Association of moderate alcohol intake with in vivo amyloid-beta deposition in human brain: A cross-sectional study
by Jee Wook Kim, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Jun Ho Lee, Kang Ko, So Yeon Jeon, Bo Kyung Sohn, Jun-Young Lee, Yu Kyeong Kim, Seong A Shin, Chul-Ho Sohn, Dong Young Lee, for the KBASE Research Group BackgroundAn emerging body of literature has indicated that moderate alcohol intake may be protective against Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia. However, little information is available regarding whether moderate alcohol intake is related to reductions in amyloid-beta (A β) deposition, or is protective via amyloid-independent mechanisms in the living human brain. Here we examined the associations of moderate alcohol intake with ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 25, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jee Wook Kim Source Type: research

Virological suppression and clinical management in response to viremia in South African HIV treatment program: A multicenter cohort study
ConclusionsIn this study, 90% virological suppression below the threshold of 1,000 copies/mL was observed in on-treatment analysis. However, this target was not met at the 50-copies/mL threshold or in intention-to-treat analysis. Clinical management in response to viremia was profoundly delayed, prolonging the duration of viremia and potential for transmission. Diagnostic tools to establish the cause of viremia are urgently needed to accelerate clinical decision-making. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 25, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Lucas E. Hermans Source Type: research

Plans and prospects for the 2020s: Beyond peak health?
by The PLOS Medicine Editors The PLOS Medicine editors discuss prospects for health and development in the coming decade. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 25, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: The PLOS Medicine Editors Source Type: research

Safety and immune responses after a 12-month booster in healthy HIV-uninfected adults in HVTN 100 in South Africa: A  randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of ALVAC-HIV (vCP2438) and bivalent subtype C gp120/MF59 vaccines
by Fatima Laher, Zoe Moodie, Kristen W. Cohen, Nicole Grunenberg, Linda-Gail Bekker, Mary Allen, Nicole Frahm, Nicole L. Yates, Lynn Morris, Mookho Malahleha, Kathryn Mngadi, Brodie Daniels, Craig Innes, Kevin Saunders, Shannon Grant, Chenchen Yu, Peter B. Gilbert, Sanjay Phogat, Carlos A. DiazGranados, Marguerite Koutsoukos, Olivier Van Der Meeren, Carter Bentley, Nonhlanhla N. Mkhize, Michael N. Pensiero, Vijay L. Mehra, James G. Kublin, Lawrence Corey, David C. Montefiori, Glenda E. Gray, M. Juliana McElrath, Georgia D. Tomaras BackgroundHVTN 100 evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an HIV subtype C pox-protein va...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 24, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Fatima Laher Source Type: research

Changes in maternal age and prevalence of congenital anomalies during the enactment of China's universal two-child policy (2013 –2017) in Zhejiang Province, China: An observational study
In this study, we investigated the associations of these policy changes with BDs in Zhejiang Province, China. Methods and findingsWe used data from the BD surveillance system in Zhejiang Province, China, which covers 90 hospitals in 30 urban districts and rural counties, capturing one-third of the total births in this province. To fully consider the time interval between conception and delivery, we defined the one-child policy period as data from 2013 (births from October 2012 to September 2013), the partial two-child policy period as data from 2015 (births from October 2014 to September 2015), and the universal two-child ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 24, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Xiaohui Zhang Source Type: research

Secular trends in incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Hong Kong: A retrospective cohort study
by Andrea O. Y. Luk, Calvin Ke, Eric S. H. Lau, Hongjiang Wu, William Goggins, Ronald C. W. Ma, Elaine Chow, Alice P. S. Kong, Wing-Yee So, Juliana C. N. Chan BackgroundThere is very limited data on the time trend of diabetes incidence in Asia. Using population-level data, we report the secular trend of the incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Hong Kong between 2002 and 2015. Methods and findingsThe Hong Kong Diabetes Surveillance Database hosts clinical information on people with diabetes receiving care under the Hong Kong Hospital Authority, a statutory body that governs all public hospitals and clinics. Sex-specif...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 20, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Andrea O. Y. Luk Source Type: research

Estimating progress towards meeting women ’s contraceptive needs in 185 countries: A Bayesian hierarchical modelling study
ConclusionsIn this study, we observed that large gaps remain in meeting family-planning needs. The projected increase in the number of women with need for family planning will create challenges to expand family-planning services fast enough to fulfil the growing need. Monitoring of family-planning indicators for all women, not just MWRA, is essential for accurately monitoring progress towards universal access to sexual and reproductive healthcare services —including family planning—by 2030 in the SDG era with its emphasis on ‘leaving no one behind.’ (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 18, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Vladim íra Kantorová Source Type: research

Digitally enabled aged care and neurological rehabilitation to enhance outcomes with Activity and MObility UsiNg Technology (AMOUNT) in Australia: A randomised controlled trial
ConclusionsIn this study, we observed improved mobility in people with a wide range of health conditions making use of digitally enabled rehabilitation, whereas time spent upright was not impacted. Trial registrationThe trial was prospectively registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register; ACTRN12614000936628 (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 18, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Leanne Hassett Source Type: research

Emerging priorities for HIV service delivery
by Nathan Ford, Elvin Geng, Tom Ellman, Catherine Orrell, Peter Ehrenkranz, Izukanji Sikazwe, Andreas Jahn, Miriam Rabkin, Stephen Ayisi Addo, Anna Grimsrud, Sydney Rosen, Isaac Zulu, William Reidy, Thabo Lejone, Tsitsi Apollo, Charles Holmes, Ana Francisca Kolling, Rosina Phate Lesihla, Huu Hai Nguyen, Baker Bakashaba, Lastone Chitembo, Ghion Tiriste, Meg Doherty, Helen Bygrave Nathan Ford and co-authors discuss global priorities in the provision of HIV prevention and treatment services. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 14, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Nathan Ford Source Type: research

An evaluation of Chile ’s Law of Food Labeling and Advertising on sugar-sweetened beverage purchases from 2015 to 2017: A before-and-after study
The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of this package of policies on household beverage purchases. Method and findingsIn this observational study, monthly longitudinal data on packaged beverage purchases were collected from urban-dwelling households (n = 2,383) participating in the Kantar WordPanel Chile Survey from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2017. Beverage purchases were linked to nutritional information at the product level, reviewed by a team of nutritionists, and categorized as “high-in” or “not high-in” according to whether they contained high levels of nutrients of concer...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 11, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Lindsey Smith Taillie Source Type: research

A  multicomponent secondary school health promotion intervention and adolescent health: An extension of the SEHER cluster randomised controlled trial in Bihar, India
The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the intervention after two years of follow-up and to evaluate the consistency of the findings observed over time. Methods and findingsWe conducted a cluster randomised trial in which 75 schools were randomised (1:1:1) to receive the SEHER intervention delivered by a lay counsellor (SEHERMitra [SM]) or a teacher (Teacher as SEHERMitra [TSM]), respectively, alongside a standardised, classroom-based life skills Adolescence Education Program (AEP), compared to AEP alone (control group). The trial design was a repeat cross-sectional study. Students enrolled in grade 9 (ag...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 11, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Sachin Shinde Source Type: research

Impact of the announcement and implementation of the UK Soft Drinks Industry Levy on sugar content, price, product size and number of available soft drinks in the UK, 2015-19: A  controlled interrupted time series analysis
by Peter Scarborough, Vyas Adhikari, Richard A. Harrington, Ahmed Elhussein, Adam Briggs, Mike Rayner, Jean Adams, Steven Cummins, Tarra Penney, Martin White BackgroundDietary sugar, especially in liquid form, increases risk of dental caries, adiposity, and type 2 diabetes. The United Kingdom Soft Drinks Industry Levy (SDIL) was announced in March 2016 and implemented in April 2018 and charges manufacturers and importers at £0.24 per litre for drinks with over 8 g sugar per 100 mL (high levy category), £0.18 per litre for drinks with 5 to 8 g sugar per 100 mL (low levy category), and no charge for drinks with l...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 11, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Peter Scarborough Source Type: research

The effect of assessing genetic risk of prostate cancer on the use of PSA tests in primary care: A cluster randomized controlled trial
by Jacob Freds øe, Jan Koetsenruyter, Peter Vedsted, Pia Kirkegaard, Michael Væth, Adrian Edwards, Torben F. Ørntoft, Karina D. Sørensen, Flemming Bro BackgroundAssessing genetic lifetime risk for prostate cancer has been proposed as a means of risk stratification to identify those for whom prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is likely to be most valuable. This project aimed to test the effect of introducing a genetic test for lifetime risk of prostate cancer in general practice on future PSA testing. Methods and findingsWe performed a cluster randomized controlled trial with randomization at...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 7, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jacob Freds øe Source Type: research

Improving air quality needs to be a policy priority for governments globally
by Aziz Sheikh In this Perspective, Aziz Sheikh discusses the importance of research to understand the impact of air pollution on human health, commenting on a study by Yaohua Tian and colleagues that examined associations between ambient air quality and risk of hospitalization for pneumonia in adults in China (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 6, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Aziz Sheikh Source Type: research

Association of coincident self-reported mental health problems and alcohol intake with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality: A Norwegian pooled population analysis
by Eirik Degerud, Gudrun H øiseth, Jørg Mørland, Inger Ariansen, Sidsel Graff-Iversen, Eivind Ystrom, Luisa Zuccolo, Øyvind Næss BackgroundThe disease burden attributable to mental health problems and to excess or harmful alcohol use is considerable. Despite a strong relationship between these 2 important factors in population health, there are few studies quantifying the mortality risk associated with their co-occurrence in the general population. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality according to self-reported mental healt...
Source: PLoS Medicine - February 3, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Eirik Degerud Source Type: research

Comparison of aggregate and individual participant data approaches to meta-analysis of randomised trials: An observational study
by Jayne F. Tierney, David J. Fisher, Sarah Burdett, Lesley A. Stewart, Mahesh K. B. Parmar BackgroundIt remains unclear when standard systematic reviews and meta-analyses that rely on published aggregate data (AD) can provide robust clinical conclusions. We aimed to compare the results from a large cohort of systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on individual participant data (IPD) with meta-analyses of published AD, to establish when the latter are most likely to be reliable and when the IPD approach might be required. Methods and findingsWe used 18 cancer systematic reviews that included IPD meta-analyses: all of t...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 31, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jayne F. Tierney Source Type: research

Evaluation of a clinical decision rule to guide antibiotic prescription in children with suspected lower respiratory tract infection in The Netherlands: A stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial
This study aims to safely reduce antibiotic prescriptions in children under 5 years with suspected lower RTI at the emergency department (ED), by implementing a clinical decision rule. Methods and findingsIn a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, we included children aged 1 –60 months presenting with fever and cough or dyspnoea to 8 EDs in The Netherlands. The EDs were of varying sizes, from diverse geographic and demographic regions, and of different hospital types (tertiary versus general). In the pre-intervention phase, children received usual care, according to t he Dutch and NICE guidelines for febrile childr...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 31, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Josephine S. van de Maat Source Type: research

Advances in cervical cancer prevention: Efficacy, effectiveness, elimination?
by Karin Sundstr öm, K. Miriam Elfström With major advances in understanding the infectious etiology of cervical cancer, preventive medicine has obtained highly promising new tools. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, together with a growing arsenal of HPV-based screening tests, have the potential to radically change public health but require diligent, large-scale implementation to reach the final goal: the elimination of cervical cancer. We reflect here upon the state of cervical cancer prevention globally as there have been several recent developments that will inform this implementation process. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 28, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Karin Sundstr öm Source Type: research

Dysregulation of multiple metabolic networks related to brain transmethylation and polyamine pathways in Alzheimer disease: A targeted metabolomic and transcriptomic study
In this study, we test whether AD pathogenesis is associated with dysregulation in brain transmethylation and polyamine pathways. Methods and findingsWe first performed targeted and quantitative metabolomics assays using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) on brain samples from three groups in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) (AD:n = 17; Asymptomatic AD [ASY]: n = 13; Control [CN]:n = 13) (overall 37.2% female; mean age at death 86.118 ± 9.842 years) in regions both vulnerable and resistant to AD pathology. Using linear mixed-effects models within two primary brain regions (inferior t...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 24, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Uma V. Mahajan Source Type: research

Prevalence and genetic profiles of isoniazid resistance in tuberculosis patients: A multicountry analysis of cross-sectional data
ConclusionsIn this study, the prevalence of Hr-TB among TB patients was higher than the prevalence of rifampicin resistance globally. Many patients with Hr-TB would be missed by current diagnostic algorithms driven by rifampicin testing, highlighting the need for new rapid molecular technologies to ensure access to appropriate treatment and care. The low prevalence of resistance to pyrazinamide and fluoroquinolones among patients with Hr-TB provides further justification for the recommended modified treatment regimen. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 21, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Anna S. Dean Source Type: research

Isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis: A problem we can no longer ignore
by Giorgia Sulis, Madhukar Pai Giorgia Sulis and Madhukar Pai discuss the global distribution, and approaches to diagnosis and treatment, of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis, (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 21, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Giorgia Sulis Source Type: research

Potential gains in life expectancy by attaining daily ambient fine particulate matter pollution standards in mainland China: A modeling study based on nationwide data
ConclusionsThis study indicates that significantly longer life expectancy could be achieved by a reduction in the ambient PM2.5 concentrations. It also highlights the need to formulate a stricter ambient PM2.5 standard at both national and regional levels of China to protect the population ’s health. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 17, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jinlei Qi Source Type: research

Projected costs of single-payer healthcare financing in the United States: A systematic review of economic analyses
ConclusionsIn this systematic review, we found a high degree of analytic consensus for the fiscal feasibility of a single-payer approach in the US. Actual costs will depend on plan features and implementation. Future research should refine estimates of the effects of coverage expansion on utilization, evaluate provider administrative costs in varied existing single-payer systems, analyze implementation options, and evaluate US-based single-payer programs, as available. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Christopher Cai Source Type: research

The association of depression with subsequent dementia diagnosis: A Swedish nationwide cohort study from 1964 to 2016
by Sofie Holmquist, Anna Nordstr öm, Peter Nordström BackgroundDepression is associated with an increased risk of dementia. However, short follow-up times and lack of adjustment for familial factors in previous studies could influence this association. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between depression and subsequent dementia, while controlling for familial factors and with a follow-up of over 35 years. Methods and findingsTwo cohorts were formed from all individuals aged 50 years or older living in Sweden as of 31 December 2005 (n = 3,341,010). The Swedish National Patient Reg...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 9, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Sofie Holmquist Source Type: research

Infectious disease pandemic planning and response: Incorporating decision analysis
by Freya M. Shearer, Robert Moss, Jodie McVernon, Joshua V. Ross, James M. McCaw Freya Shearer and co-authors discuss the use of decision analysis in planning for infectious disease pandemics. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 9, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Freya M. Shearer Source Type: research

Association of puberty timing with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
by Tuck Seng Cheng, Felix R. Day, Rajalakshmi Lakshman, Ken K. Ong BackgroundEmerging studies have investigated the association between puberty timing, particularly age at menarche (AAM), and type 2 diabetes. However, whether this association is independent of adiposity is unclear. We aimed to systematically review published evidence on the association between puberty timing and type 2 diabetes (T2D) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), with and without adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the potential contribution of puberty timing to the burden of T2D in the United Kingdom (UK). Methods and findingsWe searched PubM...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 6, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tuck Seng Cheng Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a scalable group-based education and monitoring program, delivered by health workers, to improve control of hypertension in rural India: A cluster randomised controlled trial
by Dilan Giguruwa Gamage, Michaela A. Riddell, Rohina Joshi, Kavumpurathu R. Thankappan, Clara K. Chow, Brian Oldenburg, Roger G. Evans, Ajay S. Mahal, Kartik Kalyanram, Kamakshi Kartik, Oduru Suresh, Nihal Thomas, Gomathyamma K. Mini, Pallab K. Maulik, Velandai K. Srikanth, Simin Arabshahi, Ravi P. Varma, Rama K. Guggilla, Fabrizio D ’Esposito, Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Mohammed Alim, Amanda G. Thrift BackgroundNew methods are required to manage hypertension in resource-poor settings. We hypothesised that a community health worker (CHW) –led group-based education and monitoring intervention would improve contr...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 2, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Dilan Giguruwa Gamage Source Type: research

Variability in the use of pulse oximeters with children in Kenyan hospitals: A mixed-methods analysis
by Abigail J. Enoch, Mike English, the Clinical Information Network , Gerald McGivern, Sasha Shepperd BackgroundPulse oximetry, a relatively inexpensive technology, has the potential to improve health outcomes by reducing incorrect diagnoses and supporting appropriate treatment decisions. There is evidence that in low- and middle-income countries, even when available, widespread uptake of pulse oximeters has not occurred, and little research has examined why. We sought to determine when and with which children pulse oximeters are used in Kenyan hospitals, how pulse oximeter use impacts treatment provision, and the barriers...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 31, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Abigail J. Enoch Source Type: research

Opioid-related treatment, interventions, and outcomes among incarcerated persons: A systematic review
ConclusionsIn this carefully conducted systematic review, we found that correctional facilities should scale up OAT among incarcerated persons with OUD. The strategy is likely to decrease opioid-related overdose and mortality, reduce opioid use and other risky behaviors during and after incarceration, and improve retention in addiction treatment after prison release. Immediate OAT after prison release and additional preventive strategies such as the distribution of NLX kits to at-risk individuals upon release greatly decrease the occurrence of opioid-related overdose and mortality. In an effort to mitigate the impact of th...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 31, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Monica Malta Source Type: research

Chemotherapy effectiveness in trial-underrepresented groups with early breast cancer: A retrospective cohort study
ConclusionsThe results of this study, as RWD, should be interpreted with caution and in the context of existing and emerging randomised data. The relative effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy in reducing mortality in patients with early stage breast cancer appears to be generalisable to the selected trial-underrepresented groups. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 31, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Ewan Gray Source Type: research

Ambient particulate matter pollution and adult hospital admissions for pneumonia in urban China: A national time series analysis for 2014 through 2017
by Yaohua Tian, Hui Liu, Yiqun Wu, Yaqin Si, Man Li, Yao Wu, Xiaowen Wang, Mengying Wang, Libo Chen, Chen Wei, Tao Wu, Pei Gao, Yonghua Hu BackgroundThe effects of ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution on pneumonia in adults are inconclusive, and few scientific data on a national scale have been generated in low- or middle-income countries, despite their much higher PM concentrations. We aimed to examine the association between PM levels and hospital admissions for pneumonia in Chinese adults. Methods and findingsA nationwide time series study was conducted in China between 2014 and 2017. Information on daily hospital ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 31, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Yaohua Tian Source Type: research

Personalized public health: An implementation research agenda for the HIV response and beyond
by Elvin H. Geng, Charles B. Holmes, Mosa Moshabela, Izukanji Sikazwe, Maya L. Petersen (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 31, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Elvin H. Geng Source Type: research

Nitroglycerin for treatment of retained placenta: A randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre, double-blind trial in the UK
ConclusionsIn this study, we found that nitroglycerin is neither clinically effective nor cost-effective as a medical treatment for retained placenta, and has increased side effects, suggesting it should not be used. Further research is required to identify an effective medical treatment for retained placenta to reduce the morbidity caused by this condition, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where surgical management is not available. Trial NCT02085213 (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 30, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Fiona C. Denison Source Type: research

Antirotavirus IgA seroconversion rates in children who receive concomitant oral poliovirus vaccine: A secondary, pooled analysis of Phase II and III trial data from 33 countries
by Julia M. Baker, Jacqueline E. Tate, Juan Leon, Michael J. Haber, Benjamin A. Lopman BackgroundDespite the success of rotavirus vaccines over the last decade, rotavirus remains a leading cause of severe diarrheal disease among young children. Further progress in reducing the burden of disease is inhibited, in part, by vaccine underperformance in certain settings. Early trials suggested that oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), when administered concomitantly with rotavirus vaccine, reduces rotavirus seroconversion rates after the first rotavirus dose with modest or nonsignificant interference after completion of the full rotav...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 30, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Julia M. Baker Source Type: research

Adherence to the 2017 French dietary guidelines and adult weight gain: A cohort study
by Dan Chaltiel, Chantal Julia, Moufidath Adjibade, Mathilde Touvier, Serge Hercberg, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot BackgroundThe French dietary guidelines were updated in 2017, and an adherence score to the new guidelines (Programme National Nutrition Sant é Guidelines Score 2 [PNNS-GS2]) has been developed and validated recently. Since overweight and obesity are key public health issues and have been related to major chronic conditions, this prospective study aimed to measure the association between PNNS-GS2 and risk of overweight and obesity, and t o compare these results with those for the modified Programme National N...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 30, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Dan Chaltiel Source Type: research

Association between gestational weight gain and severe adverse birth outcomes in Washington State, US: A population-based retrospective cohort study, 2004 –2013
by U. Vivian Ukah, Hamideh Bayrampour, Yasser Sabr, Neda Razaz, Wee-Shian Chan, Kenneth I. Lim, Sarka Lisonkova BackgroundSuboptimal weight gain during pregnancy is a potentially modifiable risk factor. We aimed to investigate the association between suboptimal gestational weight gain and severe adverse birth outcomes by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) categories, including obesity class I to III. Methods and findingsWe conducted a population-based study of pregnant women with singleton hospital births in Washington State, US, between 2004 and 2013. Optimal, low, and excess weight gain in each BMI category was calculat...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 30, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: U. Vivian Ukah Source Type: research

Intensification with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, insulin, or thiazolidinediones and risks of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular diseases, and severe hypoglycemia in patients on metformin-sulfonylurea dual therapy: A retrospective cohort study
by Carlos K. H. Wong, Kenneth K. C. Man, Margaret Shi, Esther W. Chan, Chu Wa Ho, Emily T. Y. Tse, Ian C. K. Wong, Cindy L. K. Lam BackgroundAlthough patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may fail to achieve adequate hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) control despite metformin-sulfonylurea (Met-SU) dual therapy, a third-line glucose-lowering medication —including dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i), insulin, or thiazolidinedione (TZD)—can be added to achieve this. However, treatment effects of intensification with the medications on the risk of severe hypoglycemia (SH), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all-ca...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 26, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Carlos K. H. Wong Source Type: research

Association of body mass index and cardiotoxicity related to anthracyclines and trastuzumab in early breast cancer: French CANTO cohort study
by Elis é G. Kaboré, Charles Guenancia, Ines Vaz-Luis, Antonio Di Meglio, Barbara Pistilli, Charles Coutant, Paul Cottu, Anne Lesur, Thierry Petit, Florence Dalenc, Philippe Rouanet, Antoine Arnaud, Olivier Arsene, Mahmoud Ibrahim, Johanna Wassermann, Geneviève Boileau-Jolimoy, Anne-Laure Martin, Jérôm e Lemonnier, Fabrice André, Patrick Arveux BackgroundIn patients treated with cardiotoxic chemotherapies, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and previous cardiac disease have been strongly correlated to the onset of cardiotoxicity. The influence of overweight and obesity as r...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 23, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Elis é G. Kaboré Source Type: research

The 2016 California policy to eliminate nonmedical vaccine exemptions and changes in vaccine coverage: An empirical policy analysis
The objective of this study was to estimate the association between California’s 2016 policy and changes in vaccine coverage. Methods and findingsWe used a quasi-experimental state-level synthetic control analysis and a county-level difference-in-differences analysis to estimate the impact of the 2016 California policy on vaccination coverage and prevalence of exemptions to vaccine requirements (nonmedical and medical). We used publicly available state-level data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on coverage of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination, nonmedical exemption, and medical exemp...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 23, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Sindiso Nyathi Source Type: research

Polygenic risk-tailored screening for prostate cancer: A benefit –harm and cost-effectiveness modelling study
ConclusionsBased on the results of this modelling study, offering screening to men at higher risk could potentially reduce overdiagnosis and improve the benefit –harm tradeoff and the cost-effectiveness of a prostate cancer screening program. The optimal threshold will depend on societal judgements of the appropriate balance of benefits–harms and cost-effectiveness. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 20, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tom Callender Source Type: research

Correction: Implementing a structured model for osteoarthritis care in primary healthcare: A stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial
by Nina Østerås, Tuva Moseng, Leti van Bodegom-Vos, Krysia Dziedzic, Ibrahim Mdala, Bård Natvig, Jan Harald Røtterud, Unni-Berit Schjervheim, Thea Vliet Vlieland, Øyvor Andreassen, Jorun Nystuen Hansen, Kåre Birger Hagen (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 19, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Nina Østerås Source Type: research

Estimating the global impact of poor quality of care on maternal and neonatal outcomes in 81 low- and middle-income countries: A modeling study
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that efforts to close the quality gap would still produce substantial benefits at current levels of access or utilization. With estimated mortality rate declines of 21% –32% on average, gains from this first step would be significant if quality was improved for selected antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal interventions to benefit pregnant women and newborns seeking care. Interventions provided at or around the time of childbirth are most critical and accounted for 64% of the impact overall estimated in this quality improvement analysis. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 18, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Victoria B. Chou Source Type: research

Social determinants of health in relation to firearm-related homicides in the United States: A nationwide multilevel cross-sectional study
This study used negative binomial regression models and geolocated gun homicide incident data from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015, to explore and compare the independent associations of key state-, county-, and neighborhood-level social determinants of health —social mobility, social capital, income inequality, racial and economic segregation, and social spending—with neighborhood firearm-related homicides and mass shootings in the United States, accounting for relevant state firearm laws and a variety of state, county, and neighborhood (census tract [CT]) characteristics. Latitude and longitude coordina...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 17, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Daniel Kim Source Type: research

Cardiometabolic disease costs associated with suboptimal diet in the United States: A cost analysis based on a microsimulation model
ConclusionsSuboptimal diet of 10 dietary factors accounts for 18.2% of all ischemic heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes costs in the US, highlighting that timely implementation of diet policies could address these health and economic burdens. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 17, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Thiago Veiga Jardim Source Type: research

Mental disorders and intimate partner violence perpetrated by men towards women: A Swedish population-based longitudinal study
by Rongqin Yu, Alejo J. Nevado-Holgado, Yasmina Molero, Brian M. D ’Onofrio, Henrik Larsson, Louise M. Howard, Seena Fazel BackgroundIntimate partner violence (IPV) against women is associated with a wide range of adverse outcomes. Although mental disorders have been linked to an increased risk of perpetrating IPV against women, the direction and magnitude of the association remain uncertain. In a longitudinal design, we examined the association between mental disorders and IPV perpetrated by men towards women in a population-based sample and used sibling comparisons to control for factors shared by siblings, such as...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 17, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Rongqin Yu Source Type: research

Performance of the Access Bio/CareStart rapid diagnostic test for the detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: A  systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsThe CSG performed well at the 30% threshold. Its high NPV suggests that the test is suitable to guide PQ treatment, and the high LR+ and low LR − render the test suitable to confirm and exclude G6PDd. Further operational studies are needed to confirm the utility of the test in remote endemic settings. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 13, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Benedikt Ley Source Type: research

The projected impact of geographic targeting of oral cholera vaccination in sub-Saharan Africa: A modeling study
ConclusionsOur study suggests that geographic targeting substantially improves the cost-effectiveness and impact of oral cholera vaccination campaigns. Districts with the poorest access to improved water and sanitation are not the same as districts with the greatest historical cholera incidence. While OCV campaigns can improve cholera control in the near term, without rapid progress in developing water and sanitation services or dramatic increases in OCV supply, our results suggest that vaccine use alone is unlikely to allow us to achieve the 2030 goal. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 11, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Elizabeth C. Lee Source Type: research

The importance of adherence in tuberculosis treatment clinical trials and its relevance in explanatory and pragmatic trials
by Andrew Vernon, Katherine Fielding, Rada Savic, Lori Dodd, Payam Nahid Andrew Vernon and co-authors discuss adherence to therapy and its measurement in tuberculosis treatment trials. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 10, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Andrew Vernon Source Type: research

Homogeneity in the association of body mass index with type 2 diabetes across the UK Biobank: A Mendelian randomization study
by Michael Wainberg, Anubha Mahajan, Anshul Kundaje, Mark I. McCarthy, Erik Ingelsson, Nasa Sinnott-Armstrong, Manuel A. Rivas BackgroundLifestyle interventions to reduce body mass index (BMI) are critical public health strategies for type 2 diabetes prevention. While weight loss interventions have shown demonstrable benefit for high-risk and prediabetic individuals, we aimed to determine whether the same benefits apply to those at lower risk. Methods and findingsWe performed a multi-stratum Mendelian randomization study of the effect size of BMI on diabetes odds in 287,394 unrelated individuals of self-reported white Brit...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 10, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Michael Wainberg Source Type: research

Incidence of maternal peripartum infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsIn this study, we observed pooled infection estimates of almost 4% in labour and between 1% –2% of each infection outcome postpartum. This indicates maternal peripartum infection is an important complication of childbirth and that preventive efforts should be increased in light of antimicrobial resistance. Incidence risk appears lower than modelled global estimates, although differences in definitions limit comparability. Better-quality research, using standard definitions, is required to improve comparability between study settings and to demonstrate the influence of risk factors and protective interventi...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 10, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Susannah L. Woodd Source Type: research