Gestational age and the risk of autism spectrum disorder in Sweden, Finland, and Norway: A cohort study
by Martina Persson, Signe Opdahl, Kari Risnes, Raz Gross, Eero Kajantie, Abraham Reichenberg, Mika Gissler, Sven Sandin IntroductionThe complex etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still unresolved. Preterm birth ( (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 22, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Martina Persson Source Type: research

Enhanced treatment strategies and distinct disease outcomes among autoantibody-positive and -negative rheumatoid arthritis patients over 25 years: A longitudinal cohort study in the Netherlands
by Xanthe M. E. Matthijssen, Ellis Niemantsverdriet, Tom W. J. Huizinga, Annette H. M. van der Helm –van Mil BackgroundBased on different genetic and environmental risk factors and histology, it has been proposed that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) consists of 2 types: autoantibody-positive and autoantibody-negative RA. However, until now, this remained hypothetical. To assess this hypothesis, we studied whether the long-term outcomes differed for these 2 groups of RA patients. Methods and findingsIn the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic cohort, 1,285 consecutive RA patients were included between 1993 and 2016 and followed ye...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 22, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Xanthe M. E. Matthijssen Source Type: research

Healthy lifestyle and life expectancy in people with multimorbidity in the UK Biobank: A longitudinal cohort study
by Yogini V. Chudasama, Kamlesh Khunti, Clare L. Gillies, Nafeesa N. Dhalwani, Melanie J. Davies, Thomas Yates, Francesco Zaccardi BackgroundWhether a healthy lifestyle impacts longevity in the presence of multimorbidity is unclear. We investigated the associations between healthy lifestyle and life expectancy in people with and without multimorbidity. Methods and findingsA total of 480,940 middle-aged adults (median age of 58 years [range 38 –73], 46% male, 95% white) were analysed in the UK Biobank; this longitudinal study collected data between 2006 and 2010, and participants were followed up until 2016. We extrac...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 22, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Yogini V. Chudasama Source Type: research

Occurrence and transmission potential of asymptomatic and presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections: A living systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsThe findings of this living systematic review suggest that most people who become infected with SARS-CoV-2 will not remain asymptomatic throughout the course of the infection. The contribution of presymptomatic and asymptomatic infections to overall SARS-CoV-2 transmission means that combination prevention measures, with enhanced hand hygiene, masks, testing tracing, and isolation strategies and social distancing, will continue to be needed. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 22, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Diana Buitrago-Garcia Source Type: research

Patterns of COVID-19 testing and mortality by race and ethnicity among United States veterans: A  nationwide cohort study
by Christopher T. Rentsch, Farah Kidwai-Khan, Janet P. Tate, Lesley S. Park, Joseph T. King Jr, Melissa Skanderson, Ronald G. Hauser, Anna Schultze, Christopher I. Jarvis, Mark Holodniy, Vincent Lo Re III, Kathleen M. Akg ün, Kristina Crothers, Tamar H. Taddei, Matthew S. Freiberg, Amy C. Justice BackgroundThere is growing concern that racial and ethnic minority communities around the world are experiencing a disproportionate burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We investigated racial and ethnic disparities in patterns of COVID-19 tes...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 22, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Christopher T. Rentsch Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of vamorolone in Duchenne muscular dystrophy:  An 18-month interim analysis of a non-randomized open-label extension study
This report covers the initial 24-week trial and the first 12 months of the VBP15-LTE trial (total treatment period 18 months). DMD trial participants (males, 4 to (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 21, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Edward C. Smith Source Type: research

TIDieR-Placebo: A guide and checklist for reporting placebo and sham controls
ConclusionsWe encourage TIDieR-Placebo to be used alongside TIDieR to assist the reporting of placebo or sham components and the trials in which they are used. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 21, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jeremy Howick Source Type: research

Clinical relevance of low-density < i > Plasmodium falciparum < /i > parasitemia in untreated febrile children: A cohort study
This study investigates the clinical presentation and outcome of untreated febrile children with LD infections attending primary care facilities in a moderately endemic area of Tanzania. Methods/findingsThis cohort study includes 2,801 febrile pediatric outpatients (median age 13.5 months [range 2 –59], female:male ratio 0.8:1.0) recruited in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between 01 December 2014 and 28 February 2016. Treatment decisions were guided by a clinical decision support algorithm run on a mobile app, which also collected clinical data. Only standard mRDT+ cases received antimalarials. O utcomes (clinical failure,...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 21, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Mary-Anne Hartley Source Type: research

Antibiotic prescribing for lower UTI in elderly patients in primary care and risk of bloodstream infection: A cohort study using electronic health records in England
by Laura Shallcross, Patrick Rockenschaub, Ruth Blackburn, Irwin Nazareth, Nick Freemantle, Andrew Hayward BackgroundResearch has questioned the safety of delaying or withholding antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) in older patients. We evaluated the association between antibiotic treatment for lower UTI and risk of bloodstream infection (BSI) in adults aged ≥65 years in primary care. Methods and findingsWe analyzed primary care records from patients aged ≥65 years in England with community-onset UTI using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (2007–2015) linked to Hospital Episode Statist...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 21, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Laura Shallcross Source Type: research

The prevalence of mental illness in refugees and asylum seekers: A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsThis comprehensive review generates current prevalence estimates for not only PTSD but also depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Refugees and asylum seekers have high and persistent rates of PTSD and depression, and the results of this review highlight the need for ongoing, long-term mental health care beyond the initial period of resettlement. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 21, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Rebecca Blackmore Source Type: research

STrengthening the Reporting Of Pharmacogenetic Studies: Development of the STROPS guideline
ConclusionsOur aim is for the STROPS guideline to improve the transparency of reporting of pharmacogenetic studies and also to facilitate the conduct of high-quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We encourage authors to adhere to the STROPS guideline when publishing pharmacogenetic studies. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 21, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Marty Chaplin Source Type: research

Comparative functional survival and equivalent annual cost of 3 long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) products in Tanzania: A randomised trial with 3-year follow up
by Lena M. Lorenz, John Bradley, Joshua Yukich, Dennis J. Massue, Zawadi Mageni Mboma, Olivier Pigeon, Jason Moore, Albert Kilian, Jo Lines, William Kisinza, Hans J. Overgaard, Sarah J. Moore BackgroundTwo billion long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have been procured for malaria control. A functional LLIN is one that is present, is in good physical condition, and remains insecticidal, thereby providing protection against vector-borne diseases through preventing bites and killing disease vectors. The World Health Organization (WHO) prequalifies LLINs that remain adequately insecticidal 3 years after deployment. Therefor...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 18, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Lena M. Lorenz Source Type: research

Age at diagnosis, glycemic trajectories, and responses to oral glucose-lowering drugs in type 2 diabetes in Hong Kong: A population-based observational study
by Calvin Ke, Th érèse A. Stukel, Baiju R. Shah, Eric Lau, Ronald C. Ma, Wing-Yee So, Alice P. Kong, Elaine Chow, Juliana C. N. Chan, Andrea Luk BackgroundLifetime glycemic exposure and its relationship with age at diagnosis in type 2 diabetes (T2D) are unknown. Pharmacologic glycemic management strategies for young-onset T2D (age at diagnosis (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 18, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Calvin Ke Source Type: research

The proportion of endometrial tumours associated with Lynch syndrome (PETALS): A prospective cross-sectional study
by Neil A. J. Ryan, Raymond McMahon, Simon Tobi, Tristan Snowsill, Shona Esquibel, Andrew J. Wallace, Sancha Bunstone, Naomi Bowers, Ioana E. Mosneag, Sarah J. Kitson, Helena O ’Flynn, Neal C. Ramchander, Vanitha N. Sivalingam, Ian M. Frayling, James Bolton, Rhona J. McVey, D. Gareth Evans, Emma J. Crosbie BackgroundLynch syndrome (LS) predisposes to endometrial cancer (EC), colorectal cancer, and other cancers through inherited pathogenic variants affecting mismatch-repair (MMR) genes. Diagnosing LS in women with EC can reduce subsequent cancer mortality through colonoscopic surveillance and aspirin chemoprevention;...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 17, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Neil A. J. Ryan Source Type: research

Interventions for treatment of COVID-19: A living systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (The LIVING Project)
by Sophie Juul, Emil Eik Nielsen, Joshua Feinberg, Faiza Siddiqui, Caroline Kamp J ørgensen, Emily Barot, Niklas Nielsen, Peter Bentzer, Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Lehana Thabane, Fanlong Bu, Sarah Klingenberg, Christian Gluud, Janus Christian Jakobsen BackgroundCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly spreading disease that has caused extensive burden to individuals, families, countries, and the world. Effective treatments of COVID-19 are urgently needed. Methods and findingsThis is the first edition of a living systematic review of randomized clinical trials comparing the effects of all treatment interventio...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 17, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Sophie Juul Source Type: research

Severe mental illness diagnosis in English general hospitals 2006-2017: A registry linkage study
We examined general hospital record sensitivity across patients’ subsequent hospital records, for each subsequent emergency admi ssion, and at different levels of diagnostic precision. We analyzed time trends during the study period and used logistic regression to examine sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with psychiatric recording accuracy, with multiple imputation for missing data.Sensitivity for recording of SMI as any mental health diagnosis was 76.7% (95% CI 76.0–77.4). Category-level sensitivity (e.g., proportion of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-29) who received any...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 17, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Hassan Mansour Source Type: research

Combined associations of body mass index and adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: A cohort study
by Karl Micha ëlsson, John A. Baron, Liisa Byberg, Jonas Höijer, Susanna C. Larsson, Bodil Svennblad, Håkan Melhus, Alicja Wolk, Eva Warensjö Lemming BackgroundIt is unclear whether the effect on mortality of a higher body mass index (BMI) can be compensated for by adherence to a healthy diet and whether the effect on mortality by a low adherence to a healthy diet can be compensated for by a normal weight. We aimed to evaluate the associations of BMI combined with adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Methods and findingsOur longitudinal cohort ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 17, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Karl Micha ëlsson Source Type: research

Switch to second-line versus continued first-line antiretroviral therapy for patients with low-level HIV-1 viremia: An open-label randomized controlled trial in Lesotho
by Alain Amstutz, Bienvenu Lengo Nsakala, Fiona Vanobberghen, Josephine Muhairwe, Tracy Ren ée Glass, Tilo Namane, Tlali Mpholo, Manuel Battegay, Thomas Klimkait, Niklaus Daniel Labhardt BackgroundCurrent World Health Organization (WHO) antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines define virologic failure as two consecutive viral load (VL) measurements ≥1,000 copies/mL, triggering empiric switch to next-line ART. This trial assessed if patients with sustained low-level HIV-1 viremia on first-line ART benefit from a switch to second-line treatment. Methods and findingsThis multicenter, parallel-group, open-label, super...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 16, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Alain Amstutz Source Type: research

Biannual azithromycin distribution and child mortality among malnourished children: A  subgroup analysis of the MORDOR cluster-randomized trial in Niger
The objective of this analysis was to assess whether the effect of azithromycin on mortality differs by nutritional status. Methods and findingsA large simple trial randomized communities in Niger to receive biannual distributions of azithromycin or placebo to children 1 –59 months old over a 2-year timeframe. In exploratory subgroup analyses, the effect of azithromycin distribution on child mortality was assessed for underweight subgroups using weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) thresholds of −2 and −3. Modification of the effect of azithromycin on mortality by und erweight status was examined on the additive ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 15, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Kieran S. O ’Brien Source Type: research

Mental health problems among female sex workers in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsIn this study, we found that mental health problems are highly prevalent among FSWs in LMICs and are strongly associated with common risk factors. Study findings support the concept of overlapping vulnerabilities and highlight the urgent need for interventions designed to improve the mental health and well-being of FSWs. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 15, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tara S. Beattie Source Type: research

Association between metabolic surgery and cardiovascular outcome in patients with hypertension: A nationwide matched cohort study
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of metabolic surgery on cardiovascular events and mortality on patients with morbid obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 35 kg/m2) and hypertension. Methods and findingsWe conducted a matched cohort study of 11,863 patients with morbid obesity and pharmacologically treated hypertension operated on with metabolic surgery and a matched non-operated –on control group of 26,199 subjects with hypertension (matched by age, sex, and area of residence) of varied matching ratios from 1:1 to 1:9, using data from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Register (SOReg), the ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 15, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Erik Stenberg Source Type: research

Priorities in reducing child mortality: Azithromycin and other interventions
by David Mabey, Uduak Okomo, Brian Greenwood In this Perspective, David Mabey and colleagues discuss a recent PLOS Medicine article on azithromycin as an intervention for reducing child mortality. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 15, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: David Mabey Source Type: research

Reassessment of the risk of narcolepsy in children in England 8 years after receipt of the AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic vaccine: A case-coverage study
ConclusionsIn this study, we found that vaccine-attributable cases have onset of narcolepsy within 12 months of Pandemrix vaccination. The attributable risk is higher than previously estimated in England because of identification of vaccine-attributable cases with late diagnoses. Absence of a compensatory drop in risk 1 –8 years after vaccination suggests that Pandemrix does not trigger onsets in those in whom narcolepsy would have occurred later. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Julia Stowe Source Type: research

How to make your research jump off the page: Co-creation to broaden public engagement in medical research
by Nina Finley, Talia H. Swartz, Kevin Cao, Joseph D. Tucker Nina Finley and co-authors discuss public involvement in planning and reporting medical research. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Nina Finley Source Type: research

Quality of clinical management of children diagnosed with malaria: A cross-sectional assessment in 9 sub-Saharan African countries between 2007 –2018
ConclusionsIn this study, we found that a majority of children diagnosed with malaria across the 9 surveyed sub-Saharan African countries did not receive recommended care. Clinical management is positively correlated with the stocking of essential commodities and is somewhat improved in more recent years, but important quality gaps remain in the countries studied. Continued reductions in malaria mortality will require a bigger push toward quality improvements in clinical care. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jessica L. Cohen Source Type: research

Severe mental illness and health service utilisation for nonpsychiatric medical disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis
by Amy Ronaldson, Lotte Elton, Simone Jayakumar, Anna Jieman, Kristoffer Halvorsrud, Kamaldeep Bhui BackgroundPsychiatric comorbidity is known to impact upon use of nonpsychiatric health services. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the specific impact of severe mental illness (SMI) on the use of inpatient, emergency, and primary care services for nonpsychiatric medical disorders. Methods and findingsPubMed, Web of Science, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies up to October 2018. An updated search was carried out up to the end of February 2020. Studies...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Amy Ronaldson Source Type: research

Impact of a pay-for-performance scheme for long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) advice on contraceptive uptake and abortion in British primary care: An interrupted time series study
We examined the impact and equity of this scheme on LARC uptake and abortions. Methods and findingsWe examined records of 3,281,667 women aged 13 to 54 years registered with a primary care clinic in Britain (England, Wales, and Scotland) using Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. We used interrupted time series (ITS) analysis to examine trends in annual LARC and non-LARC hormonal contraception (NLHC) uptake and abortion rates, stratified by age and deprivation groups, before and after the P4P was introduced in 2009/2010. Between 2004/2005 and 2013/2014, crude LARC uptake rates increased b...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Richard Ma Source Type: research

Maternal smoking and preterm birth: An unresolved health challenge
by Sarah J. Stock, Linda Bauld (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Sarah J. Stock Source Type: research

The relationship between circulating lipids and breast cancer risk: A Mendelian randomization study
This study aimed to assess a potential causal relationship between genetic variants associated with plasma lipid traits (high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; triglycerides, TGs) with risk for BC using Mendelian randomization (MR). Methods and findingsData from genome-wide association studies in up to 215,551 participants from the Million Veteran Program (MVP) were used to construct genetic instruments for plasma lipid traits. The effect of these instruments on BC risk was evaluated using genetic data from the BCAC (Breast Cancer Association Consortium) based on 122,977 BC cases and 105,974 controls....
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 11, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Kelsey E. Johnson Source Type: research

Comorbidities associated with mortality in 31,461 adults with COVID-19 in the United States: A federated electronic medical record analysis
The objective of this study was to determine associations between comorbidities listed in the Charlson comorbidity index and mortality among patients in the United States with COVID-19. Methods and findingsA retrospective cohort study of adults with COVID-19 from 24 healthcare organizations in the US was conducted. The study included adults aged 18 –90 years with COVID-19 coded in their electronic medical records between January 20, 2020, and May 26, 2020. Results were also stratified by age groups ( (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 10, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Stephanie L. Harrison Source Type: research

Providing TB and HIV outreach services to internally displaced populations in Northeast Nigeria: Results of a controlled intervention study
ConclusionsIn this study, we observed a burden of TB in IDP populations of Northeast Nigeria many times higher than national rates and HIV rates higher than state level estimates. The impact of the intervention showed that ACF can greatly increase TB case notifications. Engaging IDP communities, local governments, and civil society organizations is essential to ensuring the success of interventions targeting TB and HIV, and such approaches can provide sustained solutions to these and other health crises among vulnerable populations. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 9, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Suraj A. Abdullahi Source Type: research

Mediterranean diet and endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease: An analysis of the CORDIOPREV randomized controlled trial
ConclusionsOur results suggest that the Mediterranean diet better modulates endothelial function compared with a low-fat diet and is associated with a better balance of vascular homeostasis in CHD patients, even in those with severe endothelial dysfunction. Clinical trial registrationURL, http://www.cordioprev.es/index.php/en. clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00924937. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 9, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Elena M. Yubero-Serrano Source Type: research

Patterns of beverage purchases amongst British households: A latent class analysis
ConclusionsAmongst households that regularly purchase beverages, those that mainly purchased high volumes of SSBs or diet beverages were at greater risk of obesity and tended to purchase less healthy foods, including a high proportion of energy from sweet snacks. These households might additionally benefit from policies targeting unhealthy foods, such as sweet snacks, as a way of reducing excess energy intake. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 8, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Nicolas Berger Source Type: research

Adverse outcomes and mortality in users of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2: A Danish nationwide cohort study
ConclusionsUse of NSAIDs was not associated with 30-day mortality, hospitalization, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or renal replacement therapy in Danish individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Trial registrationThe European Union electronic Register of Post-Authorisation Studies EUPAS34734 (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 8, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Lars Christian Lund Source Type: research

COVID-19 prevention and treatment: A critical analysis of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine clinical pharmacology
by Nicholas J. White, James A. Watson, Richard M. Hoglund, Xin Hui S. Chan, Phaik Yeong Cheah, Joel Tarning Nicholas White and coauthors discuss chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine pharmacology in the context of possible treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 3, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Nicholas J. White Source Type: research

Social capital, social cohesion, and health of Syrian refugee working children living in informal tented settlements in Lebanon: A cross-sectional study
This study explored the relationship between social capital and the physical health and emotional well-being of Syrian refugee working children in rural areas of Lebanon. Methods and findingsIn this cross-sectional study, we surveyed 4,090 Syrian refugee children working in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon in 2017. Children (8 –18 years) gave direct testimony on their living and social environment in face-to-face interviews. Logistic regressions assessed the association of social capital and social cohesion with the health and emotional well-being of Syrian refugee working children; specifically, poor self-rated health, r...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 2, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Rima. R. Habib Source Type: research

Economic influences on population health in the United States: Toward policymaking driven by data and evidence
by Atheendar S. Venkataramani, Rourke O ’Brien, Gregory L. Whitehorn, Alexander C. Tsai Atheendar S. Venkataramani and colleagues discuss economic factors and population health in the United States. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 2, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Atheendar S. Venkataramani Source Type: research

Gabapentin in pregnancy and the risk of adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes: A population-based cohort study nested in the US Medicaid Analytic eXtract dataset
We examined the risk of major congenital malformations and cardiac defects associated with gabapentin exposure during the first trimester (T1), and the risk of preeclampsia (PE), preterm birth (PTB), small for gestational age (SGA), and neonatal intensive care unit admission (NICUa) associated with gabapentin exposure early, late, or both early and late in pregnancy. Gabapentin-unexposed pregnancies served as the reference. We estimated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using fine stratification on the propensity score (PS) to control for over 70 confounders (e.g., maternal age, race/ethnicity, indica...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 1, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Elisabetta Patorno Source Type: research

Factors associated with implant survival following total hip replacement surgery: A registry study of data from the National Joint Registry of England, Wales, Northern Ireland  and the Isle of Man
by Jonathan Thomas Evans, Ashley William Blom, Andrew John Timperley, Paul Dieppe, Matthew James Wilson, Adrian Sayers, Michael Richard Whitehouse BackgroundNearly 100,000 people underwent total hip replacement (THR) in the United Kingdom in 2018, and most can expect it to last at least 25 years. However, some THRs fail and require revision surgery, which results in worse outcomes for the patient and is costly to the health service. Variation in the survival of THR implants has been observed between units and reducing this unwarranted variation is one focus of the “Getting it Right First Time” (GIRFT) program i...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 31, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jonathan Thomas Evans Source Type: research

The reimagination of school-based physical activity research  in the COVID-19 era
by Deirdre M. Harrington, Michelle O ’Reilly Deirdre Harrington and Michelle O'Reilly discuss the article "Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the GoActive intervention to increase physical activity among UK adolescents: A cluster randomised controlled trial" by Kirsten Corder and colleagues. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 28, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Deirdre M. Harrington Source Type: research

A clinical algorithm for same-day HIV treatment initiation in settings with high TB symptom prevalence in South Africa: The SLATE II individually randomized clinical trial
ConclusionsMore than 85% of patients presenting for HIV testing or care, including those newly diagnosed, were eligible and ready for same-day initiation under the SLATE II algorithm. The algorithm increased initiation within 7 days without appearing to compromise retention and viral suppression at 8 months, offering a practical and acceptable approach that can be widely and immediately utilized by existing providers. Trial registrationClinicaltrials.gov NCT03315013, registered 19 October 2017. First participant enrolled 14 March 2018. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 27, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Mhairi Maskew Source Type: research

Ultra-processed food intake in association with BMI change and risk of overweight and obesity: A  prospective analysis of the French NutriNet-Santé cohort
The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between UPF consumption and the risk of overweight and obesi ty, as well as change in body mass index (BMI), in a large French cohort. Methods and findingsA total of 110,260 adult participants ( ≥18 years old, mean baseline age = 43.1 [SD 14.6] years; 78.2% women) from the French prospective population-based NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009–2019) were included. Dietary intakes were collected at baseline using repeated and validated 24-hour dietary records linked to a food composition databa se that included>3,500 different food items, each catego...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 27, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Marie Beslay Source Type: research

Projections of incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and incident type 2 diabetes across evolving statin treatment guidelines and recommendations: A modelling study
by Joseph C. Engeda, Stefan K. Lhachimi, Wayne D. Rosamond, Jennifer L. Lund, Thomas C. Keyserling, Monika M. Safford, Lisandro D. Colantonio, Paul Muntner, Christy L. Avery BackgroundExperimental and observational research has suggested the potential for increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among populations taking statins for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, few studies have directly compared statin-associated benefits and harms or examined heterogeneity by population subgroups or assumed treatment effect. Thus, we compared ASCVD risk reduction and T2D incidence increases...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 26, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Joseph C. Engeda Source Type: research

Dissecting maternal and fetal genetic effects underlying the associations between maternal phenotypes, birth outcomes, and adult phenotypes: A mendelian-randomization and haplotype-based genetic score analysis in 10,734 mother –infant pairs
by Jing Chen, Jonas Bacelis, Pol Sole-Navais, Amit Srivastava, Julius Juodakis, Amy Rouse, Mikko Hallman, Kari Teramo, Mads Melbye, Bjarke Feenstra, Rachel M. Freathy, George Davey Smith, Deborah A. Lawlor, Jeffrey C. Murray, Scott M. Williams, Bo Jacobsson, Louis J. Muglia, Ge Zhang BackgroundMany maternal traits are associated with a neonate ’s gestational duration, birth weight, and birth length. These birth outcomes are subsequently associated with late-onset health conditions. The causal mechanisms and the relative contributions of maternal and fetal genetic effects behind these observed associations are unresol...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 25, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jing Chen Source Type: research

Safety and parasite clearance of artemisinin-resistant < i > Plasmodium falciparum < /i > infection: A pilot and a randomised volunteer infection study in Australia
by Rebecca E. Watts, Anand Odedra, Louise Marquart, Lachlan Webb, Azrin N. Abd-Rahman, Laura Cascales, Stephan Chalon, Maria Rebelo, Zuleima Pava, Katharine A. Collins, Cielo Pasay, Nanhua Chen, Christopher L. Peatey, J örg J. Möhrle, James S. McCarthy BackgroundArtemisinin resistance is threatening malaria control. We aimed to develop and test a human model of artemisinin-resistant (ART-R)Plasmodium falciparum to evaluate the efficacy of drugs against ART-R malaria. Methods and findingsWe conducted 2 sequential phase 1, single-centre, open-label clinical trials at Q-Pharm, Brisbane, Australia, using the induced ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 21, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Rebecca E. Watts Source Type: research

Evaluation of seasonal malaria chemoprevention in two areas of intense seasonal malaria transmission: Secondary analysis of a household-randomised, placebo-controlled trial in Hound é District, Burkina Faso and Bougouni District, Mali
by Matthew E. Cairns, Issaka Sagara, Issaka Zongo, Irene Kuepfer, Ismaila Thera, Frederic Nikiema, Modibo Diarra, Serge R. Yerbanga, Amadou Barry, Amadou Tapily, Samba Coumare, Paul Milligan, Halidou Tinto, Jean Bosco Ou édraogo, Daniel Chandramohan, Brian Greenwood, Abdoulaye Djimde, Alassane Dicko BackgroundSeasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is now widely deployed in the Sahel, including several countries that are major contributors to the global burden of malaria. Consequently, it is important to understand whether SMC continues to provide a high level of protection and how SMC might be improved. SMC was eval...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 21, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Matthew E. Cairns Source Type: research

Evaluation of the effectiveness of topical repellent distributed by village health volunteer networks against   < i > Plasmodium < /i > spp. infection in Myanmar: A  stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial
ConclusionsIn this study, we observed apparent protection against new infections associated with the large-scale distribution of repellent by VHVs. Incorporation of repellent into national strategies, particularly in areas where bed nets are less effective, may contribute to the interruption of malaria transmission. Further studies are warranted across different transmission settings and populations, from the GMS and beyond, to inform WHO public health policy on the deployment of topical repellents for malaria prevention. Trial registrationAustralian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12616001434482). (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 20, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Paul A. Agius Source Type: research

Age and the association between apolipoprotein E genotype and Alzheimer disease: A cerebrospinal fluid biomarker –based case–control study
by Hana Saddiki, Aurore Fayosse, Emmanuel Cognat, S éverine Sabia, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, David Wallon, Panagiotis Alexopoulos, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Lucilla Parnetti, Inga Zerr, Peter Hermann, Audrey Gabelle, Mercè Boada, Adelina Orellana, Itziar de Rojas, Matthieu Lilamand, Maria Bjerke, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Lucia Farotti, Nicola Salvadori, Janine Diehl-Schmid, Timo Grimmer, Claire Hourregue, Aline Dugravot, Gaël Nicolas, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Sylvain Lehmann, Elodie Bouaziz-Amar, the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative , Jacques Hugon, Christophe Tzourio, Archana Singh-M...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 20, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Hana Saddiki Source Type: research

Variation in antibiotic prescription rates in febrile children presenting to emergency departments across Europe (MOFICHE): A  multicentre observational study
ConclusionsIn this study, we observed wide variation between European EDs in prescriptions of antibiotics and broad-spectrum antibiotics in febrile children. Overall, one-third of prescriptions were inappropriate or inconclusive, with marked variation between EDs. Until better diagnostics are available to accurately differentiate between bacterial and viral aetiologies, implementation of antimicrobial stewardship guidelines across Europe is necessary to limit antimicrobial resistance. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 19, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Nienke N. Hagedoorn Source Type: research

Psychological and pharmacological interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid mental health problems following complex traumatic events: Systematic review and component network meta-analysis
ConclusionsIn this systematic review and meta-analysis, we observed that trauma-focused psychological interventions are effective for managing mental health problems and comorbidities in people exposed to complex trauma. Multicomponent interventions, which can include phase-based approaches, were the most effective treatment package for managing PTSD in complex trauma. Establishing optimal ways to deliver multicomponent psychological interventions for people exposed to complex traumatic events is a research and clinical priority. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 19, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Peter A. Coventry Source Type: research