Effects of exercise training with short ‐duration intermittent hypoxia on endurance performance and muscle metabolism in well‐trained mice
Intermittent hypoxic exposure has beneficial effects on endurance and hybrid training to improve the endurance capacity via improving fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism in highly trained mice. AbstractThe author previously reported that short ‐duration intermittent hypoxia had additive effects on improvements in endurance capacity by enhancing fatty acid metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of short‐duration intermittent hypoxia on endurance capacity, metabolic enzyme activity, and protein levels asso ciated with mitochondrial biogenesis in well‐trained mice. Mice in the training ...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 21, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Junichi Suzuki Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells repair organ damage caused by cadmium poisoning in a medaka model
hBM ‐MSC‐derived EV injections repaired the ultrastructural damage caused by Cd for apical and basolateral membranes and mitochondria of kidney proximal tubules, glomerular podocytes in female and male medaka. AbstractTreatment modalities for kidney disease caused by long ‐term exposure to heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), are limited. Often, chronic, long‐term environmental exposure to heavy metal is not recognized in the early stages; therefore, chelation therapy is not an effective option. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from stem cells have been demons trated to reduce disease pathology in both...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 19, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Tomomi Matsukura, Chisako Inaba, Esther A. Weygant, Daiki Kitamura, Ralf Janknecht, Hiroyuki Matsumoto, Deborah P. Hyink, Shosaku Kashiwada, Tomoko Obara Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Pattern of sympathetic vasomotor activity in a model of hypertension induced by nitric oxide synthase blockade
Hypertension induced by NO synthase blockade is characterized by increased sympathetic nerve activity to renal (rSNA) and splanchnic nerve (sSNA). The rats that had the greatest reduction in NO levels in plasma by L ‐NAME were those that developed higher blood pressure levels. The reduction in the NO level partially explains the variations in sSNA but not in rSNA. AbstractWe aimed to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition by NO synthase inhibitor N ‐nitro‐L‐arginine‐methyl ester (L‐NAME) treatment on the sympathetic vasomotor nerve activity (SNA) on two sympathetic vasomotor nerves, t...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 19, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Lysien I. Zambrano, Roberto B. Pontes, Michelle L. Garcia, Erika E. Nishi, Fernando N. Nogueira, Elisa M. S. Higa, Juliana G. Cespedes, Cassia T. Bergamaschi, Ruy R. Campos Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Preconditioning by aerobic exercise reduces acute ischemic renal injury in rats
The rats were subjected to exercise 5  days a week for 4 weeks with progressive intensity and duration. The group treated with exercise preconditioning showed additional improvements in parameters, serum creatinine, a decrease in the severity of tubular injury and reduction of active caspase‐3 levels. The previous aerobic exercise‐ induced renoprotection in the IR injury. AbstractAcute kidney injury (AKI) can be defined as the sudden loss of renal function associated with structural changes in the kidneys. Currently, 13.3  million people die of AKI around the world. Normally aerobic exercise is used both...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 19, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Weslei V. Lima, Iria Visona, Nestor Schor, Waldemar S. Almeida Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

An appraisal of the SDIR as an estimate of true individual differences in training responsiveness in parallel ‐arm exercise randomized controlled trials
Our review provides a critical appraisal of the SDIR approach, which is a statistical method for estimating individual variability in individual responses to exercise training. In our review, we discuss the assumptions and limitations that limit the application of this approach for exercise randomized controlled trials. AbstractCalculating the standard deviation of individual responses (SDIR) is recommended for estimating the magnitude of individual differences in training responsiveness in parallel ‐arm exercise randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The purpose of this review article is to discuss potential limitations o...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 19, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Jacob T. Bonafiglia, Andrea M. Brennan, Robert Ross, Brendon J. Gurd Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

AKAP6 and phospholamban colocalize and interact in HEK ‐293T cells and primary murine cardiomyocytes
We identified muscle ‐specific A‐kinase anchoring protein (mAKAP) as a candidate that might have a critical role in regulating PLN phosphorylation. AbstractPhospholamban (PLN) is an important Ca2+ modulator at the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of striated muscles. It physically interacts and inhibits sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2) function, whereas a protein kinase A (PKA) ‐dependent phosphorylation at its serine 16 reverses the inhibition. The underlying mechanism of this post‐translational modification, however, remains not fully understood. Using publicly available databases, we identified A‐kinase ...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 19, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Farigol Hakem Zadeh, Allen C. T. Teng, Uros Kuzmanov, Paige J. Chambers, Allan R. Tupling, Anthony O. Gramolini Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of vagus nerve stimulation on blood glucose concentration in epilepsy patients – Importance of stimulation parameters
In previous animal experiments, we demonstrated that cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) inhibits pancreatic insulin secretion and raises blood glucose levels. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that chronic cervical VNS raises blood glucose levels in patients with epilepsy. Based on a retrospective medical record analysis, we conclude that chronic cervical VNS in patients with epilepsy is unlikely to induce glucose intolerance or hyperglycemia with commonly used stimulation parameters. AbstractIn previous animal experiments, we demonstrated that cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) inhibits pancreatic insulin secretion, ...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 19, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Harald M. Stauss, Lucienne M. Daman, Megan M. Rohlf, Rup K. Sainju Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Erratum
Physiological Reports, Volume 7, Issue 14, July 2019. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - July 19, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

On correct computation of confidence intervals for kinetic parameters
Physiological Reports, Volume 7, Issue 14, July 2019. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Maria Pia Francescato, Valentina Cettolo, Ruggero Bellio Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Reply to Francescato et al.: on correct computation of confidence intervals for kinetic parameters
Physiological Reports, Volume 7, Issue 14, July 2019. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Richie P. Goulding, Denise M. Roche, Simon Marwood Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Issue Information
Physiological Reports, Volume 7, Issue 14, July 2019. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - July 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Modulation of the Hoffmann reflex in the tibialis anterior with a change in posture
The Hoffmann reflex was found to modulate differently for individuals with a change in postural demand. AbstractHoffmann (H ‐) reflex amplitudes in plantar flexor soleus muscle are modulated by posture, yet dorsiflexor tibialis anterior (TA) H‐reflex parameters have sparingly been studied. The purpose was to investigate modulation of the TA H‐reflex when postural demands are increased from sitting to standing. In t his study, data from 18 participants (Age: 25 ± 4 years, Height: 170.9 ± 9.5 cm, Weight: 75.9 ± 17.2 kg) allowed comparison of two experime...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Janelle Unger, Justin W. Andrushko, Alison R. Oates, Doug W. Renshaw, Trevor S. Barss, E. Paul Zehr, Jonathan P. Farthing Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Maximal exercise and plasma cytochrome P450 and lipoxygenase mediators: a lipidomics study
Our study is the first documentation that bioactive endogenousn − 3 andn − 6 CYP lipid mediators are released by short‐term exhaustive exercise in humans. In particular, the CYP epoxy‐metabolite status, 12,13‐EpOME/DiHOME, 5,6‐EET/DHET, 5,6‐EEQ/DiHETE and 17,18‐EEQ/DiHETE may contribute to the cardiovascular response during maximal exercise. AbstractEpoxides derived from arachidonic acid (AA) are released during exercise and may contribute to vasodilation. However, exercise may also affect circulating levels of other epoxides derived from cytochromes P450 (CYP) monooxygenase and ...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 15, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Benjamin Gollasch, Inci Dogan, Michael Rothe, Maik Gollasch, Friedrich C. Luft Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The effects of macrophages on cardiomyocyte calcium ‐handling function using in vitro culture models
This study provides insights into currently not well‐known cell–cell interactions in the post‐MI inflammatory microenvironment. AbstractFollowing myocardial infarction (MI), myocardial inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MI injury and macrophages are among the key cells activated during the initial phases of the host response regulating the healing process. While macrophages have emerged as attractive effectors in tissue injury and repair, the contribution of macrophages on cardiac cell function and survival is not fully understood due to complexity of the in vivo inflammatory microenvironmen...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Pamela G. Hitscherich, Lai ‐Hua Xie, Dominic Del Re, Eun Jung Lee Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on motor evoked potentials variability in humans
In this study, 32 healthy subjects received anodal tDCS stimulation over the left M1 for three durations (tDCS ‐T5, tDCS‐T10, and tDCS‐T20 min) on separate days in a crossover‐randomized order. After the resting motor threshold (RMT) was determined for the contralateral first dorsal interosseous muscle, 15 single pulses 4–8 sec apart at an intensity of 120% RMT were delivered to the left M1 to de termine the baseline MEP amplitude at T0, T5, T10, T20, T30, T40, T50, and T60 min after stimulation for each durations. During TMS delivery, 3D images of the participant's cortex and hot spot were vis...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Shahid Bashir, Shafiq Ahmad, Moath Alatefi, Ali Hamza, Mohamed Sharaf, Shirely Fecteau, Woo Kyoung Yoo Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

TRPM7 is involved in acid ‐induced necrotic cell death in a manner sensitive to progesterone in human cervical cancer cells
Progesterone treatment was surprisingly found to suppress the molecular and functional expression of TRPM7 and cell proliferation in HeLa cells. Furthermore, in progesterone ‐treated cells, acid exposure did not induce persistent cell swelling and subsequent necrosis, but induced persistent cell shrinkage and cell death due to apoptosis. AbstractBecause intravaginal pH is strongly acidic, it is important to investigate the effects of acidosis on cervical cancer cells. Recently, in response to strong acidosis, human cervical cancer HeLa cells were shown to exhibit necrosis after showing persistent cell swelling induced by...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Tomohiro Numata, Kaori Sato ‐Numata, Yasunobu Okada Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Acute effect of Finnish sauna bathing on brachial artery flow ‐mediated dilation and reactive hyperemia in healthy middle‐aged and older adults
This study examined if Finnish sauna bathing acutely improves brachial artery flow ‐mediated dilation (FMD) and reactive hyperemia (RH) in healthy middle‐aged and older adults. The results demonstrate that 10 and 20‐min Finnish sauna bathing sessions do not acutely improve brachial artery FMD and RH in healthy middle‐aged and older adults. AbstractRegular Finnish sauna bathing is associated with a reduced risk of all ‐cause and cardiovascular mortality in middle‐aged and older adults. Potential acute physiological adaptations induced by sauna bathing that underlie this relationship remain to be fully elucidated...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Hugo Gravel, Geoff B. Coombs, Parya Behzadi, Virginie Marcoux ‐Clément, Hadiatou Barry, Martin Juneau, Anil Nigam, Daniel Gagnon Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Impaired microvascular reactivity after eccentric muscle contractions is not restored by acute ingestion of antioxidants or dietary nitrate
In this study, we evaluated the role of oxidative stress and of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Thirty young men and women performed eccentric contractions of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (ECC), with the contralateral leg serving as nonexercising control (CON). Participants were randomized into three groups ingesting an antioxidant cocktail (AO), beetroot juice (BR) or placebo 46  h postexercise. At baseline and 48 h postexercise, hyperemic responses to brief muscle contractions and 5 min of cuff occlusion were assessed bilaterally in the TA muscles using blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) magnetic ...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Ryan G. Larsen, Jens M. Thomsen, Rogerio P. Hirata, Rudi Steffensen, Eva R. Poulsen, Jens B. Fr økjær, Thomas Graven‐Nielsen Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Measurement of maximum tongue protrusion force (MTPF) in healthy young adults
This study provides normative values for MTPF, and identified significant tongue protrusion strength differences between males and females. AbstractWe propose that tongue protrusive strength and tone may be related to upper airway patency, and when protrusive strength is reduced, individuals are at higher risk of developing sleep apnea, or speech/swallow disorders. The goal of the current study was to determine normative values of maximum tongue protrusion force (MTPF) in healthy young adults, using a unique newly developed device. We hypothesized that MTPF would be greater in males than in females. One hundred and one hea...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Jayoung Kim, Karen Hegland, William Vann, Richard Berry, Paul W. Davenport Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The mitochondrial ‐derived peptide MOTS‐c is a regulator of plasma metabolites and enhances insulin sensitivity
MOTS ‐c showed differential regulation of plasma metabolites. MOTS‐c decreased the following pathways: sphingolipid metabolism, monoacylglycerol metabolism, and dicarboxylate metabolism, which are associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndromes. AbstractMOTS ‐c is an exercise mimetic and improves insulin sensitivity in aged and diet‐induced obese mice. Although plasma markers are good markers for the metabolic condition, whether MOTS‐c changes plasma markers in diet‐induced obese mice has not been examined. Here, we used an unbiased metabolomics approach to examine the effect of MOTS‐c on plasma ma...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Su ‐Jeong Kim, Brendan Miller, Hemal H. Mehta, Jialin Xiao, Junxiang Wan, Thalida E. Arpawong, Kelvin Yen, Pinchas Cohen Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Ultrasound as a noninvasive tool for monitoring reproductive physiology in male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
We examined the potential for ultrasound as a noninvasive tool for maturation monitoring in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) males. Ultrasound examination and measurements were compared to common practices for maturation monitoring such as gonadosomatic index (GSI), sex hormone analysis, and histological analysis of spermatogenesis. Using ultrasound technology, we have established a quick and non ‐invasive method that could reduce number of stressful handlings and unwanted sacrifice of broodfish required for maturation monitoring in Atlantic salmon males. AbstractWe examined the potential for ultrasound as a noninvasive too...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 9, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Ingun N æve, Maren Mommens, Augustine Arukwe, Jonni Virtanen, Md. Enamul Hoque, Elin Kjørsvik Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

No handedness effect on spatial orientation or ocular counter ‐roll during lateral head tilts
We studied the impact of handedness on sensory and ocular motor processes that contribute to spatial orientation. We measured the effect of lateral head tilts on perception of upright and torsional eye position in right ‐handed and left‐handed participants. The results showed no effect of handedness, neither in the perceived upright orientation, nor in the ocular torsion response during lateral head tilt. AbstractAlthough vestibular inputs are bilaterally represented within the cerebral hemispheres, the higher level vestibular functions exhibit hemispheric asymmetries. Previous studies have suggested that such asy...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 6, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Ariel Winnick, Shirin Sadeghpour, Michael Sova, Jorge Otero ‐Millan, Amir Kheradmand Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Intravenous iron delivers a sustained (8 ‐week) lowering of pulmonary artery pressure during exercise in healthy older humans
Intravenous iron was administered to 16 healthy volunteers aged 50 –80 years and its effects compared with 16 similar controls over 8 weeks. We observed a lowering of systolic pulmonary artery pressure during exercise in those receiving iron. This interesting change is discussed in relation to the known effects of iron on the pulmonary circulation. AbstractIn older individuals, pulmonary artery pressure rises markedly during exercise, probably due in part to increased pulmonary vascular resistance and in part to an increase in left ‐heart filling pressure. Older individuals also show more marked pulmonary...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 3, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Hung ‐Yuan Cheng, Matthew C. Frise, M. Kate Curtis, Nicole K. Bart, Nayia Petousi, Nick P. Talbot, George M. Balanos, Peter A. Robbins, Keith L. Dorrington Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Phenotypic effects of dietary stress in combination with a respiratory chain bypass in mice
AOX ‐expressing mice reared on high‐fat or ketogenic diet show similar patterns of weight gain and altered body composition as wild‐type mice. Prolonged ketogenic diet impairs cardiac function in both AOX and control mice. Microbiome analysis shows stronger correlations with ketogenic diet, rather than with AOX expression or extent of weight gain per se. AbstractThe alternative oxidase (AOX) fromCiona intestinalis was previously shown to be expressible in mice and to cause no physiological disturbance under unstressed conditions. Because AOX is known to become activated under some metabolic stress conditions, resulti...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Praveen K. Dhandapani, Annina M. Lyyski, Lars Paulin, Nahid A. Khan, Anu Suomalainen, Petri Auvinen, Eric Dufour, Marten Szibor, Howard T. Jacobs Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Voluntary physical activity counteracts Chronic Heart Failure progression affecting both cardiac function and skeletal muscle in the transgenic Tg αq*44 mouse model
To improve the life quality of patients with chronic heart failure, the development of countermeasures that positively affect both cardiac and skeletal muscle is essential. Whether voluntary wheel running is effective in preventing or normalizing alterations of skeletal muscle associated with heart failure and at what stage of the disease it shows its effectiveness it has not yet been well defined. Prolonged voluntary exercise training intervention performed before the end ‐stage heart failure, leads to positive effects not only on cardiac function but also in skeletal muscle reducing oxidative damage and thus representi...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Eleonora Bardi, Joanna Majerczak, Jerzy A. Zoladz, Urszula Tyrankiewicz, Tomasz Skorka, Stefan Chlopicki, Magdalena Jablonska, Anna Bar, Krzysztof Jasinski, Alessia Buso, Desy Salvadego, Zenon Nieckarz, Bruno Grassi, Roberto Bottinelli, Mari Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Phenotypic effects of dietary stress in combination with a respiratory chain bypass in mice
AOX ‐expressing mice reared on high‐fat or ketogenic diet show similar patterns of weight gain and altered body composition as wild‐type mice. Prolonged ketogenic diet impairs cardiac function in both AOX and control mice. Microbiome analysis shows stronger correlations with ketogenic diet, rather than with AOX expression or extent of weight gain per se. AbstractThe alternative oxidase (AOX) fromCiona intestinalis was previously shown to be expressible in mice and to cause no physiological disturbance under unstressed conditions. Because AOX is known to become activated under some metabolic stress conditions, resulti...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Praveen K. Dhandapani, Annina M. Lyyski, Lars Paulin, Nahid A. Khan, Anu Suomalainen, Petri Auvinen, Eric Dufour, Marten Szibor, Howard T. Jacobs Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Voluntary physical activity counteracts Chronic Heart Failure progression affecting both cardiac function and skeletal muscle in the transgenic Tg αq*44 mouse model
To improve the life quality of patients with chronic heart failure, the development of countermeasures that positively affect both cardiac and skeletal muscle is essential. Whether voluntary wheel running is effective in preventing or normalizing alterations of skeletal muscle associated with heart failure and at what stage of the disease it shows its effectiveness it has not yet been well defined. Prolonged voluntary exercise training intervention performed before the end ‐stage heart failure, leads to positive effects not only on cardiac function but also in skeletal muscle reducing oxidative damage and thus representi...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Eleonora Bardi, Joanna Majerczak, Jerzy A. Zoladz, Urszula Tyrankiewicz, Tomasz Skorka, Stefan Chlopicki, Magdalena Jablonska, Anna Bar, Krzysztof Jasinski, Alessia Buso, Desy Salvadego, Zenon Nieckarz, Bruno Grassi, Roberto Bottinelli, Mari Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Exercise training increases GAD65 expression, restores the depressed GABAA receptor function within the PVN and reduces sympathetic modulation in hypertension
We applied physiological and molecular techniques to uncover the potential benefits of exercise training to rescue the autonomic dysfunction that characterizes the chronic phase of spontaneous hypertension. The main focus of the study was the GABAergic neurotransmission within the PVN. We observed that training augments the expression/activity of GABAergic neurotransmission within presympathetic PVN neurons and restores GABAA receptors ´ function, therefore strengthening GABAergic inputs which inhibit the sympathetic outflow in hypertension. AbstractGABAergic inhibitory input within the paraventricular hypothalamic n...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Nilson C. Ferreira ‐Junior, Adriana Ruggeri, Sebastião D. Silva, Thais T. Zampieri, Alexandre Ceroni, Lisete C. Michelini Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Value of lung diffusing capacity for nitric oxide in systemic sclerosis
Lung diffusing capacity for nitric oxide may be of clinical value in systemic sclerosis because more sensitive to interstitial lung disease than standard lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. AbstractA decreased lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is considered to reflect losses of alveolar membrane diffusive conductance for CO (DMCO), due to interstitial lung disease, and/or pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC), due to vasculopathy. However, standard DLCO does not allow separate DMCO from VC. Lung diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) is considered to be more sensiti...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Giovanni Barisione, Alessandro Garlaschi, Mariaelena Occhipinti, Michele Baroffio, Massimo Pistolesi, Vito Brusasco Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Exercise training increases GAD65 expression, restores the depressed GABAA receptor function within the PVN and reduces sympathetic modulation in hypertension
We applied physiological and molecular techniques to uncover the potential benefits of exercise training to rescue the autonomic dysfunction that characterizes the chronic phase of spontaneous hypertension. The main focus of the study was the GABAergic neurotransmission within the PVN. We observed that training augments the expression/activity of GABAergic neurotransmission within presympathetic PVN neurons and restores GABAA receptors ´ function, therefore strengthening GABAergic inputs which inhibit the sympathetic outflow in hypertension. AbstractGABAergic inhibitory input within the paraventricular hypothalamic n...
Source: Physiological Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Nilson C. Ferreira ‐Junior, Adriana Ruggeri, Sebastião D. Silva, Thais T. Zampieri, Alexandre Ceroni, Lisete C. Michelini Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Intramuscular inflammatory and resolving lipid profile responses to an acute bout of resistance exercise in men
In this study, we e xamined the bioactive lipid mediator profile of human skeletal muscle at rest and following acute resistance exercise. Twelve male subjects completed a single bout of maximal isokinetic unilateral knee extension exercise and muscle biopsies were taken from them.vastus lateralis before and at 2, 4, and 24  h of recovery. Muscle tissue lipid mediator profile was analyzed via liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC‐MS)‐based targeted lipidomics. At 2 h postexercise, there was an increased intramuscular abundance of cyclooxygenase (COX)‐derived thromboxanes (TXB2: 3.33 fold) and pr...
Source: Physiological Reports - June 30, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Luke Vella, James F. Markworth, Michelle M. Farnfield, Krishna R. Maddipati, Aaron P. Russell, David Cameron ‐Smith Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Influence of shortened recovery between resistance exercise sessions on muscle ‐hypertrophic effect in rat skeletal muscle
We investigated the influence of shortening the recovery between sessions on muscle hypertrophy following resistance exercise training. Excessive shortening of recovery between sessions did not cause skeletal muscle hypertrophy, likely due to the activation of proteolysis induced by inflammatory responses to resistance exercise training. AbstractResistance exercise training induces muscle hypertrophy, and recovery between sessions is one of the major determinants of this effect. However, the effect of the recovery period between sessions on muscle hypertrophy following resistance exercise training remains unclear. To eluci...
Source: Physiological Reports - June 28, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Junya Takegaki, Riki Ogasawara, Takaya Kotani, Yuki Tamura, Ryo Takagi, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Issue Information
Physiological Reports, Volume 7, Issue 13, August 2019. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

AdipoRon prevents myostatin ‐induced upregulation of fatty acid synthesis and downregulation of insulin activity in a mouse hepatocyte line
These data suggest crosstalk between Mstn ‐induced Smad2/3 and adiponectin‐induced AMPK/PPARα pathways, which may play important roles in the regulation of hepatic gene expression critical for FA metabolism and insulin signaling. In addition, the data suggest that AdipoRon, as an adiponectin receptor agonist, may serve a therapeutic ro le to reduce the hepatic contribution to the disorders of fat metabolism and insulin action. AbstractLiver diseases such as non ‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are characterized by excess hepatic accumulation of lipid droplets and...
Source: Physiological Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Xin ‐Hua Liu, Jiang Ping Pan, William A. Bauman, Christopher P. Cardozo Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Metformin modulates immune cell infiltration into the kidney during unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that metformin limits the infiltration of immune cells into the kidney, as well as modulates immu ne cell composition at a systemic level. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Michael Christensen, Mikkel Ø. Nørgård, Michael S. Jensen, Bjarne K. Møller, Rikke Nørregaard Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Mechanisms of tilt ‐induced vasovagal syncope in healthy volunteers and postural tachycardia syndrome patients without past history of syncope
Tilt table testing for vasovagal syncope can result in “false positive” healthy controls (Control‐Faint) and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS‐Faint). Fainting mechanisms comprise decreased systemic resistance and splanchnic vasoconstriction in Control‐Faint and decreased cardiac output and increased systemic resistance caused by enhanced sp lanchnic pooling in POTS‐Faint. AbstractUpright tilt table testing has been used to test for vasovagal syncope (VVS) but can result in “false positives” in which tilt‐induced fainting (tilt+) occurs in the absence of real‐world fainting. Tilt+ occu...
Source: Physiological Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Julian M. Stewart, Mohamed A. Shaban, Tyler Fialkoff, Brianna Tuma ‐Marcella, Paul Visintainer, Courtney Terilli, Marvin S. Medow Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Neurovascular protection in voltage ‐gated proton channel Hv1 knock‐out rats after ischemic stroke: interaction with Na+/H+ exchanger‐1 antagonism
The goal of the current study was to determine whether neurovascular injury and functional outcomes after experimental stroke differed in wild ‐type and Hv1 mutant Dahl salt‐sensitive rats treated with an NHE‐1 inhibitor. Our data indicate that Hv1 deletion confers both neuronal and vascular protection after ischemia in rats. These data are important as they build on previous reports in mice identifying Hv1 as a potential novel targe t for the treatment of stroke. AbstractExperimental studies have demonstrated protective effects of NHE ‐1 inhibition on cardiac function; however, clinical trials utilizing NHE‐1 an...
Source: Physiological Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Weiguo Li, Rebecca Ward, Guangkuo Dong, Adviye Ergul, Paul O'Connor Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Issue Information
Physiological Reports, Volume 7, Issue 13, August 2019. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Metformin modulates immune cell infiltration into the kidney during unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that metformin limits the infiltration of immune cells into the kidney, as well as modulates immu ne cell composition at a systemic level. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Michael Christensen, Mikkel Ø. Nørgård, Michael S. Jensen, Bjarne K. Møller, Rikke Nørregaard Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Neurovascular protection in voltage ‐gated proton channel Hv1 knock‐out rats after ischemic stroke: interaction with Na+/H+ exchanger‐1 antagonism
The goal of the current study was to determine whether neurovascular injury and functional outcomes after experimental stroke differed in wild ‐type and Hv1 mutant Dahl salt‐sensitive rats treated with an NHE‐1 inhibitor. Our data indicate that Hv1 deletion confers both neuronal and vascular protection after ischemia in rats. These data are important as they build on previous reports in mice identifying Hv1 as a potential novel targe t for the treatment of stroke. AbstractExperimental studies have demonstrated protective effects of NHE ‐1 inhibition on cardiac function; however, clinical trials utilizing NHE‐1 an...
Source: Physiological Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Weiguo Li, Rebecca Ward, Guangkuo Dong, Adviye Ergul, Paul O'Connor Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Mechanisms of tilt ‐induced vasovagal syncope in healthy volunteers and postural tachycardia syndrome patients without past history of syncope
Tilt table testing for vasovagal syncope can result in “false positive” healthy controls (Control‐Faint) and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS‐Faint). Fainting mechanisms comprise decreased systemic resistance and splanchnic vasoconstriction in Control‐Faint and decreased cardiac output and increased systemic resistance caused by enhanced sp lanchnic pooling in POTS‐Faint. AbstractUpright tilt table testing has been used to test for vasovagal syncope (VVS) but can result in “false positives” in which tilt‐induced fainting (tilt+) occurs in the absence of real‐world fainting. Tilt+ occu...
Source: Physiological Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Julian M. Stewart, Mohamed A. Shaban, Tyler Fialkoff, Brianna Tuma ‐Marcella, Paul Visintainer, Courtney Terilli, Marvin S. Medow Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

AdipoRon prevents myostatin ‐induced upregulation of fatty acid synthesis and downregulation of insulin activity in a mouse hepatocyte line
These data suggest crosstalk between Mstn ‐induced Smad2/3 and adiponectin‐induced AMPK/PPARα pathways, which may play important roles in the regulation of hepatic gene expression critical for FA metabolism and insulin signaling. In addition, the data suggest that AdipoRon, as an adiponectin receptor agonist, may serve a therapeutic ro le to reduce the hepatic contribution to the disorders of fat metabolism and insulin action. AbstractLiver diseases such as non ‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are characterized by excess hepatic accumulation of lipid droplets and...
Source: Physiological Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Xin ‐Hua Liu, Jiang Ping Pan, William A. Bauman, Christopher P. Cardozo Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effect of sex on glomerular filtration rate in programmed rats by prenatal dexamethasone
This study shows that prenatal programming by dexamethasone causes a reduction in glomerular filtration rate in males but not female rats. We have previously demonstrated that dexamethasone administered to pregnant rats during specific times during gestation results in a reduction in glomerular number and hypertension in offspring at 2 and 6  months of age. In this study, we examined the effect of prenatal dexamethasone administered daily on days 15 and 16 of gestation in male and female offspring after 1 year of age on glomerular filtration rate. The prenatal dexamethasone male group had a higher systolic blood ...
Source: Physiological Reports - June 26, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Jyoti Jain, Susan K. Legan, Issa Alhamoud, Jyothsna Gattineni, Michel Baum Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Population data provide evidence against the presence of a set point for hemoglobin levels or tissue oxygen delivery
Though set points have long been regarded as integral components of homeostatic physiology evidence is accumulating casting doubt on the existence of such set points for some parameters. In this work we show that examination of the population correlations between haemoglobin and erythropoietin indicates that haemoglobin is yet another parameter, the regulation of which, is unlikely to be ordered about a set point level. This finding is relevant to understanding haemoglobin physiology but also has relevance to the understanding of homeostatic regulation in general. AbstractHemoglobin levels are believed to be regulated as p...
Source: Physiological Reports - June 26, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Stephen P. Fitzgerald, Niels Grote Beverborg, Yves Beguin, Ferruh Artunc, Henrik Falhammar, Nigel G. Bean Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Pyridine nucleotide regulation of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake
NADP inhibits calcium uptake in hepatic microsomes and the site of action involves the ingress component of net calcium uptake. Given the fundamental role of endoplasmic calcium homeostasis, it is plausible that changes in cytosolic NADP concentration, for example, during anabolic processes, could regulate net endoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake. AbstractPyridine nucleotides serve an array of intracellular metabolic functions such as, to name a few, shuttling electrons in enzymatic reactions, safeguarding the redox state against reactive oxygen species, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme detoxification pathways and, relevant to...
Source: Physiological Reports - June 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Xudong Wang, Gail Mick, Kenneth McCormick Tags: Original Research Source Type: research