The relationship between lipoprotein A and other lipids with prostate cancer risk: A multivariable Mendelian randomisation study
ConclusionsWe observed that genetically predicted Lp(a) concentrations were associated with an increased PCa risk. Future studies are required to understand the underlying biological pathways of this finding, as it may inform PCa prevention through Lp(a)-lowering strategies. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 27, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Anna Ioannidou Source Type: research

Psychiatric comorbidity and risk of premature mortality and suicide among those with chronic respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes in Sweden: A nationwide matched cohort study of over 1 million patients and their unaffected siblings
by Amir Sariaslan, Michael Sharpe, Henrik Larsson, Achim Wolf, Paul Lichtenstein, Seena Fazel BackgroundPersons with noncommunicable diseases have elevated rates of premature mortality. The contribution of psychiatric comorbidity to this is uncertain. We aimed to determine the risks of premature mortality and suicide in people with common noncommunicable diseases, with and without psychiatric disorder comorbidity. Methods and findingsWe used nationwide registries to study all individuals born in Sweden between 1932 and 1995 with inpatient and outpatient diagnoses of chronic respiratory diseases (n = 249,825), cardiovascula...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 27, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Amir Sariaslan Source Type: research

Population sizes, HIV prevalence, and HIV prevention among men who paid for sex in sub-Saharan Africa (2000 –2020): A meta-analysis of 87 population-based surveys
ConclusionsPaying for sex is prevalent, and men who ever paid for sex were 50% more likely to be living with HIV compared to other men in these 35 countries. Further prevention efforts are needed for this vulnerable population, including improved access to HIV testing and condom use initiatives. Men who pay for sex should be recognized as a priority population for HIV prevention. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 25, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Caroline Hodgins Source Type: research

Overall and cause-specific hospitalisation and death after COVID-19 hospitalisation in England: A cohort study using linked primary care, secondary care, and death registration data in the OpenSAFELY platform
by Krishnan Bhaskaran, Christopher T. Rentsch, George Hickman, William J. Hulme, Anna Schultze, Helen J. Curtis, Kevin Wing, Charlotte Warren-Gash, Laurie Tomlinson, Chris J. Bates, Rohini Mathur, Brian MacKenna, Viyaasan Mahalingasivam, Angel Wong, Alex J. Walker, Caroline E. Morton, Daniel Grint, Amir Mehrkar, Rosalind M. Eggo, Peter Inglesby, Ian J. Douglas, Helen I. McDonald, Jonathan Cockburn, Elizabeth J. Williamson, David Evans, John Parry, Frank Hester, Sam Harper, Stephen JW Evans, Sebastian Bacon, Liam Smeeth, Ben Goldacre BackgroundThere is concern about medium to long-term adverse outcomes following acute Coron...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 25, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Krishnan Bhaskaran Source Type: research

Pandemic health consequences: Grasping the long COVID tail
by Kieran L. Quinn, Chaim M. Bell (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 25, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Kieran L. Quinn Source Type: research

Ruling out pulmonary embolism across different healthcare settings: A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis
ConclusionsThe capability of safely and efficiently ruling out PE of available diagnostic strategies differs for different healthcare settings. The findings of this IPD MA help in determining the optimum diagnostic strategies for ruling out PE per healthcare setting, balancing the trade-off between failure rate and efficiency of each strategy. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 25, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Geert-Jan Geersing Source Type: research

Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy: Updated comparisons and meta-analyses of newer versus older trials
ConclusionsReporting bias persists but appears to have diminished for newer, compared to older, antidepressants. Continued efforts are needed to further improve transparency in the scientific literature. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 19, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Erick H. Turner Source Type: research

Reporting bias in clinical trials: Progress toward transparency and next steps
by Mayookha Mitra-Majumdar, Aaron S. Kesselheim Mayookha Mitra-Majumdar and Aaron Kesselheim reflect on steps taken to combat reporting bias in clinical trials over the last two decades. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 19, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Mayookha Mitra-Majumdar Source Type: research

A nationwide school fruit and vegetable policy and childhood and adolescent overweight: A quasi-natural experimental study
This study used a quasi-natural experimental design. Between 2007 and 2014, Norwegian combined schools (grades 1 –10, age 6 to 16 years) were obligated to provide FFVs while elementary schools (grades 1–7) were not. We used 4 nationwide studies (n = 11,215 children) from the Norwegian Growth Cohort with longitudinal or cross-sectional anthropometric data up to age 8.5 and 13 years to capture variation in FFV exposure. Outcomes were body mass index standard deviation score (BMISDS), overweight and obesity (OW/OB), waist circumference (WC), and weight to height ratio (WtHR) at age 8.5 years, and BMISDS and OW/OB ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 18, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Bente Øvrebø Source Type: research

Effects of preconception lifestyle intervention in infertile women with obesity: The FIT-PLESE randomized controlled trial
by Richard S. Legro, Karl R. Hansen, Michael P. Diamond, Anne Z. Steiner, Christos Coutifaris, Marcelle I. Cedars, Kathleen M. Hoeger, Rebecca Usadi, Erica B. Johnstone, Daniel J. Haisenleder, Robert A. Wild, Kurt T. Barnhart, Jennifer Mersereau, J. C. Trussell, Stephen A. Krawetz, Penny M. Kris-Etherton, David B. Sarwer, Nanette Santoro, Esther Eisenberg, Hao Huang, Heping Zhang, for the Reproductive Medicine Network BackgroundWomen with obesity and infertility are counseled to lose weight prior to conception and infertility treatment to improve pregnancy rates and birth outcomes, although confirmatory evidence from rando...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 18, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Richard S. Legro Source Type: research

Clinical impact of vivax malaria: A collection review
ConclusionsYoung children and pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to adverse clinical impacts of vivax malaria, and preventing infections and relapse in this groups is a priority. Substantial evidence of severe presentations of vivax malaria has accrued over the last 10 years, but reporting is inconsistent. There are major knowledge gaps, for example, limited understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and the reason for the heterogenous geographical distribution of reported complications. An adapted case definition of severe vivax malaria would facilitate surveillance and future research to better understand th...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 18, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Aung Pyae Phyo Source Type: research

Integrating tuberculosis and noncommunicable diseases care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs): A systematic review
ConclusionsIntegration of TB and NCD services encourages the improvement of health service delivery across disease conditions and levels of care to address the combined burden of diseases in LMICs. This review not only offers recommendations for policy implementation and improvements for similar integrated programmes but also highlights the need for more high-quality TB –NCD research. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 18, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Chuan De Foo Source Type: research

Political rationale, aims, and outcomes of health-related high-level meetings and special sessions at the UN General Assembly: A  policy research observational study
ConclusionsOverall, UNGASSs and HLMs have the potential to lay better foundations and boldly address key health challenges. However, to succeed, they need to (i) be backed by large consensus; (ii) engage UN authorities and high-level bodies; (iii) emphasise implications for international security and the world economy; (iv) be supported by the civil society, activists, and champions; and (v) produce a political declaration containing specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) targets. Therefore, to ensure impact on health challenges, in addition to working with the World Health Assembly and health m...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 13, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Paolo Rodi Source Type: research

Low-dose aspirin and incidence of lung carcinoma in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Hong Kong: A cohort study
by Si-Yeung Yu, Mary Sau-Man Ip, Xue Li, Ka-Shing Cheung, Qing-Wen Ren, Mei-Zhen Wu, Hang-Long Li, Pui-Fai Wong, Hung-Fat Tse, Kai-Hang Yiu BackgroundEvidence suggests that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a higher risk of lung carcinoma. Using a territory-wide clinical electronic medical records system, we investigated the association between low-dose aspirin use ( ≤160 mg) among patients with COPD and incidence of lung carcinoma and the corresponding risk of bleeding. Methods and findingsThis is a retrospective cohort study conducted utilizing Clinical Data Analysis Reporting System (CDA...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 13, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Si-Yeung Yu Source Type: research

Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with risk of dementia among individuals with type 2 diabetes: A cohort study in the UK Biobank
This study aimed to investigate the associations of circulating vitamin D levels with risks of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VD) among adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods and findingsThis study included 13,486 individuals ( ≥60 years) with T2D and free of dementia at recruitment (2006–2010) from the UK Biobank study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations were measured using the chemiluminescent immunoassay method at recruitment. Serum 25(OH)D ≥ 75 nmol/L was considered sufficient, according to the En docrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines. Incidence...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 13, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tingting Geng Source Type: research

Protection against discrimination in national dementia guideline recommendations: A systematic review
ConclusionsNational guidelines for dementia vary in their consideration of protected characteristics. We found that around a fifth of the world ’s countries have guidelines for dementia. We have identified areas of good practice that can be considered for future guidelines and suggest that all guidelines provide specific evidence-based recommendations for minority groups with examples of how to implement them. This will promote equity in the care of people affected by dementia and help to ensure that people with protected characteristics also have high-quality clinical services. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 11, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tiffeny James Source Type: research

Safety and immunogenicity of 2-dose heterologous Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo Ebola vaccination in children and adolescents in Africa: A randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre Phase II clinical trial
ConclusionsThe heterologous 2-dose vaccination was well tolerated in African adolescents and children with no vaccine-related SAEs. All vaccinees displayed anti-EBOV GP antibodies after the 2-dose regimen, with higher responses in the 56-day interval groups. The frequency of pyrexia after vaccine or placebo was higher in children than in adolescents. These data supported the prophylactic indication against EBOV disease in a paediatric population, as licenced in the EU. Trial NCT02564523. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 11, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Zacchaeus Anywaine Source Type: research

Obstetric interventions and pregnancy outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in England: A nationwide cohort study
by Ipek Gurol-Urganci, Lara Waite, Kirstin Webster, Jennifer Jardine, Fran Carroll, George Dunn, Alissa Fr émeaux, Tina Harris, Jane Hawdon, Patrick Muller, Jan van der Meulen, Asma Khalil BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted maternity services worldwide and imposed restrictions on societal behaviours. This national study aimed to compare obstetric intervention and pregnancy outcome rates in England during the pandemic and corresponding pre-pandemic calendar periods, and to assess whether differences in these rates varied according to ethnic and socioeconomic background. Methods and findingsWe conducted a n...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 10, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Ipek Gurol-Urganci Source Type: research

Sex-specific associations of adiposity with cardiometabolic traits in the UK: A multi –life stage cohort study with repeat metabolomics
ConclusionsThe results of this study suggest that associations of adiposity with adverse cardiometabolic risk begin earlier in the life course among males compared with females and are stronger until midlife, particularly for key atherogenic lipids. Adolescent and young adult males may therefore be high priority targets for obesity prevention efforts. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 6, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Linda M. O ’Keeffe Source Type: research

Factors associated with excess all-cause mortality in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK: A time series analysis using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink
ConclusionsThe first wave of the UK COVID-19 pandemic appeared to amplify baseline mortality risk to approximately the same relative degree for most population subgroups. However, disproportionate increases in mortality were seen for those with dementia, learning disabilities, non-white ethnicity, or living in London. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 6, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Helen Strongman Source Type: research

GP-delivered medication review of polypharmacy, deprescribing, and patient priorities in older people with multimorbidity in Irish primary care (SPPiRE Study): A cluster randomised controlled trial
ConclusionsThe SPPiRE intervention resulted in a small but significant reduction in the number of medicines but no evidence of a clear effect on PIP. This reduction in significant polypharmacy may have more of an impact at a population rather than individual patient level. Trial registrationISRCTN Registry ISRCTN12752680. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 5, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Caroline McCarthy Source Type: research

Plant-based diets and incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in African Americans: A cohort study
ConclusionsIn this study of black Americans, we observed that, unlike in prior studies, greater adherence to a plant-based diet was not associated with CVD or all-cause mortality. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 5, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Leah J. Weston Source Type: research

Use of open-text responses to recode categorical survey data on postpartum contraception use among women in the United States: A mixed-methods inquiry of Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data
ConclusionsIn this study, we observed that respondents reporting contraception nonuse often described other methods of pregnancy prevention and contraception barriers that were not included in categorical response options. Open-text responses shed light on a more comprehensive list of pregnancy prevention methods and nonuse options. Our findings contribute to survey questions that can lead to more accurate depiction of postpartum contraceptive behavior. Additionally, future use of these qualitative methods may be used to improve other health behavior survey development and resulting data. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 5, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Nicole K. Richards Source Type: research

Peer-led counselling with problem discussion therapy for adolescents living with HIV in Zimbabwe: A cluster-randomised trial
by Victoria Simms, Helen A. Weiss, Silindweyinkosi Chinoda, Abigail Mutsinze, Sarah Bernays, Ruth Verhey, Carol Wogrin, Tsitsi Apollo, Owen Mugurungi, Dorcas Sithole, Dixon Chibanda, Nicola Willis BackgroundAdolescents living with HIV have poor virological suppression and high prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs). In Zimbabwe, the Zvandiri adolescent peer support programme is effective at improving virological suppression. We assessed the effect of training Zvandiri peer counsellors known as Community Adolescent Treatment Supporters (CATS) in problem-solving therapy (PST) on virological suppression and mental healt...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 5, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Victoria Simms Source Type: research

Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control and their association with healthcare access in the middle-aged and older Indian population: A nationwide cohort study
by Jinkook Lee, Jenny Wilkens, Erik Meijer, T. V. Sekher, David E. Bloom, Peifeng Hu BackgroundHypertension is the most important cardiovascular risk factor in India, and representative studies of middle-aged and older Indian adults have been lacking. Our objectives were to estimate the proportions of hypertensive adults who had been diagnosed, took antihypertensive medication, and achieved control in the middle-aged and older Indian population and to investigate the association between access to healthcare and hypertension management. Methods and findingsWe designed a nationally representative cohort study of the middle-a...
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 4, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jinkook Lee Source Type: research

The impact of removing financial incentives and/or audit and feedback on chlamydia testing in general practice: A cluster randomised controlled trial (ACCEPt-able)
ConclusionsAudit/feedback is more effective than financial incentives of AU$5 –AU$8 per chlamydia test at sustaining GP chlamydia testing practices over time in Australian general practice. Trial registrationAustralian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000595617 (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 4, 2022 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jane S. Hocking Source Type: research

Correction: Social determinants of mortality from COVID-19: A simulation study using NHANES
by Benjamin Seligman, Maddalena Ferranna, David E. Bloom (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 29, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Benjamin Seligman Source Type: research

Access to and safety of COVID-19 convalescent plasma in the United States Expanded Access Program: A national registry study
The objective of this study is to report on the demographic, geographical, and chronological characteristics of patients in the EAP, and key safety metrics following transfusion of COVID-19 convalescent plasma. Methods and findingsMayo Clinic served as the central institutional review board for all participating facilities, and any US physician could participate as a local physician –principal investigator. Eligible patients were hospitalized, were aged 18 years or older, and had—or were at risk of progression to—severe or life-threatening COVID-19; eligible patients were enrolled through the EAP central ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 20, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jonathon W. Senefeld Source Type: research

Vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death when combining a first dose ChAdOx1 vaccine with a subsequent mRNA vaccine in Denmark: A nationwide population-based cohort study
ConclusionsIn this study, we observed a large reduction in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection when combining the ChAdOx1 and an mRNA vaccine, compared with unvaccinated individuals. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 17, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Mie Agermose Gram Source Type: research

Completion of isoniazid –rifapentine (3HP) for tuberculosis prevention among people living with HIV: Interim analysis of a hybrid type 3 effectiveness–implementation randomized trial
ConclusionsThe 3HP was widely accepted by people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Uganda, and very high levels of treatment completion were achieved in a programmatic setting. These findings show that 3HP can enable effective scale-up of tuberculosis preventive therapy (TPT) in high-burden countries, particularly when delivery strategies are tailored to target known barriers to treatment completion. Trial NCT03934931. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 16, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Fred C. Semitala Source Type: research

Introduction and expansion of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant and reinfections in Qatar: A nationally representative cohort study
ConclusionsIn this study, we observed that introduction of B.1.1.7 into a na ïve population can create a major epidemic wave, but natural immunity in those previously infected was strongly associated with limited incidence of reinfection by B.1.1.7 or other variants. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 16, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Laith J. Abu-Raddad Source Type: research

Correction: Urine tumor DNA detection of minimal residual disease in muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with curative-intent radical cystectomy: A cohort study
by Pradeep S. Chauhan, Kevin Chen, Ramandeep K. Babbra, Wenjia Feng, Nadja Pejovic, Armaan Nallicheri, Peter K. Harris, Katherine Dienstbach, Andrew Atkocius, Lenon Maguire, Faridi Qaium, Jeffrey J. Szymanski, Brian C. Baumann, Li Ding, Dengfeng Cao, Melissa A. Reimers, Eric H. Kim, Zachary L. Smith, Vivek K. Arora, Aadel A. Chaudhuri (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 14, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Pradeep S. Chauhan Source Type: research

Assessing the relationship between agency and peer violence among adolescents aged 10 to 14 years in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo and Blantyre, Malawi: A cross-sectional study
by Astha Ramaiya, Linnea Zimmerman, Eric Mafuta, Aimee Lulebo, Effie Chipeta, William Stones, Caroline Moreau BackgroundInterpersonal violence has physical, emotional, educational, social, and economic implications. Although there is interest in empowering young people to challenge harmful norms, there is scant research on how individual agency, and, specifically, the “power to” resist or bring about an outcome relates to peer violence perpetration and victimization in early adolescence. This manuscript explores the relationship between individual agency and peer violence perpetration and victimization among ve...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 13, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Astha Ramaiya Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among the general population and healthcare workers in India, June –July 2021: A population-based cross-sectional study
by Manoj V. Murhekar, Tarun Bhatnagar, Jeromie Wesley Vivian Thangaraj, V. Saravanakumar, Muthusamy Santhosh Kumar, Sriram Selvaraju, Kiran Rade, C. P. Girish Kumar, R. Sabarinathan, Smita Asthana, Rakesh Balachandar, Sampada Dipak Bangar, Avi Kumar Bansal, Jyothi Bhat, Debjit Chakraborty, Vishal Chopra, Dasarathi Das, Kangjam Rekha Devi, Gaurav Raj Dwivedi, Agam Jain, S. Muhammad Salim Khan, M. Sunil Kumar, Avula Laxmaiah, Major Madhukar, Amarendra Mahapatra, Talluri Ramesh, Chethana Rangaraju, Jyotirmayee Turuk, Suresh Yadav, Balram Bhargava, on behalf of the ICMR serosurveillance group BackgroundIndia began COVID-19 vac...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 10, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Manoj V. Murhekar Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 vaccine boosters: The time to act is now
by Maya Petersen, Joshua Schwab, Diane V. Havlir We have a new and unprecedented opportunity to mitigate the suffering, death and inequities of COVID-19 in the United States with vaccine boosters—if we deploy them effectively, rapidly, and widely with simplified messaging to all eligible adults. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 9, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Maya Petersen Source Type: research

Neutralizing antibody responses over time in demographically and clinically diverse individuals recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection in the United States and Peru: A cohort study
ConclusionsIn summary, in our cohort, nAb titers after SARS-CoV-2 infection peaked approximately 1 month post-diagnosis and varied by age, sex assigned at birth, disease severity, and underlying comorbidities. Our data show great heterogeneity in nAb responses among people with recent COVID-19, highlighting the challenges of interpreting natural history studies and gauging responses to vaccines and therapeutics among people with recent infection. Our observations illuminate potential correlations of demographic and clinical characteristics with nAb responses, a key element for protection from COVID-19, thus informing devel...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 6, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Shelly Karuna Source Type: research

Dose –response association between moderate to vigorous physical activity and incident morbidity and mortality for individuals with a different cardiovascular health status: A cohort study among 142,493 adults from the Netherlands
by Esm ée A. Bakker, Duck-chul Lee, Maria T. E. Hopman, Eline J. Oymans, Paula M. Watson, Paul D. Thompson, Dick H. J. Thijssen, Thijs. M. H. Eijsvogels BackgroundModerate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is strongly associated with risk reductions of noncommunicable diseases and mortality. Cardiovascular health status may influence the benefits of MVPA. We compare the association between MVPA and incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and mortality between healthy individuals, individuals with elevated levels of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and findi...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 2, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Esm ée A. Bakker Source Type: research

Hospital delivery and neonatal mortality in 37 countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia: An ecological study
In this study, we examine the association between hospital delivery and neonatal mortality. Methods and findingsWe used an ecological study design to assess cross-sectional associations between the share of hospital delivery and neonatal mortality across country regions. Data were from the Demographic and Health Surveys from 2009 to 2018, covering 682,239 births across all regions. We assess the association between the share of facility births in a region that occurred in hospitals (versus lower-level clinics) and early (0 to 7 days) neonatal mortality per 1,000 births, controlling for potential confounders including the s...
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 1, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Anna D. Gage Source Type: research

Long-term risk of a major cardiovascular event by apoB, apoA-1, and the apoB/apoA-1 ratio —Experience from the Swedish AMORIS cohort: A cohort study
ConclusionsAn imbalance between apoB and apoA-1 resulting in an increased apoB/apoA-1 ratio is strongly associated with the outcome MACE and its sub-components, in both men and women of all ages. An increased apoB/apoA-1 ratio already 2 decades before events calls for early recognition and primary prevention. Simple evidence-based cut values should be considered in future cardiovascular guidelines. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - December 1, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: G öran Walldius Source Type: research

Disease-related income and economic productivity loss in New Zealand: A longitudinal analysis of linked individual-level data
ConclusionsIn this longitudinal study, we found that income loss varies considerably by disease. Nevertheless, mental illness, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal diseases stand out as likely major causes of economic productivity loss, suggesting that they should be prioritised in prevention programmes. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - November 30, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tony Blakely Source Type: research

Obstetrical outcomes and maternal morbidities associated with COVID-19 in pregnant women in France: A national retrospective cohort study
by Sylvie Epelboin, Julie Labrosse, Jacques De Mouzon, Patricia Fauque, Marie-Jos é Gervoise-Boyer, Rachel Levy, Nathalie Sermondade, Laetitia Hesters, Marianne Bergère, Claire Devienne, Philippe Jonveaux, Jade Ghosn, Fabienne Pessione BackgroundTo the best of our knowledge, no study has exhaustively evaluated the association between maternal morbidities and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the first wave of the pandemic in pregnant women. We investigated, in natural conceptions and assisted reproductive technique (ART) pregnancies, whether maternal morbidities were more frequent in pregnant women w...
Source: PLoS Medicine - November 30, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Sylvie Epelboin Source Type: research

Cash transfers for HIV prevention: A systematic review
ConclusionsThe evidence base for large-scale impacts of cash transfers reducing HIV risk is limited; however, government social protection cash transfer programs and programs that incentivize school attendance among adolescent girls and young women show the greatest promise for HIV prevention. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - November 29, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Marie C. D. Stoner Source Type: research

COVID-19 in Africa: Catalyzing change for sustainable development
by Salim S. Abdool Karim, Segenet Kelemu, Cheryl Baxter Salim Abdool Karim, Segenet Kelemu and Cheryl Baxter discuss COVID-19 impacts and adaptations in Africa. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - November 29, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Salim S. Abdool Karim Source Type: research

Lay testing cadres and point-of-care diagnostic tests for HIV and other diseases: An essential combination in health service delivery
by Zibusiso Ndlovu, Tom Ellman Zibusiso Ndlovu and Tom Ellman discuss the potential value of task sharing in provision of testing for HIV and other infectious diseases. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - November 24, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Zibusiso Ndlovu Source Type: research

Prevalence and determinants of healthcare avoidance during the COVID-19 pandemic: A population-based cross-sectional study
ConclusionsIn this population-based cross-sectional study, 1 in 5 individuals avoided healthcare during lockdown in the COVID-19 pandemic, often for potentially urgent symptoms. Healthcare avoidance was strongly associated with female sex, fragile self-appreciated health, and high levels of depression and anxiety. These results emphasise the need for targeted public education urging these vulnerable patients to timely seek medical care for their symptoms to mitigate major health consequences. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - November 23, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Marije J. Splinter Source Type: research

Exposure to duloxetine during pregnancy and risk of congenital malformations and stillbirth: A nationwide cohort study in Denmark and Sweden
ConclusionsBased on this observational register-based nationwide study with data from Sweden and Denmark, no increased risk of major or minor congenital malformations or stillbirth was associated with exposure to duloxetine during pregnancy. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - November 22, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Mikkel Z öllner Ankarfeldt Source Type: research

Adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with diabetes-related microvascular disease and risks of disease progression in pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis
by Sophie Relph, Trusha Patel, Louisa Delaney, Soha Sobhy, Shakila Thangaratinam BackgroundThe rise in the global prevalence of diabetes, particularly among younger people, has led to an increase in the number of pregnant women with preexisting diabetes, many of whom have diabetes-related microvascular complications. We aimed to estimate the magnitude of the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes or disease progression in this population. Methods and findingsWe undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on maternal and perinatal complications in women with type 1 or 2 diabetic microvascular disease and the risk factors f...
Source: PLoS Medicine - November 22, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Sophie Relph Source Type: research

Consumption of coffee and tea and risk of developing stroke, dementia, and poststroke dementia: A cohort study in the UK Biobank
by Yuan Zhang, Hongxi Yang, Shu Li, Wei-dong Li, Yaogang Wang BackgroundPrevious studies have revealed the involvement of coffee and tea in the development of stroke and dementia. However, little is known about the association between the combination of coffee and tea and the risk of stroke, dementia, and poststroke dementia. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the associations of coffee and tea separately and in combination with the risk of developing stroke and dementia. Methods and findingsThis prospective cohort study included 365,682 participants (50 to 74 years old) from the UK Biobank. Participants joined the study f...
Source: PLoS Medicine - November 16, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Yuan Zhang Source Type: research

Educational and health outcomes of schoolchildren in local authority care in Scotland: A retrospective record linkage study
ConclusionsLooked after children had poorer health and educational outcomes than peers independent of increased neurodevelopmental conditions and SEN. Further work is required to understand whether poorer outcomes relate to reasons for entering care, including maltreatment and adverse childhood events, neurodevelopmental vulnerabilities, or characteristics of the care system. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - November 12, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Michael Fleming Source Type: research

Grade repetition and bullying victimization in adolescents: A global cross-sectional study of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) data from 2018
This study aimed to investigate the global association of grade repetition with bullying victimization in a large-scale school-based cross-sectiona l study. Methods and findingsWe used the latest global data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018. PISA 2018 was conducted between March and August 2018 in 80 countries and economies among students aged 15 –16 years attending secondary education. The students reported their experiences of repeating a grade at any time point before the survey and of being bullied in the past 12 months. The outcome measures were 6 types of bullying victimization....
Source: PLoS Medicine - November 11, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Qiguo Lian Source Type: research