The blood metabolome of incident kidney cancer: A case –control study nested within the MetKid consortium
ConclusionsThis study suggests a potentially important role of the blood metabolome in kidney cancer aetiology by highlighting a wide range of metabolites associated with the risk of developing kidney cancer and the extent to which changes in levels of these metabolites are driven by BMI —the principal modifiable risk factor of kidney cancer. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 20, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Florence Guida Source Type: research

Effect of a patient-centered hypertension delivery strategy on all-cause mortality: Secondary analysis of SEARCH, a community-randomized trial in rural Kenya and Uganda
by Matthew D. Hickey, James Ayieko, Asiphas Owaraganise, Nicholas Sim, Laura B. Balzer, Jane Kabami, Mucunguzi Atukunda, Fredrick J. Opel, Erick Wafula, Marilyn Nyabuti, Lillian Brown, Gabriel Chamie, Vivek Jain, James Peng, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Carol S. Camlin, Edwin D. Charlebois, Craig R. Cohen, Elizabeth A. Bukusi, Moses R. Kamya, Maya L. Petersen, Diane V. Havlir BackgroundHypertension treatment reduces morbidity and mortality yet has not been broadly implemented in many low-resource settings, including sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We hypothesized that a patient-centered integrated chronic disease model that included hype...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 20, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Matthew D. Hickey Source Type: research

Community-facility linkage models and maternal and infant health outcomes in Malawi ’s PMTCT/ART program: A cohort study
by Michael E. Herce, Maganizo B. Chagomerana, Lauren C. Zalla, Nicole B. Carbone, Benjamin H. Chi, Michael T. Eliya, Sam Phiri, Stephanie M. Topp, Maria H. Kim, Emily B. Wroe, Chileshe Chilangwa, Jacqueline Chinkonde, Innocent A. Mofolo, Mina C. Hosseinipour, Jessie K. Edwards BackgroundIn sub-Saharan Africa, 3 community-facility linkage (CFL) models —Expert Clients, Community Health Workers (CHWs), and Mentor Mothers—have been widely implemented to support pregnant and breastfeeding women (PBFW) living with HIV and their infants to access and sustain care for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 17, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Michael E. Herce Source Type: research

All-cause and cause-specific mortality during and following incarceration in Brazil: A retrospective cohort study
ConclusionsIncarcerated individuals in Brazil experienced increased mortality from violence, suicide, and communicable diseases. Mortality was heightened following release for all leading causes of death, with particularly high risk of early violent death and elevated all-cause mortality up to 8 years post-release. These disparities may have been underrecognized in Brazil due to underreporting and insufficient data. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 17, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Yiran E. Liu Source Type: research

Differences in outcomes of mandatory motorcycle helmet legislation by country income level: A systematic review and meta-analysis
by Jacob R. Lepard, Riccardo Spagiari, Jacquelyn Corley, Ernest J. Barth élemy, Eliana Kim, Rolvix Patterson, Sara Venturini, Megan E. H. Still, Yu Tung Lo, Gail Rosseau, Rania A. Mekary, Kee B. Park BackgroundThe recent Lancet Commission on Legal Determinants of Global Health argues that governance can provide the framework for achieving sustainable development goals. Even though over 90% of fatal road traffic injuries occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) primarily affecting motorcyclists, the utility of helmet laws outside of high-income settings has not been well characterized. We sought to evaluate ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 17, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jacob R. Lepard Source Type: research

Associations between women ’s empowerment and child development, growth, and nurturing care practices in sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-sectional analysis of demographic and health survey data
We examined the associations between women’s empowerment and child development, growth, early learning, and nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods and findingsWe pooled data on married women (15 to 49 years) and their children (36 to 59 months) from Demographic and Health Surveys that collected data on child development (2011 to 2018) in 9 SSA countries (N = 21,434): Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, and Uganda. We constructed a women ’s empowerment score using factor analysis and assigned women to country-specific quintile categories. The child outcomes included cognitive, s...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 16, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Lilia Bliznashka Source Type: research

Correction: Benefit and harm of intensive blood pressure treatment: Derivation and validation of risk models using data from the SPRINT and ACCORD trials
by Sanjay Basu, Jeremy B. Sussman, Joseph Rigdon, Lauren Steimle, Brian T. Denton, Rodney A. Hayward (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 16, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Sanjay Basu Source Type: research

Association of physical activity intensity and bout length with mortality: An observational study of 79,503 UK Biobank participants
In this study, we used a novel method that accounts for substitution (i.e., more time in MVPA means less time sleeping, in light activity or sedentary) to examine whether length of sedentary and MVPA bouts associates with all-cause mortality. Methods and findingsWe used data on 79,503 adult participants from the population-based UK Biobank cohort, which recruited participants between 2006 and 2010 (mean age at accelerometer wear 62.1 years [SD = 7.9], 54.5% women; mean length of follow-up 5.1 years [SD = 0.73]). We derived (1) the total time participants spent in activity categories —sleep, sedentary, light activity,...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 15, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Lousise A. C. Millard Source Type: research

Intrinsic capacity and its associations with incident dependence and mortality in 10/66 Dementia Research Group studies in Latin America, India, and China: A population-based cohort study
ConclusionsIn this study we observed a high prevalence of DICs, particularly in older age groups. Those affected had substantially increased risks of dependence and death. Most needs for care arose in those with DIC yet to become frail. Our findings provide some support for the strategy of optimising intrinsic capacity in pursuit of healthy ageing. Implementation at scale requires community-based screening and assessment, and a stepped-care intervention approach, with redefined roles for community healthcare workers and efforts to engage, train, and support them in these tasks. ICOPE might be usefully integrated into commu...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Martin J. Prince Source Type: research

Tuberculosis preventive treatment in people living with HIV —Is the glass half empty or half full?
by Olivia Oxlade, Hannah Rochon, Jonathon R. Campbell, Dick Menzies Olivia Oxlade and co-authors introduce a Collection on tuberculosis preventive therapy in people with HIV infection. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Olivia Oxlade Source Type: research

Economic and modeling evidence for tuberculosis preventive therapy among people living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis
by Aashna Uppal, Samiha Rahman, Jonathon R. Campbell, Olivia Oxlade, Dick Menzies BackgroundHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the strongest known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) through its impairment of T-cell immunity. Tuberculosis preventive treatment (TPT) is recommended for people living with HIV (PLHIV) by the World Health Organization, as it significantly reduces the risk of developing TB disease. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of modeling studies to summarize projected costs, risks, benefits, and impacts of TPT use among PLHIV on TB-related outcomes. Methods and findingsWe searched MEDLINE...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Aashna Uppal Source Type: research

Tuberculosis preventive therapy for people living with HIV: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
ConclusionsRifamycin-containing regimens appear safer and at least as effective as isoniazid regimens in preventing TB and death and should be considered part of routine care in PLHIV. Knowledge gaps remain as to which specific rifamycin-containing regimen provides the optimal balance of efficacy, completion, and safety. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Mercedes Yanes-Lane Source Type: research

Impact of decreasing the proportion of higher energy foods and reducing portion sizes on food purchased in worksite cafeterias: A stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial
by James P. Reynolds, Minna Ventsel, Daina Kos īte, Brier Rigby Dames, Laura Brocklebank, Sarah Masterton, Emily Pechey, Mark Pilling, Rachel Pechey, Gareth J. Hollands, Theresa M. Marteau BackgroundOverconsumption of energy from food is a major contributor to the high rates of overweight and obesity in many populations. There is growing evidence that interventions that target the food environment may be effective at reducing energy intake. The current study aimed to estimate the effect of decreasing the proportion of higher energy (kcal) foods, with and without reducing portion size, on energy purchased in worksite cafet...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: James P. Reynolds Source Type: research

Evaluating the frequency of English language requirements in clinical trial eligibility criteria: A systematic analysis using ClinicalTrials.gov
by Akila V. Muthukumar, Walker Morrell, Barbara E. Bierer BackgroundA number of prior studies have demonstrated that research participants with limited English proficiency in the United States are routinely excluded from clinical trial participation. Systematic exclusion through study eligibility criteria that require trial participants to be able to speak, read, and/or understand English affects access to clinical trials and scientific generalizability. We sought to establish the frequency with which English language proficiency is required and, conversely, when non-English languages are affirmatively accommodated in US i...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Akila V. Muthukumar Source Type: research

The burden of traumatic brain injury from low-energy falls among patients from 18 countries in the CENTER-TBI Registry: A comparative cohort study
by Fiona E. Lecky, Olubukola Otesile, Carl Marincowitz, Marek Majdan, Daan Nieboer, Hester F. Lingsma, Marc Maegele, Giuseppe Citerio, Nino Stocchetti, Ewout W. Steyerberg, David K. Menon, Andrew I. R. Maas, CENTER-TBI Participants and Investigators BackgroundTraumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important global public health burden, where those injured by high-energy transfer (e.g., road traffic collisions) are assumed to have more severe injury and are prioritised by emergency medical service trauma triage tools. However recent studies suggest an increasing TBI disease burden in older people injured through low-energy fall...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Fiona E. Lecky Source Type: research

Closing the health equity gap: A role for implementation science?
by Beryne Odeny Beryne Odeny discusses strategies to improve equity in health care and health research. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Beryne Odeny Source Type: research

Socioeconomic inequalities in prevalence and development of multimorbidity across adulthood: A longitudinal analysis of the MRC 1946 National Survey of Health and Development in the UK
by Amal R. Khanolkar, Nishi Chaturvedi, Valerie Kuan, Daniel Davis, Alun Hughes, Marcus Richards, David Bann, Praveetha Patalay BackgroundWe aimed to estimate multimorbidity trajectories and quantify socioeconomic inequalities based on childhood and adulthood socioeconomic position (SEP) in the risks and rates of multimorbidity accumulation across adulthood. Methods and findingsParticipants from the UK 1946 National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) birth cohort study who attended the age 36 years assessment in 1982 and any one of the follow-up assessments at ages 43, 53, 63, and 69 years (N = 3,723, 51% males). Info...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 14, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Amal R. Khanolkar Source Type: research

Achieving global equity for COVID-19 vaccines: Stronger international partnerships and greater advocacy and solidarity are needed
by J Peter Figueroa, Peter J. Hotez, Carolina Batista, Yanis Ben Amor, Onder Ergonul, Sarah Gilbert, Mayda Gursel, Mazen Hassanain, Gagandeep Kang, David C. Kaslow, Jerome H. Kim, Bhavna Lall, Heidi Larson, Denise Naniche, Timothy Sheahan, Shmuel Shoham, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Samba O. Sow, Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, Prashant Yadav, Maria Elena Bottazzi Peter Figueroa and co-authors advocate for equity in the worldwide provision of COVID-19 vaccines. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 13, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: J Peter Figueroa Source Type: research

Correction: Associations of obesity and malnutrition with cardiac remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes in Asian adults: A cohort study
by Shih-Chieh Chien, Chanchal Chandramouli, Chi-In Lo, Chao-Feng Lin, Kuo-Tzu Sung, Wen-Hung Huang, Yau-Huei Lai, Chun-Ho Yun, Cheng Huang, Hung-I Yeh, Ta-Chuan Hung, Chung-Lieh Hung, Carolyn S. P. Lam (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 13, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Shih-Chieh Chien Source Type: research

Social Innovation For Health Research (SIFHR): Development of the SIFHR Checklist
ConclusionsThe SIFHR Checklist will strengthen the reporting of social innovation in health research studies. More research is needed on social innovation for health. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 13, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Eneyi E. Kpokiri Source Type: research

Body muscle gain and markers of cardiovascular disease susceptibility in young adulthood: A cohort study
ConclusionsIn this study, we found that muscle strengthening, as indicated by grip strength gain, was weakly associated with lower atherogenic trait levels in young adulthood, at a smaller magnitude than unfavourable associations of fat mass gain. Associations of muscle mass gain with such traits appear to be smaller and limited to gains occurring in adolescence. These results suggest that body muscle is less robustly associated with markers of CVD susceptibility than body fat and may therefore be a lower-priority intervention target. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 9, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Joshua A. Bell Source Type: research

Computer-aided X-ray screening for tuberculosis and HIV testing among adults with cough in Malawi (the PROSPECT study): A randomised trial and cost-effectiveness analysis
ConclusionsDCXR-CAD with universal HIV screening significantly increased the timeliness and completeness of HIV and TB diagnosis. If implemented at scale, this has potential to rapidly and efficiently improve TB and HIV diagnosis and treatment. Trial registrationclinicaltrials.gov NCT03519425. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 9, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Peter MacPherson Source Type: research

Effectiveness of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) treatments when SMC is implemented at scale: Case –control studies in 5 countries
by Matthew Cairns, Serign Jawo Ceesay, Issaka Sagara, Issaka Zongo, Hamit Kessely, Kadidja Gamougam, Abdoulaye Diallo, Johnbull Sonny Ogboi, Diego Moroso, Suzanne Van Hulle, Tony Eloike, Paul Snell, Susana Scott, Corinne Merle, Kalifa Bojang, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, Alassane Dicko, Jean-Louis Ndiaye, Paul Milligan BackgroundSeasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) has shown high protective efficacy against clinical malaria and severe malaria in a series of clinical trials. We evaluated the effectiveness of SMC treatments against clinical malaria when delivered at scale through national malaria control programmes in 2015 and 20...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 8, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Matthew Cairns Source Type: research

Infections in temporal proximity to HPV vaccination and adverse effects following vaccination in Denmark: A nationwide register-based cohort study and case-crossover analysis
by Lene Wulff Krogsgaard, Irene Petersen, Oleguer Plana-Ripoll, Bodil Hammer Bech, Tina Hovgaard L ützen, Reimar Wernich Thomsen, Dorte Rytter BackgroundPublic trust in the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination programme has been challenged by reports of potential severe adverse effects. The reported adverse symptoms were heterogeneous and overlapping with those characterised as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and have been described as CFS-like symptoms. Evidence suggests that CFS is often precipitated by an infection. The aim of the study was to examine if an infection in temporal proximity to HPV vaccination is a ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 8, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Lene Wulff Krogsgaard Source Type: research

Correction: Bone marrow microenvironments that contribute to patient outcomes in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: A cohort study of patients in the Total Therapy clinical trials
by The PLOS Medicine Staff (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 8, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: The PLOS Medicine Staff Source Type: research

The latent tuberculosis cascade-of-care among people living with HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsAlthough substantial losses were seen in multiple stages of the cascade-of-care, the cumulative proportion of PLHIV completing TPT was higher than previously reported among other at-risk populations. The use of LTBI testing in PLHIV in low- and middle-income countries was associated with higher proportion of the cohorts initiating TPT and with similar rates of completion of TPT. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 7, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Mayara Lisboa Bastos Source Type: research

Cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes in children born after assisted reproductive technology: A population-based cohort study
In this study, we compared the risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes between singleton children born after ART and singleton children born after spontaneous conception (SC). Methods and findingsThis was a large population-based cohort study of individuals born in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark between 1984 and 2015. Data were obtained from national ART and medical birth registers and cross-linked with data from national patient registers and other population-based registers in the respective countries. In total, 122,429 children born after ART and 7,574,685 children born after SC were included....
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 7, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Emma Norrman Source Type: research

Assisted reproduction technology and long-term cardiometabolic health in the offspring
by Ronald C. W. Ma, Noel Y. H. Ng, Lai Ping Cheung Ronald Ma and co-authors discuss Emma Norrman and colleagues’ accompanying research study on the health of children born with assisted reproductive technology. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 7, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Ronald C. W. Ma Source Type: research

Altering product placement to create a healthier layout in supermarkets: Outcomes on store sales, customer purchasing, and diet in a prospective matched controlled cluster study
ConclusionsHealthier supermarket layouts can improve the nutrition profile of store sales and likely improve household purchasing and dietary quality. Placing fruits and vegetables near store entrances should be considered alongside policies to limit prominent placement of unhealthy foods. Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT03518151 (pre-results) (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 7, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Christina Vogel Source Type: research

Derivation and external validation of a risk score for predicting HIV-associated tuberculosis to support case finding and preventive therapy scale-up: A cohort study
by Andrew F. Auld, Andrew D. Kerkhoff, Yasmeen Hanifa, Robin Wood, Salome Charalambous, Yuliang Liu, Tefera Agizew, Anikie Mathoma, Rosanna Boyd, Anand Date, Ray W. Shiraishi, George Bicego, Unami Mathebula-Modongo, Heather Alexander, Christopher Serumola, Goabaone Rankgoane-Pono, Pontsho Pono, Alyssa Finlay, James C. Shepherd, Tedd V. Ellerbrock, Alison D. Grant, Katherine Fielding BackgroundAmong people living with HIV (PLHIV), more flexible and sensitive tuberculosis (TB) screening tools capable of detecting both symptomatic and subclinical active TB are needed to (1) reduce morbidity and mortality from undiagnosed TB; ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 7, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Andrew F. Auld Source Type: research

Call for emergency action to limit global temperature increases, restore biodiversity, and protect health
by Lukoye Atwoli, Abdullah H. Baqui, Thomas Benfield, Raffaella Bosurgi, Fiona Godlee, Stephen Hancocks, Richard Horton, Laurie Laybourn-Langton, Carlos Augusto Monteiro, Ian Norman, Kirsten Patrick, Nigel Praities, Marcel GM Olde Rikkert, Eric J. Rubin, Peush Sahni, Richard Smith, Nick Talley, Sue Turale, Dami án Vázquez (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 7, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Lukoye Atwoli Source Type: research

The cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine and structurally related antimalarials: An individual patient data meta-analysis
by Xin Hui S. Chan, Ilsa L. Haeusler, Yan Naung Win, James Pike, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Maryam Hanafiah, Sue J. Lee, Abdoulaye Djimd é, Caterina I. Fanello, Jean-René Kiechel, Marcus VG Lacerda, Bernhards Ogutu, Marie A. Onyamboko, André M. Siqueira, Elizabeth A. Ashley, Walter RJ Taylor, Nicholas J. White BackgroundAmodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial similar to chloroquine that is used extensively for the treatment and prevention of malaria. Data on the cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine are scarce, although transient effects on cardiac electrophysiology (electrocardiographic QT inte...
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 7, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Xin Hui S. Chan Source Type: research

Changes in maternal risk factors and their association with changes in cesarean sections in Norway between 1999 and 2016: A descriptive population-based registry study
ConclusionsIn this study, we observed that after an initial increase, proportions of CS births remained stable from 2005 to 2016. Instead, both the size of the risk population and the mean number of risk factors per birth continued to increase. We observed a possible association between the increase in size of risk population and the additional CS births observed in 2016 compared to 1999. The increase in size of risk population and the stable CS rate from 2005 and onward may indicate consistent adherence to obstetric evidence-based practice in Norway. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 3, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Ingvild Hersoug Nedberg Source Type: research

Corporate political activity in the context of unhealthy food advertising restrictions across Transport for London: A qualitative case study
ConclusionsIn this study, we identified substantial opposition from food and advertising industry actors to the TfL advertising restrictions. We mapped arguments and activities used to oppose the policy, which might help other public authorities anticipate industry efforts to prevent similar restrictions in HFSS advertising. Given the potential consequences of commercial influence in these kinds of policy spaces, public bodies should consider how they engage with industry actors. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 2, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Kathrin Lauber Source Type: research

Understanding how unhealthy food companies influence advertising restrictions
by Stanton A. Glantz (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - September 2, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Stanton A. Glantz Source Type: research

Combining simple blood tests to identify primary care patients with unexpected weight loss for cancer investigation: Clinical risk score development, internal validation, and net benefit analysis
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that combinations of simple blood test abnormalities could be used to identify patients with UWL who warrant referral for investigation, while people with combinations of normal results could be exempted from referral. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 31, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Brian D. Nicholson Source Type: research

Urine tumor DNA detection of minimal residual disease in muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with curative-intent radical cystectomy: A cohort study
by Pradeep S. Chauhan, Kevin Chen, Ramandeep K. Babbra, Wenjia Feng, Nadja Pejovic, Armaan Nallicheri, Peter K. Harris, Katherine Dienstbach, Andrew Atkocius, Lenon Maguire, Faridi Qaium, Jeffrey J. Szymanski, Brian C. Baumann, Li Ding, Dengfeng Cao, Melissa A. Reimers, Eric H. Kim, Zachary L. Smith, Vivek K. Arora, Aadel A. Chaudhuri BackgroundThe standard of care treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is radical cystectomy, which is typically preceded by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, the inability to assess minimal residual disease (MRD) noninvasively limits our ability to offer bladder-sparing treatmen...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 31, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Pradeep S. Chauhan Source Type: research

Cell-free DNA ultra-low-pass whole genome sequencing to distinguish malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) from its benign precursor lesion: A cross-sectional study
by Jeffrey J. Szymanski, R. Taylor Sundby, Paul A. Jones, Divya Srihari, Noah Earland, Peter K. Harris, Wenjia Feng, Faridi Qaium, Haiyan Lei, David Roberts, Michele Landeau, Jamie Bell, Yi Huang, Leah Hoffman, Melissa Spencer, Matthew B. Spraker, Li Ding, Brigitte C. Widemann, Jack F. Shern, Angela C. Hirbe, Aadel A. Chaudhuri BackgroundThe leading cause of mortality for patients with the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome is the development of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma. In the setting of NF1, this cancer type frequently arises from within...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 31, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jeffrey J. Szymanski Source Type: research

Utility of ctDNA in predicting response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and prognosis assessment in locally advanced rectal cancer: A prospective cohort study
by Yaqi Wang, Lifeng Yang, Hua Bao, Xiaojun Fan, Fan Xia, Juefeng Wan, Lijun Shen, Yun Guan, Hairong Bao, Xue Wu, Yang Xu, Yang Shao, Yiqun Sun, Tong Tong, Xinxiang Li, Ye Xu, Sanjun Cai, Ji Zhu, Zhen Zhang BackgroundFor locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients who receive neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), there are no reliable indicators to accurately predict pathological complete response (pCR) before surgery. For patients with clinical complete response (cCR), a “Watch and Wait” (W&W) approach can be adopted to improve quality of life. However, W&W approach may increase the recurrence risk ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 31, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Yaqi Wang Source Type: research

Building global health research capacity to address research imperatives following the COVID-19 pandemic
by Peter H. Kilmarx, Roger I. Glass Peter Kilmarx and Roger Glass discuss strengthening health research capabilities as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 31, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Peter H. Kilmarx Source Type: research

Risk of a permanent work-related disability pension after incident venous thromboembolism in Denmark: A population-based cohort study
ConclusionsIn this study, incident VTE was associated with increased risk of subsequent permanent work-related disability, and this association was still observed after accounting for comorbidities such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Our results emphasize the social consequences of VTE and may help occupational and healthcare professionals to identify vulnerable individuals at risk of permanent exclusion from the labor market after a VTE event. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 31, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Helle J ørgensen Source Type: research

Public preferences for delayed or immediate antibiotic prescriptions in UK primary care: A choice experiment
This study aimed to identify facto rs influencing preferences among the UK public for delayed prescription, and understand their relative importance, to help increase appropriate use of this prescribing option. Methods and findingsWe conducted an online choice experiment in 2 UK general population samples: adults and parents of children under 18 years. Respondents were presented with 12 scenarios in which they, or their child, might need antibiotics for a respiratory tract infection (RTI) and asked to choose either an immediate or a delayed prescription. Scenarios were described by 7 attributes. Data were collected between...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 30, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Liz Morrell Source Type: research

Obesity and the relation between joint exposure to ambient air pollutants and incident type 2 diabetes: A cohort study in UK Biobank
by Xiang Li, Mengying Wang, Yongze Song, Hao Ma, Tao Zhou, Zhaoxia Liang, Lu Qi BackgroundAir pollution has been related to incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We assessed the joint association of various air pollutants with the risk of T2D and examined potential modification by obesity status and genetic susceptibility on the relationship. Methods and findingsA total of 449,006 participants from UK Biobank free of T2D at baseline were included. Of all the study population, 90.9% were white and 45.7% were male. The participants had a mean age of 56.6 (SD 8.1) years old and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.4 (SD 4.8) kg/m...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 30, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Xiang Li Source Type: research

Long-term cost-effectiveness of interventions for obesity: A mendelian randomisation study
ConclusionsMendelian randomisation can be used to estimate the impact of interventions on quality of life and healthcare costs. We observed that the effect of increasing BMI on health-related quality of life is much larger when accounting for 240 chronic health conditions, compared with only a limited selection. This means that previous cost-effectiveness studies have likely underestimated the effect of BMI on quality of life and, therefore, the potential cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce BMI. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 27, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Sean Harrison Source Type: research

Importance of attributes and willingness to pay for oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation in China: A discrete choice experiment
by Jiaxi Zhao, Hao Wang, Xue Li, Yang Hu, Vincent K. C. Yan, Carlos K. H. Wong, Yutao Guo, Marco K. H. Cheung, Gregory Y. H. Lip, Chung-Wah Siu, Hung-Fat Tse, Esther W. Chan BackgroundAdherence to oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in China is low. Patient preference, one of the main reasons for discontinuation of oral anticoagulant therapy, is an unfamiliar concept in China. Methods and findingsA discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted to quantify patient preference on 7 attributes of oral anticoagulant therapy: antidote (yes/no), food –drug interaction (yes/no), frequency of...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 26, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jiaxi Zhao Source Type: research

Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in adults aged 45 years and over and their spouses in India: A nationally representative cross-sectional study
by Sanjay K. Mohanty, Sarang P. Pedgaonkar, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay, Fabrice K ämpfen, Prashant Shekhar, Radhe Shyam Mishra, Jürgen Maurer, Owen O’Donnell BackgroundLack of nationwide evidence on awareness, treatment, and control (ATC) of hypertension among older adults in India impeded targeted management of this condition. We aimed to estimate rates of hypertension ATC in the older population and to assess differences in these rates across sociodemographic groups and states in India. Methods and findingsWe used a nationally representative survey of individuals aged 45 years and over and their spouses in all...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 24, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Sanjay K. Mohanty Source Type: research

Organized primary human papillomavirus –based cervical screening: A randomized healthcare policy trial
by K. Miriam Elfstr öm, Carina Eklund, Helena Lamin, Daniel Öhman, Maria Hortlund, Kristina Elfgren, Karin Sundström, Joakim Dillner BackgroundClinical trials in the research setting have demonstrated that primary human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening results in greater protection against cervical cancer compared with cytology, but evidence from real-life implementation was missing. To evaluate the effectiveness of HPV-based cervical screening within a real-life screening program, the organized, population-based cervical screening program in the capital region of Sweden offered either HPV- or cytology-b...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 23, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: K. Miriam Elfstr öm Source Type: research

The prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people in high-income countries: An updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis
ConclusionsPublic health and policy interventions to improve the health of homeless persons should consider the pattern and extent of psychiatric morbidity. Our findings suggest that the burden of psychiatric morbidity in homeless persons is substantial, and should lead to regular reviews of how healthcare services assess, treat, and follow up homeless people. The high burden of substance use disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders need particular attention in service development. This systematic review and meta-analysis have been registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018085216). Trial registrationPROSPERO CRD42018085216. ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 23, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Stefan Gutwinski Source Type: research

Global surgery, obstetric, and anaesthesia indicator definitions and reporting: An Utstein consensus report
ConclusionsTo track global progress towards timely access to quality SAO care, these indicators —at the basic level—should be implemented universally as soon as possible. Intermediate and full indicator sets should be achieved by all countries over time. Meanwhile, these evolutions can assist in the short term in developing national surgical plans and collecting more detailed data for rese arch studies. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 20, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Justine I. Davies Source Type: research

Accuracy of novel antigen rapid diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2: A living systematic review and meta-analysis
by Lukas E. Br ümmer, Stephan Katzenschlager, Mary Gaeddert, Christian Erdmann, Stephani Schmitz, Marc Bota, Maurizio Grilli, Jan Larmann, Markus A. Weigand, Nira R. Pollock, Aurélien Macé, Sergio Carmona, Stefano Ongarello, Jilian A. Sacks, Claudia M. Denkinger BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 antigen rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) are increasingly being integrated in testing strategies around the world. Studies of the Ag-RDTs have shown variable performance. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed the clinical accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of commercially available Ag-RDTs. Methods and ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 12, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Lukas E. Br ümmer Source Type: research