Pressure measurement characteristics of a micro ‐transducer and balloon catheters
The aim of this study was to provide a comparative analysis of micro ‐transducer and balloon catheter pressure characteristics: (1) in vitro with a reference pressure transducer; and (2) in vivo following cervical magnetic stimulations. In vivo there was a main effect for catheter for esophageal, gastric, and transdiaphragmatic pressure amplitudes and no main effec t for pressure areas, indicating that pressure areas could be used as a point of comparison between catheter systems. Caution is warranted if comparing pressure amplitude results from different catheter systems or if micro‐transducers are used in clinical se...
Source: Physiological Reports - May 4, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: William MacAskill, Ben Hoffman, Michael A. Johnson, Graham R. Sharpe, Dean E. Mills Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

The Extrastriate Body Area and identity processing: An fMRI guided TMS study
The present study provides evidence that EBA in the right hemisphere participates in identity processing. TMS over the right EBA might disrupt the early processing of visual signals that would be important in an explicit recognition task, leading to decreased response speed and accuracy. AbstractThe extrastriate body area (EBA) is a body ‐selective focal region located in the lateral occipito‐temporal cortex that responds strongly to images of human bodies and body parts in comparison with other classes of stimuli. Whether EBA contributes also to the body recognition of self versus others remains in debate. We investig...
Source: Physiological Reports - May 3, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Aliz ée Pann, Mireille Bonnard, Olivier Felician, Patricia Romaiguère Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

The effects of training on hormonal concentrations and physical performance of football referees
Referees ’ physical preparation improved their physical performances, assed by Yo‐Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIRT1), and running speed test. Significant differences in cortisol and testosterone levels at the four‐time points were observed. Plasma cortisol and testosterone levels significan tly correlated with YYIRT1 and maximal oxygen consumption during the training period. The results underscore the importance of establishing training protocols to promote referee's positive physiological adaptations. ABSTRACTAs no study has explored the impact of physical stress on hypothalamic ‐pituitary‐gonada...
Source: Physiological Reports - May 1, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Antonella Muscella, Erika Stef àno, Santo Marsigliante Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Regulation of capillary hemodynamics by KATP channels in resting skeletal muscle
Superfusion of the rat spinotrapezius muscle with the sulfonylurea glibenclamide (GLI) was used to locally inhibit KATP channelsin vivo. GLI reduced both red blood cell (RBC) flux and velocity thereby impairing perfusive microvascular O2 transport and lengthening RBC capillary transit times, respectively. These results support that KATP channels regulate capillary hemodynamics and microvascular gas exchange in resting skeletal muscle. AbstractATP ‐sensitive K+ channels (KATP) have been implicated in the regulation of resting vascular smooth muscle membrane potential and tone. However, whether KATP channels modulate skele...
Source: Physiological Reports - May 1, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Daniel M. Hirai, Ayaka Tabuchi, Jesse C. Craig, Trenton D. Colburn, Timothy I. Musch, David C. Poole Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

A hierarchical dynamic model used for investigating feed efficiency and its relationship with hepatic gene expression in APOE*3 ‐Leiden.CETP mice
ConclusionsIn conclusion, our analysis suggests that various biological processes such as vitamin A metabolism, hepatic response to inflammation, and cell proliferation associate with FE at different stages of diet ‐induced obesity. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - May 1, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Xiang Zhang, Yared Paalvast, Yanan Wang, Patrick C. N. Rensen, Albert K. Groen Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Passive torque influences the Hoffmann reflex pathway during the loading and unloading phases of plantar flexor muscles stretching
This study investigated the influence of passive tension on Hoffmann reflex during the loading (muscle stretched by passive joint movement) and unloading phase (joint returned to initial position) of muscle stretching. The maximal H ‐reflex amplitude (Hmax) was recorded in soleus in 19 young adults during the loading and unloading phases of a passive 30 ° dorsiflexion, from 90° ankle angle (reference position).Hmax was evoked at similar angles (Protocol‐1) or similar passive torque (PT;Protocol‐2) during the loading and unloading phases, or during two loading phases separated by a 5‐min stretch hold at 30&d...
Source: Physiological Reports - May 1, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Mehdi Datoussaid, Hasnae El Khalouqi, Charel Dahm, Nathalie Guissard, St éphane Baudry Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Identification of novel bladder sensory GPCRs
Sensory GPCRs such as olfactory receptors (ORs), taste receptors (TRs), and opsins (OPNs) are now known to play important physiological roles beyond their traditional sensory organs. Here, we systematically investigate the expression of sensory GPCRs in the urinary bladder for the first time. We find that the murine bladder expresses 16 ORs, 7 TRs, and 3 OPNs. AbstractSensory GPCRs such as olfactory receptors (ORs), taste receptors (TRs), and opsins (OPNs) are now known to play important physiological roles beyond their traditional sensory organs. Here, we systematically investigate the expression of sensory GPCRs in the u...
Source: Physiological Reports - May 1, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Tilmira A. Smith, Brittni N. Moore, Andres Matoso, Dan E. Berkowitz, Jennifer J. DeBerry, Jennifer L. Pluznick Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

The implications of histamine metabolism and signaling in renal function
Inflammation is central to renal pathophysiology. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding the role of histamine, a well ‐known mediator of inflammation, and its metabolism in the kidney.​ AbstractInflammation is an essential part of the immune response; it has been found to be central to the disruption of kidney function in acute kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy, hypertension, and other renal conditions. One of the well ‐known mediators of the inflammatory response is histamine. Histamine receptors are expressed throughout different tissues, including the kidney, and their inhibition has pr...
Source: Physiological Reports - May 1, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Anastasia V. Sudarikova, Mikhail V. Fomin, Irina A. Yankelevich, Daria V. Ilatovskaya Tags: INVITED REVIEW Source Type: research

Primary human mesothelial cell culture in the evaluation of the inflammatory response to different sclerosing agents used for pleurodesis
We performed the prospective study using primary, biopsy ‐derived human mesothelial cells to establish an in vitro culture and to assess the response of pleural mesothelial cells to four different sclerosing agents (talc, povidone‐iodine, doxycycline, and transforming growth factor β) in different doses. Our study shows, that it is feasible to cultur e pleural mesothelial cells isolated from pleura biopsy specimens, that can be used for research on pleurodesis mechanisms. We found that pro‐inflammatory mesothelial response includes an increase in interleukin (IL)‐1β mRNA expression and protein production,...
Source: Physiological Reports - May 1, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Michal Mierzejewski, Magdalena Paplinska ‐Goryca, Piotr Korczynski, Rafal Krenke Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - May 1, 2021 Category: Physiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Cross ‐talk between motor neurons and myotubes via endogenously secreted neural and muscular growth factors
Formation of neuromuscular junction between motor neuron and myoblast. AbstractNeuromuscular junction (NMJ) research is vital to advance the understanding of neuromuscular patho ‐physiology and development of novel therapies for diseases associated with NM dysfunction.In vivo, the micro ‐environment surrounding the NMJ has a significant impact on NMJ formation and maintenance via neurotrophic and differentiation factors that are secreted as a result of cross‐talk between muscle fibers and motor neurons. Recently we showed the formation of functional NMJsin vitro in a co ‐culture of immortalized human myoblasts and ...
Source: Physiological Reports - May 1, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Jasdeep Saini, Alessandro Faroni, Adam J. Reid, Vincent Mouly, Gillian Butler ‐Browne, Adam P. Lightfoot, Jamie S. McPhee, Hans Degens, Nasser Al‐Shanti Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Proposed mechanism for reduced jugular vein flow in microgravity
Internal jugular flow is reduced in space, which can be associated with internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombosis. We used a novel, microgravity ‐focused numerical model of the cranial vascular circulation to develop hypotheses for the reduced flow. Weightlessness reduces venous pressures throughout the body which reduces internal jugular vein diameter and thus internal jugular venous flow. AbstractInternal jugular flow is reduced in space compared with supine values, which can be associated with internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombosis. The mechanism is unknown but important to understand to prevent potentially serious vein ...
Source: Physiological Reports - May 1, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Mimi Lan, Scott D. Phillips, Veronique Archambault ‐Leger, Ariane B. Chepko, Rongfei Lu, Allison P. Anderson, Kseniya S. Masterova, Abigail M. Fellows, Ryan J. Halter, Jay C. Buckey Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Chronic administration of pharmacological doses of angiotensin 1 ‐7 and iodoangiotensin 1‐7 has minimal effects on blood pressure, heart rate, and cognitive function of spontaneously hypertensive rats
This study evaluated chronic high ‐dose iodotyr(4)angiotensin 1‐7 and angiotensin 1‐7 administration on blood pressure, heart rate and cognitive function in SHR. Iodotyr(4)angiotensin 1‐7 and angiotensin 1‐7 prevented the increase in heart rate over a 27 day period but did not alter blood pressure or performance in a long ‐term recognition test or a short‐term spatial memory task. AbstractCardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of death worldwide, with hypertension being the most common cardiovascular disease risk factor. High blood pressure (BP) is also associated with an increased risk of poor ...
Source: Physiological Reports - April 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Filipe F. Stoyell ‐Conti, Alesa Chabbra, Joseph Puthentharayil, Katya Rigatto, Robert C. Speth Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Pharmacological inhibition of dynamin ‐related protein 1 attenuates skeletal muscle insulin resistance in obesity
We found that inhibiting Drp1 attenuates the impairment in skeletal muscle insulin signaling and improves whole ‐body glucose tolerance in the setting of obesity‐induced insulin resistance. Targeting Drp1 may be a viable approach to treat obesity‐induced insulin resistance. AbstractDynamin ‐related protein‐1 (Drp1) is a key regulator in mitochondrial fission. Excessive Drp1‐mediated mitochondrial fission in skeletal muscle under the obese condition is associated with impaired insulin action. However, it remains unknown whether pharmacological inhibition of Drp1, using the Drp1‐ specific inhibitor Mitochondria...
Source: Physiological Reports - April 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Benjamin A. Kugler, Wenqian Deng, Abigail L. Duguay, Jessica P. Garcia, Meaghan C. Anderson, Paul D. Nguyen, Joseph A. Houmard, Kai Zou Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Interval ‐induced metabolic perturbation determines tissue fluid shifts into skeletal muscle
This study aimed to link exercise‐induced metabolic perturbation with volume shifts into skeletal muscle tissue. Ten healthy subjects (mean age 33 ± 8 years, 5 males and 5 females) performed three 30 s all‐out sprints on a cycl e ergometer. Upon cessation of exercise magnetic resonance imaging,31Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy and blood samples were used to measure changes in muscle volume, intramuscular energy metabolites and plasma volume. Compared to pre ‐exercise, muscle volume increased from 1147.1 ± 35.6 ml to 1283.3 ± 11.0 ml 8&n...
Source: Physiological Reports - April 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Mirko Mandi ć, Mikael F. Forsgren, Thobias Romu, Per Widholm, Patrik Sundblad, Thomas Gustafsson, Eric Rullman Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Physical activity effects on bladder dysfunction in an obese and insulin ‐resistant murine model
ConclusionsThe insulin signaling pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of bladder dysfunction related to a high ‐fat diet. Physical activity may help to prevent bladder disfunction induced by a high‐fat diet through the insulin pathway. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - April 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Andr é Matos Oliveira, Fernando Mello Froes Fonseca, Sabrina Thalita Reis, Nayara Izabel Viana, Edilamar Menezes Oliveira, Luiz Osório Leiria, Katia Ramos Moreira Leite, William Carlos Nahas, Miguel Srougi, Alberto Azoubel Antunes Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effect of a single bout of morning or afternoon exercise on glucose fluctuation in young healthy men
Comprehensive analyses of multiple indices revealed that the effects of exercise on glucose fluctuation depends on the timing of the exercise. Glucose fluctuation was slightly less stable when exercise was performed in afternoon with higher insulin levels (red) than in morning with lower insulin levels (blue). The effect of differences in the timing of exercise on glucose fluctuation may be due to differences in glucose level changes during exercise. AbstractThe timing of exercise plays an important role in the effect of the exercise on physiological functions, such as substrate oxidation and circadian rhythm. Exercise exe...
Source: Physiological Reports - April 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Yoshiaki Tanaka, Hitomi Ogata, Insung Park, Akira Ando, Asuka Ishihara, Momoko Kayaba, Katsuhiko Yajima, Chihiro Suzuki, Akihiro Araki, Haruka Osumi, Simeng Zhang, Jaehoon Seol, Keigo Takahashi, Yoshiharu Nabekura, Makoto Satoh, Kumpei Toku Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Reduced adiponectin levels in patients with COVID ‐19 acute respiratory failure: A case‐control study
In conclusion, adiponectin levels appear to be reduced in COVID‐19 respiratory failure. Larger studies are needed to confirm this report. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - April 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Sean M. Kearns, Katelyn W. Ahern, James T. Patrie, William B. Horton, Thurl E. Harris, Alexandra Kadl Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effect of exercise training in rats exposed to chronic hypoxia: Application for Monge ’s disease
Exercise training limited chronic hypoxia ‐induced decline in physical capacity. Exercise training decreased hematocrit through mechanical hemolysis. Exercise training in hypoxia have a beneficial effect on excessive erythropoiesis AbstractPhysical exercise may improve hematological conditions in high altitude dwellers suffering from Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), in reducing hemoglobin concentration. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterize the effects of 1 ‐month exercise training session in a model of rats exposed to chronic hypoxia. Four groups of male rats were studied: normoxic sedentary (NS, n =...
Source: Physiological Reports - April 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Jos é‐Luis Macarlupu, Dominique Marchant, Florine Jeton, Francisco Villafuerte, Jean‐Paul Richalet, Nicolas Voituron Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research

Current limits for flowmeter resistance in metabolic carts can negatively affect exercise performance
Current guidelines allow for respiratory resistance up to 1.5 cmH2 = L/s in metabolic carts. We demonstrate that equipment operating in the upper limit of this range negatively affect exercise performance. Current guidelines should be re‐considered. AbstractPurposeTo investigate whether a metabolic cart using a flowmeter in the upper range of accepted resistance to airflow (
Source: Physiological Reports - April 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Fernando G. Beltrami, J érôme Kurz, Elena Roos, Christina M. Spengler Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Quantifying H+ exchange from muscle cytosolic energy catabolism using metabolite flux and H+ coefficients from multiple competitive cation binding: New evidence for consideration in established theories
Calculations of fractional H+ exchange (~H+e) from the chemical reactions of non ‐mitochondrial energy catabolism were performed to quantify the extent of ~H+ release during 3  min of intense muscle contractions. The total ~H+ release was −187.9 mmol L−1 and total ~H+ consumption was 130.6  mmol L−1. The largest sources of ~H+ release were from glycolysis and ATP hydrolysis and the largest contributor to ~H+ consumption was lactate production (44.2  mmol L−1). AbstractThe purpose of this investigation was to present calculations of fractional H+ exchange (~H+e) f...
Source: Physiological Reports - April 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Robert A. Robergs Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research

Physiological responses during ascent to high altitude and the incidence of acute mountain sickness
We evaluated the performance of a simple exercise challenge at altitude (the Xtreme Everest Step ‐Test) in predicting acute mountain sickness (AMS) on a trek to Everest Base Camp (5300 m). The overall occurrence of AMS during the trek was high (73.5%). Lower peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) following the Xtreme Everest Step ‐Test at 3500 m and no previous exposure to altitude>5000  m predicted the development of moderate to severe AMS (Lake Louise score ≥5) during the trek. The Xtreme Everest Step‐Test offers a simple, reproducible field test to contribute towards the prediction of AMS, albeit...
Source: Physiological Reports - April 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Alexandra B. Cobb, Denny Z. H. Levett, Kay Mitchell, Wynne Aveling, Daniel Hurlbut, Edward Gilbert ‐Kawai, Philip J. Hennis, Monty G. Mythen, Michael P. W. Grocott, Daniel S. Martin, Caudwell Xtreme Everest, Xtreme Everest 2009, Xtreme Everest Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Arterial stiffness is not acutely modified by consumption of a caffeinated soft drink sweetened with high ‐fructose corn syrup in young healthy adults
This study investigated whether the ingestion of a caffeinated soft drink sweetened with high ‐fructose corn syrup acutely modified arterial stiffness. In a randomized counterbalanced, crossover design, fourteen young healthy adults consumed 500 ml of tap water or a caffeinated soft drink sweetened with high‐fructose corn syrup, after which carotid‐to‐femoral pulse wave velocity was measured. This study found that ingesting 500 ml of a commercially available caffeinated soft drink sweetened with high‐fructose corn syrup does not acutely change indices of arterial stiffness. AbstractWe tested the hypothe...
Source: Physiological Reports - April 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Jessica A. Freemas, Joel T. Greenshields, Tyler Baker, Stephen J. Carter, Blair D. Johnson, Zachary J. Schlader Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

A study on the potential role of autophagy ‐related protein 10 as a biomarker for ulcerative colitis
ConclusionsATG10 might be a potential non ‐invasive diagnostic biomarker for UC. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - April 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Fatemeh Abbasi Teshnizi, Nasrin Kazemipour, Saeed Nazifi, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Masood Sepehrimanesh, Iman Razeghian Jahromi Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

The role of NHE3 (Slc9a3) in oxalate and sodium transport by mouse intestine and regulation by cAMP
A high urinary oxalate excretion rate is a risk factor for developing kidney stones, however, the intestine can serve as an extra ‐renal pathway for excretion of oxalate from the body. Here we show that NHE3, a sodium‐hydrogen exchange protein, is required for cAMP stimulated oxalate secretion in the murine cecum. However, we found no evidence for the involvement of NHE3 in oxalate transport across either the murine ileum or distal colon. AbstractIntestinal oxalate transport involves Cl−/HCO3− exchangers but how this transport is regulated is not currently known. NHE3 (Slc9a3), an apical Na+/H+ exchanger, i...
Source: Physiological Reports - April 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Christine E. Stephens, Jonathan M. Whittamore, Marguerite Hatch Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Elevated serotonin coordinates mammary metabolism in dairy cows
Our data demonstrates that serotonin regulates mammary calcium metabolism. The control of calcium by serotonin stimulates a negative feedback loop. This data demonstrates that the mammary gland acts via an endocrine organ to control maternal metabolism. AbstractSerotonin plays a diverse role in maternal and mammary metabolism. Recent research in the dairy cow has shown a relationship between serotonin and calcium, with increased serotonin concentrations improving calcium homeostasis in the peri ‐partum dairy cow. Therefore, the objective was to elucidate how administration of 5‐hydroxy‐l‐tryptophan (5‐HTP), the i...
Source: Physiological Reports - April 9, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Meghan K. Connelly, Samantha R. Weaver, Jordan M. Kuehnl, Hannah P. Fricke, Marisa Klister, Laura Hernandez Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Treatment effects of Shilajit on aspirin ‐induced gastric lesions in rats
This study demonstrated that Shilajit extract can alleviate aspirin ‐induced gastric mucosal damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, it can be used as a gastric mucosal protective agent. AbstractThe present study investigated the effects of Shilajit extract on aspirin ‐induced gastric lesions in rats. We evaluated macroscopic and histopathological lesions in the stomach, measured the activity of oxidative stress enzymes in gastric tissue homogenates, and assessed serum electrolytes and parameters of kidney and liver function. Forty‐five male rats were allocat ed to five groups: Normal c...
Source: Physiological Reports - April 6, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Naghmeh Ghasemkhani, Aidin Shojaee Tabrizi, Fatemeh Namazi, Saeed Nazifi Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effect of treatment of peripheral arterial disease on the onset of anaerobic exercise during cardiopulmonary exercise testing
ConclusionRevascularization of PAD led to significant improvement in multiple peak/maximal exercise parameters within a few weeks and without exercise training. We were unable to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in VO2 at LT albeit in a majority of subjects this exceeded what we pre ‐defined as clinically significant. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - April 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Mohamed Barkat, Angela Key, Tamara Ali, Paul Walker, Nick Duffy, Jayne Snellgrove, Francesco Torella Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Influence of strain, age, origin, and anesthesia on the cardioprotective efficacy by local and remote ischemic conditioning in an ex vivo rat model
Cardioprotection by ischemic conditioning remains a promising treatment strategy, however this study substantiates the importance of unifying basic methods in preclinical studies of cardioprotection. AbstractBackgroundLocal ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) induced by brief periods of ischemia and reperfusion protect against ischemia ‐reperfusion injury.MethodsWe studied the sensitivity to IR ‐injury and the influence of strain, age, supplier, and anesthesia upon the efficacy of IPC and RIC in 7‐ and 16‐weeks‐old Sprague‐Dawley and Wistar rats from three different suppliers. ...
Source: Physiological Reports - April 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Thomas Ravn Lassen, Marie Vognstoft Hjortbak, Marie Hauerslev, Pernille Tilma Tonnesen, Steen Buus Kristiansen, Rebekka Vibjerg Jensen, Hans Erik B øtker Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - April 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Reduced cellular glucose transport confers natural protection against dextrose ‐induced superoxide generation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in domestic hen
Normal blood glucose levels in avian species are twofold to fourfold higher than that in humans and birds do not suffer from diabetes ‐related complications. Compared to human cells, dextrose‐induced oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress are blunted in avian coronary artery endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The reduced dextrose‐induced cell stress in avian cells is secondary to reduced cellular glucose uptake. Intrin sically reduced glucose transport in avian species protects birds from glucotoxicity. AbstractNormal blood glucose levels in avian species are two to fourfold higher than that in humans and the h...
Source: Physiological Reports - April 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Arshag D. Mooradian, Michael J. Haas Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Robotic transcranial magnetic stimulation motor maps and hand function in adolescents
ConclusionsHand function in TDA correlates with smaller subset excitability regions of robotic TMS motor map outcomes. Refined motor maps may have less variance and greater potential to quantify interventional neuroplasticity. Robotic TMS mapping is safe and feasible in adolescents. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - April 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Adrianna Giuffre, Ephrem Zewdie, Helen L. Carlson, James G. Wrightson, Hsing ‐Ching Kuo, Lauran Cole, Adam Kirton Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Blood pressure ‐related differences in brain health between young African Americans and Caucasian Americans
ConclusionsMAP was an important moderator of racial differences in cognitive performance and ERC thickness. Our findings suggest that young AAs may carry a greater hypertension ‐associated risk for cognitive brain health deficit. Interventions that address early signs of hypertension in AAs are needed to determine if the racial disparities in BP‐related brain health in late adulthood can be reduced. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - March 30, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Junyeon Won, Sushant M. Ranadive, Daniel D. Callow, Shuo Chen, J. Carson Smith Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

mTOR ‐mediated calcium transients affect cardiac function in ex vivo ischemia–reperfusion injury
An overview of mTOR signaling in cardiomyocyte Excitation ‐Contraction coupling. AbstractThe mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key mediator of energy metabolism, cell growth, and survival. While previous studies using transgenic mice with cardiac ‐specific overexpression of mTOR (mTOR‐Tg) demonstrated the protective effects of cardiac mTOR against ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury in bothex vivo andin vivo models, the mechanisms underlying the role of cardiac mTOR in cardiac function following I/R injury are not well ‐understood. Torin1, a pharmacological inhibitor of mTOR complex (mTORC) 1 and mTOR...
Source: Physiological Reports - March 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Briana K. Shimada, Naaiko Yorichika, Jason K. Higa, Yuichi Baba, Motoi Kobayashi, Toshinori Aoyagi, Tomohiro Suhara, Takashi Matsui Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Maternal exposure to high ‐fat diet during pregnancy and lactation predisposes normal weight offspring mice to develop hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance
We investigated the effects of maternal feeding of a high ‐fat diet (HFD) during the perinatal period on hepatic metabolism and inflammation in male offspring mice at weaning and in early adulthood. Offspring from HFD showed transient increase in adiposity, fasting blood glucose, and cholesterol levels at weaning. Young adult male mice developed systemic insulin resistance with defects in hepatic insulin action and insulin‐stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. Our findings indicate hidden, lasting effects of maternal exposure to HFD on metabolic homeostasis of normal weight offspring mi...
Source: Physiological Reports - March 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Suchaorn Saengnipanthkul, Hye Lim Noh, Randall H. Friedline, Sujin Suk, Stephanie Choi, Nicholas K. Acosta, Duy A. Tran, Xiaodi Hu, Kunikazu Inashima, Allison M. Kim, Ki Won Lee, Jason K. Kim Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Hemorrhagic shock and fluid dynamics
(Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - March 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Maya Cohen, Sean F. Monaghan Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Safety of surgical denervation of the common hepatic artery in insulin ‐resistant dogs
The objective of this study was to assess the safety of surgical common hepatic artery denervation (CHADN). This procedure has previously been shown to improve glucose tolerance in dogs fed a high ‐fat high‐fructose (HFHF) diet. We assessed the hypoglycemic response of dogs by infusing insulin at a constant rate (1.5 mU/kg/min) for 3 h and monitoring glucose and the counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamine, and cortisol). After an initial hypoglycemic study, the dogs were ran domly assigned to a SHAM surgery (n = 4) or hepatic sympathetic denervation (CHADN, n = 5) and three fol...
Source: Physiological Reports - March 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Guillaume Kraft, Melanie Scott, Eric Allen, Dale S. Edgerton, Ben Farmer, Bobak R. Azamian, Alan D. Cherrington Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Ammonium chloride administration prior to exercise has muscle ‐specific effects on mitochondrial and myofibrillar protein synthesis in rats
ConclusionThis study found ammonium chloride administration immediately prior to a single session of exercise in rats had differing effects on mitochondrial and myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in soleus (type I) and gastrocnemius (type II) muscle in rats. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - March 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Amanda J. Genders, Evelyn C. Marin, Joseph J. Bass, Jujiao Kuang, Nicholas J. Saner, Ken Smith, Philip J. Atherton, David J. Bishop Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Utility of perfusion decellularization to achieve biochemical and mechanically accurate whole animal and organ ‐specific tissue scaffolds
(Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - March 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Daniel Shiwarski Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Sphingosine ‐1‐phosphate as a key player of insulin secretion induced by high‐density lipoprotein treatment
HDL improves insulin secretion by beta cells S1P plays a role in HDL ‐induced insulin secretion HDL increases intracellular S1P content. AbstractBeta cell failure is one of the most important features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). High ‐density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proposed to improve β‐cell function. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of sphingosine‐1‐phosphate (S1P) in the impact of HDL treatment on insulin secreti on by pancreatic β‐cells and to determine its mechanisms. Primary cultures...
Source: Physiological Reports - March 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Marie ‐Claude Brulhart‐Meynet, Aurélien Thomas, Jonathan Sidibé, Florian Visentin, Rodolphe Dusaulcy, Valérie Schwitzgebel, Zoltan Pataky, Jacques Philippe, Nicolas Vuilleumier, Richard W. James, Yvan Gosmain, Miguel A. Frias Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Repetitive optogenetic stimulation of glutamatergic neurons: An alternative to NMDA treatment for generating locomotor activity in spinalized zebrafish larvae
Neuronal circuits within the spinal cord have the capacity to produce rhythmic locomotor activity in isolation from the brain. Application of exogenousN‐methyl‐d‐aspartate (NMDA) is commonly used to experimentally excite these networks to produce locomotor activity. Here, we demonstrate that repetitive optogenetic activation of spinal vesicular glutamate transporter 2a‐expressing neurons is a viable, and potentially more biologically‐relevant, alterna tive to NMDA bath application for studying locomotor network modulation. AbstractN‐methyl‐d‐aspartate (NMDA) application has conventionally been used to activ...
Source: Physiological Reports - March 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Jacob E. Montgomery, Sarah Wahlstrom ‐Helgren, Kayce T. Vanpelt, Mark A. Masino Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

ω‐Imidazolyl‐alkyl derivatives as new preclinical drug candidates for treating non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis
We developed two new inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), namely 12 ‐imidazolyl‐1‐dodecanol (I‐ol) and 1‐imidazolyldodecane (I‐an), to reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and aimed to test their effects on non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Our findings suggest that CYP2E1 may be considered a suitable drug target, with I‐ol and I‐ an being promising drug candidates for the treatment of NASH. AbstractCytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) ‐associated reactive oxygen species production plays an important role in the development and progression of inflammatory liver diseases such as alcohol...
Source: Physiological Reports - March 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Torsten Diesinger, Alfred Lautwein, Vyacheslav Buko, Elena Belonovskaya, Oksana Lukivskaya, Elena Naruta, Siarhei Kirko, Viktor Andreev, Radovan Dvorsky, Dominik Buckert, Sebastian Bergler, Christian Renz, Dieter M üller‐Enoch, Thomas Wirt Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Maternal selenium deficiency in mice promotes sex ‐specific changes to urine flow and renal expression of mitochondrial proteins in adult offspring
This study utilized a mouse model of maternal selenium deficiency to investigate kidney protein glycation, mitochondrial adaptations, and urinary excretion in offspring. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed control (>190  µg selenium/kg) or low selenium (
Source: Physiological Reports - March 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Elliott S. Neal, Pierre Hofstee, Montana R. Askew, Nykola L. Kent, Lucy A. Bartho, Anthony V. Perkins, James S. M. Cuffe Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

The effect of neprilysin and renin inhibition on the renal dysfunction following ischemia ‐reperfusion injury in the rat
RAS blockade by a renin inhibitor (aliskiren) or neprilysin inhibition by sacubitril separately led to significant attenuation in the renal IRI ‐induced renal dysfunction. The combination of aliskiren and sacubitril was more effective than either one alone. AbstractThe natriuretic peptide (NP) system counter ‐regulates the renin‐angiotensin system (RAS), so enhancing the activity of natriuretic peptides (NPs) may be beneficial in conditions when RAS is activated such as ischemia‐reperfusion injury (IRI). Neprilysin is the key enzyme responsible for the degradation of NPs. The effects of neprilysin inhibition or the...
Source: Physiological Reports - March 17, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Fayez T. Hammad, Suhail Al ‐Salam, Sarah S. AlZaabi, Maryam M. Alfalasi, Awwab F. Hammad, Javed Yasin, Loay Lubbad Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Hyperbaric oxygen treatment is associated with a decrease in cytokine levels in patients with necrotizing soft ‐tissue infection
In necrotizing soft ‐tissue infections, the inflammatory response at admission is immense with a rapid decline during the first 3 days. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment may induce immunomodulatory effects by decreasing IL‐6 and G‐CSF potentially limiting the risk of collateral damage. AbstractBackgroundThe pathophysiological understanding of the inflammatory response in necrotizing soft ‐tissue infection (NSTI) and its impact on clinical progression and outcomes are not resolved. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatment serves as an adjunctive treatment; however, its immunomodulatory effects in the treatment of NSTI rema...
Source: Physiological Reports - March 15, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Morten Hedetoft, Peter Garred, Martin Bruun Madsen, Ole Hyldegaard Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - March 15, 2021 Category: Physiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Homoarginine ameliorates diabetic nephropathy independent of nitric oxide synthase ‐3
In this study we tested whether the protective effect of homoarginine is nitric oxide synthase ‐3 (NOS3)‐independent in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Experiments were conducted in NOS3 deficient (NOS3−/−) mice and their wild type littermate using multiple low doses of vehicle or streptozotocin and treated with homoarginine via drinking water for 24  weeks. Homoarginine supplementation for 24 weeks in diabetic NOS3−/− mice significantly attenuated albuminuria, increased blood urea nitrogen, histopathological changes and kidney fibrosis, kidney fibrotic markers, and kidney macrophage recrui...
Source: Physiological Reports - March 13, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Michael D. Wetzel, Kristen Stanley, Soumya Maity, Muniswamy Madesh, Jean C. Bopassa, Alaa S. Awad Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

High heart rate associated early repolarization causes J ‐waves in both zebra finch and mouse
Zebra finches, a bird species with high heart rates, have a J ‐wave on the ECG, which results from early repolarization, This supports the notion that J‐waves are a common phenomenon in endothermic animals with high heart rates. AbstractHigh heart rates are a feature of small endothermic —or warm‐blooded—mammals and birds. In small mammals, the QT interval is short, and local ventricular recordings reveal early repolarization that coincides with the J‐wave on the ECG, a positive deflection following the QRS complex. Early repolarization contributes to short QT‐intervals th ereby enabling brief cardiac...
Source: Physiological Reports - March 12, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Joost A. Offerhaus, Peter C. Snelderwaard, Sila Alg ül, Jaeike W. Faber, Katharina Riebel, Bjarke Jensen, Bastiaan J. Boukens Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Between two storms, vasoactive peptides or bradykinin underlie severity of COVID ‐19?
In conclusion, it is proposed that “vasoactive peptide storm” may underlie severity of COVID‐19 and that simultaneous inhibition of all three peptidergic systems could be therapeutically more advantageous rather than modulation of any single mechanism alone. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - March 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Vardan T. Karamyan Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Short ‐term intermittent hypoxia induces simultaneous systemic insulin resistance and higher cardiac contractility in lean mice
ConclusionOur study suggests that, despite systemic insulin resistance, IH exposure mediates an adaptive cardiac response in lean but not in obese mice. Further studies are needed to investigate which specific mechanisms are involved and to determine the long ‐term evolution of cardiac responses to IH. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - March 9, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Maximin D étrait, Mélanie Pesse, Clément Calissi, Sophie Bouyon, Jacques Brocard, Guillaume Vial, Jean‐Louis Pépin, Elise Belaidi, Claire Arnaud Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research