivery. The intervention did not affect self-reported ANC attendance. Policy makers should consider piloting, evaluating, and scaling interventions to lessen the economic burden and inconvenience of ANC. Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01932138 (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 29, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Pascal Geldsetzer Source Type: research

A whole-health –economy approach to antimicrobial stewardship: Analysis of current models and future direction
by Monsey McLeod, Raheelah Ahmad, Nada Atef Shebl, Christianne Micallef, Fiona Sim, Alison Holmes In a Policy Forum, Alison Holmes and colleagues discuss coordinated approaches to antimicrobial stewardship. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 29, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Monsey McLeod Source Type: research

Incidence of eclampsia and related complications across 10 low- and middle-resource geographical regions: Secondary analysis of a cluster randomised controlled trial
ConclusionsThe large variation in eclampsia and maternal and neonatal fatality from hypertensive disorders of pregnancy between countries emphasises that inequality and inequity persist in healthcare for women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Alongside the growing interest in improving community detection and health education for these disorders, efforts to improve quality of care within healthcare facilities are key. Strategies to prevent eclampsia should be informed by local data. Trial registrationISRCTN: 41244132. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 29, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Nicola Vousden Source Type: research

Measles vaccination: A matter of confidence and commitment
by Richard Turner, on behalf of the PLOS Medicine Editors The PLOS Medicine Editors discuss issues of vaccination uptake in the context of recent and ongoing measles outbreaks. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 26, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Richard Turner Source Type: research

Keeping phase III tuberculosis trials relevant: Adapting to a rapidly changing landscape
by Patrick P. J. Phillips, Carole D. Mitnick, James D. Neaton, Payam Nahid, Christian Lienhardt, Andrew J. Nunn In a Collection Review, Patrick Phillips and colleagues discuss developments in clinical trial design for the evaluation of TB therapeutics. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 22, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Patrick P. J. Phillips Source Type: research

Advances in clinical trial design for development of new TB treatments: A call for innovation
by Christian Lienhardt, Payam Nahid Christian Lienhardt and Payam Nahid launch the Collection on Advances in Clinical Trial Design for Development of New Tuberculosis Treatments. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 22, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Christian Lienhardt Source Type: research

Independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and improved complementary feeding on early neurodevelopment among children born to HIV-negative mothers in rural Zimbabwe: Substudy of a cluster-randomized trial
ConclusionsWe found little evidence that the IYCF and WASH interventions implemented in SHINE caused clinically important improvements in child development at 2 years of age. Interventions that directly target neurodevelopment (e.g., early stimulation) or that more comprehensively address the multifactorial nature of neurodevelopment may be required to support healthy development of vulnerable children. Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01824940 (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 21, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Melissa J. Gladstone Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of financial incentives for improving diet and health through Medicare and Medicaid: A microsimulation study
ConclusionsEconomic incentives for healthier foods through Medicare and Medicaid could generate substantial health gains and be highly cost-effective. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 19, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Yujin Lee Source Type: research

Correction: The effect of a programme to improve men's sedentary time and physical activity: The European Fans in Training (EuroFIT) randomised controlled trial
by Sally Wyke, Christopher Bunn, Eivind Andersen, Marlene N. Silva, Femke van Nassau, Paula McSkimming, Spyros Kolovos, Jason M. R. Gill, Cindy M. Gray, Kate Hunt, Annie S. Anderson, Judith Bosmans, Judith G. M. Jelsma, Sharon Kean, Nicolas Lemyre, David W. Loudon, Lisa Macaulay, Douglas J. Maxwell, Alex McConnachie, Nanette Mutrie, Maria Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Hugo V. Pereira, Matthew Philpott, Glyn C. Roberts, John Rooksby, Øystein B. Røynesdal, Naveed Sattar, Marit Sørensen, Pedro J. Teixeira, Shaun Treweek, Theo van Achterberg, Irene van de Glind, Willem van Mechelen, Hidde P. van der Ploeg (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 14, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Sally Wyke Source Type: research

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention combined with community case management of malaria in children under 10 years of age, over 5 months, in south-east Senegal: A cluster-randomised trial
by Jean Louis A. Ndiaye, Youssoupha Ndiaye, Mamadou S. Ba, Babacar Faye, Maguette Ndiaye, Amadou Seck, Roger Tine, Pape Moussa Thior, Sharanjeet Atwal, Khalid Beshir, Colin Sutherland, Oumar Gaye, Paul Milligan BackgroundSeasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is recommended in the Sahel region of Africa for children under 5 years of age, for up to 4 months of the year. It may be appropriate to include older children, and to provide protection for more than 4 months. We evaluated the effectiveness of SMC using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine given over 5 months to children under 10 years of age in Saraya district...
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 13, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jean Louis A. Ndiaye Source Type: research

Comparative effectiveness of generic and brand-name medication use: A database study of US health insurance claims
ConclusionsIn this study, we observed that use of generics was associated with comparable clinical outcomes to use of brand-name products. These results could help in promoting educational interventions aimed at increasing patient and provider confidence in the ability of generic medicines to manage chronic diseases. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 13, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Rishi J. Desai Source Type: research

Age distribution, trends, and forecasts of under-5 mortality in 31 sub-Saharan African countries: A modeling study
ConclusionsTo our knowledge, this study is the first to combine full birth histories and mortality estimates from external reliable sources to model age patterns of under-5 mortality across time in SSA. We demonstrate that countries with a rapid pace of mortality reduction (ARR ≥ 3.2%) across ages would be more likely to achieve the SDG mortality targets. However, the lower pace of neonatal mortality reduction would prevent most countries from achieving those targets: 2 countries would reach them by 2030, 13 between 2030 and 2050, and 13 after 2050. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 12, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Iv án Mejía-Guevara Source Type: research

Individual prognosis at diagnosis in nonmetastatic prostate cancer: Development and external validation of the PREDICT < i > Prostate < /i > multivariable model
Conclusions‘PREDICTProstate ’ is an individualised multivariable PCa prognostic model built from baseline diagnostic information and the first to our knowledge that models potential treatment benefits on overall survival. Prognostic power is high despite using only routinely collected clinicopathological information. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 12, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: David R. Thurtle Source Type: research

The Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana and the path to universal health coverage in India: Overcoming the challenges of stewardship and governance
by Blake J. Angell, Shankar Prinja, Anadi Gupt, Vivekanand Jha, Stephen Jan In an Essay, Blake Angell and colleagues discuss ambitious reforms planned to expand coverage of the health system in India. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 7, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Blake J. Angell Source Type: research

The association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly in Brazil 2015 –2017: An observational analysis of over 4 million births
by Oliver J. Brady, Aaron Osgood-Zimmerman, Nicholas J. Kassebaum, Sarah E. Ray, Valdelaine E. M. de Ara újo, Aglaêr A. da Nóbrega, Livia C. V. Frutuoso, Roberto C. R. Lecca, Antony Stevens, Bruno Zoca de Oliveira, José M. de Lima Jr., Isaac I. Bogoch, Philippe Mayaud, Thomas Jaenisch, Ali H. Mokdad, Christopher J. L. Murray, Simon I. Hay, Robert C. Reiner Jr., Fatima Marinho BackgroundIn 2015, high rates of microcephaly were reported in Northeast Brazil following the first South American Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak. Reported microcephaly rates in other Zika-affected areas were significantly lower...
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 5, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Oliver J. Brady Source Type: research

Potential effectiveness of prophylactic HPV immunization for men who have sex with men in the Netherlands: A multi-model approach
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that targeted vaccination may generate considerable reductions in anogenital HPV16 infections among MSM, and has the potential to accelerate anal cancer prevention, especially when combined with sex-neutral vaccination in preadolescence. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 4, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Johannes A. Bogaards Source Type: research

Health system performance for people with diabetes in 28 low- and middle-income countries: A cross-sectional study of nationally representative surveys
by Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Pascal Geldsetzer, Kokou Agoudavi, Glennis Andall-Brereton, Krishna K. Aryal, Brice Wilfried Bicaba, Pascal Bovet, Garry Brian, Maria Dorobantu, Gladwell Gathecha, Mongal Singh Gurung, David Guwatudde, Mohamed Msaidie, Corine Houehanou, Dismand Houinato, Jutta Mari Adelin Jorgensen, Gibson B. Kagaruki, Khem B. Karki, Demetre Labadarios, Joao S. Martins, Mary T. Mayige, Roy Wong McClure, Omar Mwalim, Joseph Kibachio Mwangi, Bolormaa Norov, Sarah Quesnel-Crooks, Bahendeka K. Silver, Lela Sturua, Lindiwe Tsabedze, Chea Stanford Wesseh, Andrew Stokes, Maja Marcus, Cara Ebert, Justine I. Davies, Sebas...
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jennifer Manne-Goehler Source Type: research

Correction: Evaluating strategies for control of tuberculosis in prisons and prevention of spillover into communities: An observational and modeling study from Brazil
by Tarub S. Mabud, Maria de Lourdes Delgado Alves, Albert I. Ko, Sanjay Basu, Katharine S. Walter, Ted Cohen, Barun Mathema, Caroline Colijn, Everton Lemos, Julio Croda, Jason R. Andrews (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - March 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tarub S. Mabud Source Type: research

Constructing care cascades for active tuberculosis: A strategy for program monitoring and identifying gaps in quality of care
by Ramnath Subbaraman, Ruvandhi R. Nathavitharana, Kenneth H. Mayer, Srinath Satyanarayana, Vineet K. Chadha, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Madhukar Pai The cascade of care is a model for evaluating patient retention across sequential stages of care required to achieve a successful treatment outcome. This approach was first used to evaluate HIV care and has since been applied to other diseases. The tuberculosis (TB) community has only recently sta rted using care cascade analyses to quantify gaps in quality of care. In this article, we describe methods for estimating gaps (patient losses) and steps (patients retained) in the car...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 27, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Ramnath Subbaraman Source Type: research

< i > PLOS Medicine < /i > 2018 Reviewer and Editorial Board Thank You
PLOS and the PLOS Medicine team would like to express our appreciation to the Editorial Board members, guest editors, and reviewers who participated in the manuscript assessment process for the journal in 2018. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 27, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: PLOS Source Type: research

Antenatal corticosteroid therapy (ACT) and size at birth: A population-based analysis using the Finnish Medical Birth Register
by Alina Rodriguez, Yingbo Wang, Anohki Ali Khan, Rufus Cartwright, Mika Gissler, Marjo-Riitta J ärvelin BackgroundAntenatal corticosteroid therapy (ACT) is used clinically to prepare the fetal lung for impending preterm birth, but animal and human studies link corticosteroids to smaller birth size. Whether ACT is associated with birth size is debated; therefore, we assessed differences in birth size in treated versus untreated pregnancies. Methods and findingsThis observational register-based study used data from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (FMBR) covering all births in Finland (January 1, 2006 –December...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 26, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Alina Rodriguez Source Type: research

A reduced-carbohydrate and lactose-free formulation for stabilization among hospitalized children with severe acute malnutrition: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial
ConclusionsEmpirically treating hospitalized severely malnourished children during the stabilization phase with lactose-free, reduced-carbohydrate milk formula did not improve clinical outcomes. The biochemical analyses suggest that the lactose-free formulae may still exceed a carbohydrate load threshold for intestinal absorption, which may limit their usefulness in the context of complicated SAM. Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT02246296. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 26, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Robert H. J. Bandsma Source Type: research

Patterns of joint involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis and prediction of disease course: A prospective study with multilayer non-negative matrix factorization
by Simon W. M. Eng, Florence A. Aeschlimann, Mira van Veenendaal, Roberta A. Berard, Alan M. Rosenberg, Quaid Morris, Rae S. M. Yeung, on behalf of the ReACCh-Out Research Consortium BackgroundJoint inflammation is the common feature underlying juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Clinicians recognize patterns of joint involvement currently not part of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) classification. Using unsupervised machine learning, we sought to uncover data-driven joint patterns that predict clinical phenotype and disease trajectories. Methods and findingsWe analyzed prospectively colle...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 26, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Simon W. M. Eng Source Type: research

The US Affordable Care Act: Reflections and directions at the close of a decade
by Adrianna McIntyre, Zirui Song In this month's Editorial, PLOS Medicine Academic Editor Zirui Song and his colleague Adrianna McIntyre discuss outcomes and possible futures for the United States Affordable Care Act as it nears the ten year mark. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 26, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Adrianna McIntyre Source Type: research

Correction: A new aging measure captures morbidity and mortality risk across diverse subpopulations from NHANES IV: A cohort study
by Zuyun Liu, Pei-Lun Kuo, Steve Horvath, Eileen Crimmins, Luigi Ferrucci, Morgan Levine (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 25, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Zuyun Liu Source Type: research

The association between heatwaves and risk of hospitalization in Brazil: A nationwide time series study between 2000 and 2015
by Qi Zhao, Shanshan Li, Micheline S. Z. S. Coelho, Paulo H. N. Saldiva, Kejia Hu, Rachel R. Huxley, Michael J. Abramson, Yuming Guo BackgroundTo our knowledge, no study has assessed the association between heatwaves and risk of hospitalization and how it may change over time in Brazil. We quantified the heatwave –hospitalization association in Brazil during 2000–2015. Methods and findingsDaily data on hospitalization and temperature were collected from 1,814 cities (>78% of the national population) in the hottest five consecutive months during 2000 –2015. Twelve types of heatwaves were defined with da...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 22, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Qi Zhao Source Type: research

COSMOS-E: Guidance on conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies of etiology
ConclusionAs many reviews of observational studies on etiology are being performed, this document may provide researchers with guidance on how to conduct and analyse such reviews. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 21, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Olaf M. Dekkers Source Type: research

National policies and care provision in pregnancy and childbirth for twins in Eastern and Southern Africa: A mixed-methods multi-country study
by Claudia Hanson, Stephen Munjanja, Agnes Binagwaho, Bellington Vwalika, Andrea B. Pembe, Elsa Jacinto, George K. Chilinda, Kateri B. Donahoe, Sikolia Z. Wanyonyi, Peter Waiswa, Muchabayiwa F. Gidiri, Lenka Benova BackgroundHigh-risk pregnancies, such as twin pregnancies, deserve particular attention as mortality is very high in this group. With a view to inform policy and national guidelines development for the Sustainable Development Goals, we reviewed national training materials, guidelines, and policies underpinning the provision of care in relation to twin pregnancies and assessed care provided to twins in 8 Eastern ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 19, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Claudia Hanson Source Type: research

The impact of targeted malaria elimination with mass drug administrations on falciparum malaria in Southeast Asia: A cluster randomised trial
ConclusionsAdded to community-based basic malaria control measures, 3 monthly rounds of DP MDA reduced the incidence and prevalence of falciparum malaria over a 1-year period in areas affected by artemisinin resistance.P.falciparum infections returned during the follow-up period as the remaining infections spread and malaria was reintroduced from surrounding areas. Limitations of this study include a relatively small sample of villages, heterogeneity between villages, and mobility of villagers that may have limited the impact of the intervention. These results suggest that, if used as part of a comprehensive, well-organise...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 15, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Lorenz von Seidlein Source Type: research

Community-, facility-, and individual-level outcomes of a district mental healthcare plan in a low-resource setting in Nepal: A population-based evaluation
ConclusionsThese combined results make a promising case for the feasibility and impact of community- and primary-care-based services delivered through an integrated district mental healthcare plan in reducing the treatment gap and increasing effective coverage for MNS disorders. While the integrated mental healthcare approach does lead to apparent benefits in most of the outcome metrics, there are still significant areas that require further attention (e.g., no change in community-level contact coverage, attrition in AUD detection rates over time, and relatively low detection rates for depression). (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 14, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Mark J. D. Jordans Source Type: research

Maternal body mass index, gestational weight gain, and the risk of overweight and obesity across childhood: An individual participant data meta-analysis
by Ellis Voerman, Susana Santos, Bernadeta Patro Golab, Pilar Amiano, Ferran Ballester, Henrique Barros, Anna Bergstr öm, Marie-Aline Charles, Leda Chatzi, Cécile Chevrier, George P. Chrousos, Eva Corpeleijn, Nathalie Costet, Sarah Crozier, Graham Devereux, Merete Eggesbø, Sandra Ekström, Maria Pia Fantini, Sara Farchi, Francesco Forastiere, Vagelis Georgiu, Keith M. Godfrey, Davide Gori, Veit Grote, Wojciech H anke, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Barbara Heude, Daniel Hryhorczuk, Rae-Chi Huang, Hazel Inskip, Nina Iszatt, Anne M. Karvonen, Louise C. Kenny, Berthold Koletzko, Leanne K. Küpers, Hanna Lags...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 11, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Ellis Voerman Source Type: research

Trazodone use and risk of dementia: A population-based cohort study
by Ruth Brauer, Wallis C. Y. Lau, Joseph F. Hayes, Kenneth K. C. Man, David P. J. Osborn, Robert Howard, Joseph Kim, Ian C. K. Wong BackgroundIn vitro and animal studies have suggested that trazodone, a licensed antidepressant, may protect against dementia. However, no studies have been conducted to assess the effect of trazodone on dementia in humans. This electronic health records study assessed the association between trazodone use and the risk of developing dementia in clinical practice. Methods and findingsThe Health Improvement Network (THIN), an archive of anonymised medical and prescribing records from primary care...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 5, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Ruth Brauer Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes of an educational intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for childhood upper respiratory tract infections in rural China: Follow-up of a cluster-randomised controlled trial
by Xiaolin Wei, Zhitong Zhang, Joseph P. Hicks, John D. Walley, Rebecca King, James N. Newell, Jia Yin, Jun Zeng, Yan Guo, Mei Lin, Ross E. G. Upshur, Qiang Sun BackgroundInappropriate antibiotic prescribing causes widespread serious health problems. To reduce prescribing of antibiotics in Chinese primary care to children with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), we developed an intervention comprising clinical guidelines, monthly prescribing review meetings, doctor –patient communication skills training, and education materials for caregivers. We previously evaluated our intervention using an unblinded cluste...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 5, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Xiaolin Wei Source Type: research

The effect of a programme to improve men ’s sedentary time and physical activity: The European Fans in Training (EuroFIT) randomised controlled trial
by Sally Wyke, Christopher Bunn, Eivind Andersen, Marlene N. Silva, Femke van Nassau, Paula McSkimming, Spyros Kolovos, Jason M. R. Gill, Cindy M. Gray, Kate Hunt, Annie S. Anderson, Judith Bosmans, Judith G. M. Jelsma, Sharon Kean, Nicolas Lemyre, David W. Loudon, Lisa Macaulay, Douglas J. Maxwell, Alex McConnachie, Nanette Mutrie, Maria Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Hugo V. Pereira, Matthew Philpott, Glyn C. Roberts, John Rooksby, Øystein B. Røynesdal, Naveed Sattar, Marit Sørensen, Pedro J. Teixeira, Shaun Treweek, Theo van Achterberg, Irene van de Glind, Willem van Mechelen, Hidde P. van der Ploeg Backgr...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 5, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Sally Wyke Source Type: research

Setting targets for HIV/AIDS —What lessons can be learned from other disease control programmes?
by Tazeem Bhatia, Jamie Enoch, Mishal Khan, Sophie Mathewson, David Heymann, Richard Hayes, Osman Dar In a Collection Review, Richard Hayes and colleagues discuss metrics for assessing progress in control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the context of prior disease control programmes. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 4, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tazeem Bhatia Source Type: research

Lifetime risk and multimorbidity of non-communicable diseases and disease-free life expectancy in the general population: A population-based cohort study
ConclusionsOur study suggests that in this western European community, 9 out of 10 individuals aged 45 years and older develop an NCD during their remaining lifetime. Among those individuals who develop an NCD, at least a third are subsequently diagnosed with multiple NCDs. Absence of 3 common shared risk factors is associated with compression of morbidity of NCDs. These findings underscore the importance of avoidance of these common shared risk factors to reduce the premature morbidity and mortality attributable to NCDs. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 4, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Silvan Licher Source Type: research