Coordination between heart rate variability and physical activity may be diminished by fatigability in non ‐older women in the hour before sleep
We investigated whether fatigability is associated with the coordination between the physical acceleration (PA) and parasympathetic nervous activity (PSNA) in women. In the non-older group in the hour before sleep, the participants with high fatigability scores had significantly lower coordination than those with low fatigability (p 
Source: Physiological Reports - November 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Kentaro Taniguchi, Akito Shimouchi, Naoya Jinno, Akitoshi Seiyama Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

A review of center of pressure (COP) variables to quantify standing balance in elderly people: Algorithms and open ‐access code*
This study reviews and compares a wide range of state-of-the-art variables that are used to assess the risk of fall in elderly from a stabilogram. When appropriate, we discuss the hypothesis and mathematical assumptions that underlie these variables, and we propose a reproducible method to compute each of them. Additionally, we provide a statistical description of their behavior on two datasets recorded in two elderly populations and with differen t protocols, to hint at typical values of these variables. First, the balance of 133 elderly individuals, including 32 fallers, was measured on a relatively inexpensive, portable...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Flavien Quijoux, Alice Nicola ï, Ikram Chairi, Ioannis Bargiotas, Damien Ricard, Alain Yelnik, Laurent Oudre, François Bertin‐Hugault, Pierre‐Paul Vidal, Nicolas Vayatis, Stéphane Buffat, Julien Audiffren Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

A mathematical model of hiPSC cardiomyocytes electromechanics
We present the first hiPSC-CM computational model that accounts for essential AP, CaT, and mechanical biomarkers incorporating experimental variability. The introduced passive force handling enables the model to capture the inotropic effect of non-cardiomyocytes in hiPSC-CM tissues. Simulated cell shortening and contraction –relaxation indices fall within experimental ranges, and EAD-based aftercontractions predicted by the model are in accord with experimental observations. Predicted Verapamil and Bay-K 8644 inotropic effects agree with in vitro data. AbstractHuman induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Mohamadamin Forouzandehmehr, Jussi T. Koivum äki, Jari Hyttinen, Michelangelo Paci Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Storage conditions of high ‐fat diets affect pulmonary inflammation
Storage conditions of mouse chow affect lipid perodixation of chow, which in turn affects inflammatory responses in the lungs. This may explain the divergent results seen in acute lung injury models using diet-induced obesity. Data analysis may be affected simply because of the state of mouse chow. AbstractObesity alters the risks and outcomes of inflammatory lung diseases. It is important to accurately recapitulate the obese state in animal models to understand these effects on the pathogenesis of disease. Diet-induced obesity is a commonly used model of obesity, but when applied to other disease models like acute respira...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Marta Kokoszynska, Niki D. Ubags, Joseph J. Bivona, Sebastian Ventrone, Leah F. Reed, Anne E. Dixon, Matthew J. Wargo, Matthew E. Poynter, Benjamin T. Suratt Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Breathing patterns in people with exercise ‐induced laryngeal obstruction
We described the relationships between minute ventilation () versus tidal volume (VT) and versus carbon dioxide output (), using respectively quadratic and linear equations, and applied adjusted regression models to compare ergospirometry data and curve parameters. Compared to the no-EILO group, the group with EILO had prolonged inspiratory time (Tin), lower breathing frequency (Bf), lower , and lower inspiratory flow rate () at peak exercise. Mathematical modeling of the breathing pattern relationships was feasible in both groups, with similar coefficients of variation. For versusVT, the mathematical curve parameters were...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Astrid Haugen Lie, Ingvild Gr ønnevik, Bente Frisk, Ola Drange Røksund, Ida Hammer, Maria Vollsæter, Thomas Halvorsen, Hege H. Clemm Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Aging exaggerates blood pressure response to ischemic rhythmic handgrip exercise in humans
The systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses to low-intensity rhythmic handgrip exercise with postexercise muscle ischemia in older adults were demonstrated to be higher than that of young, and young and middle-aged groups, respectively. Additionally, aging persisted as a significant determinant explaining the variance in the blood pressure response to low-intensity rhythmic handgrip exercise during postexercise muscle ischemia. These finding suggests that aging enhances pressor response to ischemic exercise. AbstractIschemic skeletal muscle conditions are known to augment exercise-induced increases in blood pressur...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Daisuke Hasegawa, Amane Hori, Yukiko Okamura, Reizo Baba, Kenichi Suijo, Masaki Mizuno, Jun Sugawara, Koji Kitatsuji, Hisayoshi Ogata, Kaoru Toda, Norio Hotta Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effects of indulgent food snacking, with and without exercise training, on body weight, fat mass, and cardiometabolic risk markers in overweight and obese men
Despite ingesting 48 donuts (~14,500  kcal) over 4 weeks, overweight and obese men did not gain weight or body fat, and actually experienced an increase in oral glucose tolerance. HIIT and MICT improved cardiorespiratory fitness during the 4 weeks of indulgent food snacking but did not improve most cardiometabolic risk markers. Cons umption of the donuts may have prevented expected improvements in endothelial function following HIIT. AbstractWe hypothesized that exercise training would prevent gains in body weight and body fat, and worsening of cardiometabolic risk markers, during a 4-week period of indulgen...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Wesley J. Tucker, Catherine L. Jarrett, Andrew C. D ’Lugos, Siddhartha S. Angadi, Glenn A. Gaesser Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Role of oxidative stress versus lipids in monocrotaline ‐induced pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure
In this study, probucol (PROB), a strong antioxidant with a lipid-lowering property, versus lovastatin (LOV), a strong lipid-lowering drug with some antioxidant effects, were evaluated for their effects on the MCT-induced RHF. Rats were treated (I.P.) with PROB (10 mg/kg ×12) or LOV (4 mg/kg ×12), daily 6 days before and 6 days after a single MCT injection (60 mg/kg). Serial echocardiography was performed an d at 4-week post-MCT, lung wet-to-dry weight, hemodynamics, RV glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, lipid peroxidation, and myocardial as well as pl...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Firoozeh Farahmand, Akshi Malik, Anita Sharma, Ashim K. Bagchi, Pawan K. Singal Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Phosphorylation of Lamin A/C at serine 22 modulates Nav1.5 function
Lamin A/C Ser 22 phosphorylation can modulate Nav1.5 function and contributes to the mechanism by which R545H-LMNA alters Nav1.5 function in cardiac conduction disease. Abolishing phosphorylation with S22A-LMNA reduces channel function, but decreasing phosphorylation with the small molecule LBL1 does not, suggesting a threshold of Ser 22 phosphorylation required for Nav1.5 modulation. Mimicking phosphorylation with S22D-R545H-LMNA abolished the effects of mutant R545H-LMNA on voltage-dependency but not peakINa. AbstractVariants in theLMNA gene, which encodes for Lamin A/C, are associated with cardiac conduction disease (CC...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 23, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Michael A. Olaopa, Tomohiko Ai, Bo Chao, Xiangshu Xiao, Matteo Vatta, Beth A. Habecker Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Short ‐term ventriculo‐arterial coupling and myocardial work efficiency in preterm infants undergoing percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure
Definitive closure of patent ductus arteriosus is associated with significant changes in ventriculo-arterial coupling and myocardial work indices including reduced preload, stroke volume, global longitudinal strain, and ventricular efficiency, with increased arterial elastance. Patients who develop cardiorespiratory instability after the procedure have higher arterial and end-systolic elastance. These data may provide an enhanced understanding of the physiology of patent ductus arteriosus closure and serve as a guide to optimize care and provide targeted therapies in vulnerable preterm infants. AbstractDefinitive closure o...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Adrianne R. Bischoff, Amy H. Stanford, Patrick J. McNamara Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Progression of diabetes is associated with changes in the ileal transcriptome and ileal ‐colon morphology in the UC Davis Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus rat
The advancement of diabetes in the UC Davis Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rat model results in a trophic effect on the mucosal epithelia. Diabetes was also associated with regulation of gastrointestinal tract RNA expression, which appears more pronounced in the ileum relative to the colon. The UCD-T2DM rat spontaneously develops diabetes while consuming standard chow, thus, these changes may be diabetes specific. AbstractDeterioration in glucose homeostasis has been associated with intestinal dysbiosis, but it is not known how metabolic dysregulation alters the gastrointestinal environment. We investigated how the pr...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Brian D. Piccolo, James L. Graham, Ping Kang, Christopher E. Randolph, Kartik Shankar, Laxmi Yeruva, Renee Fox, Michael S. Robeson, Becky Moody, Tanya LeRoith, Kimber L. Stanhope, Sean H. Adams, Peter J. Havel Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Expanded renal lymphatics improve recovery following kidney injury
Increased renal lymphatic density prior to kidney injury alters the inflammatory response. This appears to improve injury resolution beyond the acute phase, reducing fibrosis and the AKI to CKD progression. AbstractAcute kidney injury (AKI) is a major cause of patient mortality and a major risk multiplier for the progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The mechanism of the AKI to CKD transition is complex but is likely mediated by the extent and length of the inflammatory response following the initial injury. Lymphatic vessels help to maintain tissue homeostasis through fluid, macromolecule, and immune modulation. In...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Gaurav Baranwal, Heidi A. Creed, Laurence M. Black, Alexa Auger, Alexander M. Quach, Rahul Vegiraju, Han E. Eckenrode, Anupam Agarwal, Joseph M. Rutkowski Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Hyperemic myocardial blood flow in patients with atrial fibrillation before and after catheter ablation: A dynamic stress CT perfusion study
AbstractBackgroundAtrial fibrillation (AF) patients without coronary artery stenosis often show clinical evidence of ischemia. However myocardial perfusion in AF patients has been poorly studied. The purposes of this study were to investigate altered hyperemic myocardial blood flow (MBF) in patients with AF compared with risk-matched controls in sinus rhythm (SR), and to evaluate hyperemic MBF before and after catheter ablation using dynamic CT perfusion.MethodsHyperemic MBF was quantified in 87 patients with AF (44 paroxysmal, 43 persistent) scheduled for catheter ablation using dynamic CT perfusion, and compared with hyp...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Masafumi Takafuji, Kakuya Kitagawa, Satoshi Nakamura, Takanori Kokawa, Yoshihiko Kagawa, Satoshi Fujita, Tomoyuki Fukuma, Eitaro Fujii, Kaoru Dohi, Hajime Sakuma Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Unresolved intramuscular inflammation, not diminished skeletal muscle regenerative capacity, is at the root of rheumatoid cachexia: insights from a rat CIA model
This study aimed to assess these cell types, cytokines, and growth factors and their relationships to muscle fiber size and number in a rodent collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, in order to identify new therapeutic targets. Fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) was 57% lower in CIA than controls (p  
Source: Physiological Reports - November 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Tracey Ollewagen, Yigael S. L. Powrie, Kathryn H. Myburgh, Carine Smith Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - November 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Possible therapeutic effect of royal jelly on endometriotic lesion size, pain sensitivity, and neurotrophic factors in a rat model of endometriosis
Treatment with Royal Jelly could decrease the size of endometriosis lesions as well as pain scores. AbstractEndometriosis is the abnormal growth of endometrial tissue. The goals of the study are: (1) Is any correlation between endometriosis pain and neurotrophins in the serum, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and peritoneal fluid (PF) in rat models of experimental endometriosis?, (2) Possible therapeutic effects of royal jelly (RJ) on pain scores, size of endometriotic lesion, and neurotrophic factors. Forty-eight Sprague Dawley female rats weighing 205.023  ± 21.54 g were maintained in a standard conditio...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Zahra K. Farahani, Mahnaz Taherianfard, Mohamad Mehdi Naderi, Hortensia Ferrero Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Myocardial and mitochondrial effects of the anhydrase carbonic inhibitor ethoxzolamide in ischemia ‐reperfusion
In this study, our aim was to assess the possible further contribution of CA intracellular isoforms examining the actions of the highly diffusible cell membrane permeant inhibitor of CA, ethoxzolamide (ETZ). Isolated rat hearts, after 20  min of stabilization, were assigned to the following groups: (1) Nonischemic control: 90 min of perfusion; (2) Ischemic control: 30 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion (R); and (3) ETZ: ETZ at a concentration of 100 μM was administered for 10 min before the onset of ischemia and then during the first 10 min of reperfusion. In additional g...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Alejandro Ciocci Pardo, Luisa F. Gonz ález Arbeláez, Juliana C. Fantinelli, Bernardo V. Álvarez, Susana M. Mosca, Erik R. Swenson Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Possible therapeutic effect of royal jelly on endometriotic lesion size, pain sensitivity, and neurotrophic factors in a rat model of endometriosis
Treatment with Royal Jelly could decrease the size of endometriosis lesions as well as pain scores. AbstractEndometriosis is the abnormal growth of endometrial tissue. The goals of the study are: (1) Is any correlation between endometriosis pain and neurotrophins in the serum, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and peritoneal fluid (PF) in rat models of experimental endometriosis?, (2) Possible therapeutic effects of royal jelly (RJ) on pain scores, size of endometriotic lesion, and neurotrophic factors. Forty-eight Sprague Dawley female rats weighing 205.023  ± 21.54 g were maintained in a standard conditio...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Zahra K. Farahani, Mahnaz Taherianfard, Mohamad Mehdi Naderi, Hortensia Ferrero Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Myocardial and mitochondrial effects of the anhydrase carbonic inhibitor ethoxzolamide in ischemia ‐reperfusion
In this study, our aim was to assess the possible further contribution of CA intracellular isoforms examining the actions of the highly diffusible cell membrane permeant inhibitor of CA, ethoxzolamide (ETZ). Isolated rat hearts, after 20  min of stabilization, were assigned to the following groups: (1) Nonischemic control: 90 min of perfusion; (2) Ischemic control: 30 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion (R); and (3) ETZ: ETZ at a concentration of 100 μM was administered for 10 min before the onset of ischemia and then during the first 10 min of reperfusion. In additional g...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Alejandro Ciocci Pardo, Luisa F. Gonz ález Arbeláez, Juliana C. Fantinelli, Bernardo V. Álvarez, Susana M. Mosca, Erik R. Swenson Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Utility of the oxygen pulse in the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease in physically fit patients
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) guidelines recommend analysis of the oxygen (O2) pulse for a late exercise plateau in evaluation for obstructive coronary artery disease (OCAD). The diagnostic performance of the O2 pulse for OCAD in physically fit individuals, in whom may be more likely to plateau, has not previously been evaluated. We found that a plateau in O2 pulse was not a useful predictor of OCAD in a physically fit population and may reflect a physiologic limitation of stroke volume and/or O2 extraction during exercise rather than a pathologic fall in stroke volume due to ischemia. AbstractCardiopulmonary exe...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 12, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Bradley J. Petek, Timothy W. Churchill, J. Sawalla Guseh, Garrett Loomer, Sarah K. Gustus, Gregory D. Lewis, Rory B. Weiner, Aaron L. Baggish, Meagan M. Wasfy Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Atorvastatin does not ameliorate nephrogenic diabetes insipidus induced by lithium or potassium depletion in mice
In conclusion, atorvastatin does not appear to be able to prevent or rescue Li-NDI or to prevent hypokalemic-ind uced NDI. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - November 11, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Maria L. Thomsen, Camilla Gr ønkjær, Anna Iervolino, Soham Rej, Francesco Trepiccione, Birgitte M. Christensen Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Oral vitamin C restores endothelial function during acute inflammation in young and older adults
In conclusion, oral vitamin C restored endothelial function during acute inflammation in young and older adults, with no effect on aortic stiffness. The effect of vitamin C on endothelial function did not appear to be due to reductions in inflammatory markers. The exact mechanisms should be further investigated. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - November 11, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Elizabeth C. Lefferts, Brooks A. Hibner, Wesley K. Lefferts, Natalia S. Lima, Tracy Baynard, Jacob M. Haus, Abbi D. Lane ‐Cordova, Shane A. Phillips, Bo Fernhall Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Folic acid, either solely or combined with L ‐citrulline, improves NO signaling and ameliorates chronic hypoxia‐induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn pigs
We report for the first time that oral administration of the B vitamin, folic acid, either solely, or when combined with the amino acid, L-citrulline, ameliorated the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in a newborn piglet animal model. We also provide data showing that the mechanistic impact of folic acid is due to improving pulmonary vascular NO signaling. Thus, folic acid merits further investigation as a potential treatment for human infants with PH due to cardiopulmonary conditions associated with chronic hypoxia. AbstractConcomitant with developing pulmonary hypertension (PH), newborn piglets exposed to chroni...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 11, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Matthew Douglass, Anna Dikalova, Mark R. Kaplowitz, Yongmei Zhang, Gary Cunningham, Marshall Summar, Candice D. Fike Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Contribution of analog signaling to neurotransmitter interactions and behavior: Role of transporter ‐mediated nonquantal dopamine release
We show that DA released by MDMA or β-PEA via the reverse operation of the DA transporter (DAT) ––a mechanism not coupled to axonal firing––is able to affect local cholinergic transmission in the striatum by a nonsynaptic mechanism. DA of cytoplasmic origin, released by DAT reversal, influences distinct elements of social beh avior induced by MDMA as shown by the in vivo effects of selective DAT inhibition on passive social behavior induced by MDMA, while other components of the MDMA-induced social behavior, such as reduced social play was not changed, highlighting DA-mediated-specific social e...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 11, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Viktor Rom án, Rita Kedves, Kristóf Kelemen, Zsolt Némethy, Beáta Sperlágh, Balázs Lendvai, E. Sylvester Vizi Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

The pathophysiology of leg cramping during dialysis and the use of carnitine in its treatment
A key component of the etiology of leg cramping during hemodialysis sessions is alkalosis, which induces hypocalcemia and the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Alkalosis is caused by not only dialysate but also contraction alkalosis due to fluid loss. The ATP provided by the correct use of carnitine supplementation ensures the reabsorption of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which rapidly stops the excessive muscle contractions (Figure 3). The routine use of carnitine in patients undergoing hemodialysis is now becoming established in Japan. AbstractLeg cramping is a common side effect of hemo...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 11, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Akira Takahashi Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Oral vitamin C restores endothelial function during acute inflammation in young and older adults
In conclusion, oral vitamin C restored endothelial function during acute inflammation in young and older adults, with no effect on aortic stiffness. The effect of vitamin C on endothelial function did not appear to be due to reductions in inflammatory markers. The exact mechanisms should be further investigated. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - November 11, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Elizabeth C. Lefferts, Brooks A. Hibner, Wesley K. Lefferts, Natalia S. Lima, Tracy Baynard, Jacob M. Haus, Abbi D. Lane ‐Cordova, Shane A. Phillips, Bo Fernhall Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Contribution of analog signaling to neurotransmitter interactions and behavior: Role of transporter ‐mediated nonquantal dopamine release
We show that DA released by MDMA or β-PEA via the reverse operation of the DA transporter (DAT) ––a mechanism not coupled to axonal firing––is able to affect local cholinergic transmission in the striatum by a nonsynaptic mechanism. DA of cytoplasmic origin, released by DAT reversal, influences distinct elements of social beh avior induced by MDMA as shown by the in vivo effects of selective DAT inhibition on passive social behavior induced by MDMA, while other components of the MDMA-induced social behavior, such as reduced social play was not changed, highlighting DA-mediated-specific social e...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 11, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Viktor Rom án, Rita Kedves, Kristóf Kelemen, Zsolt Némethy, Beáta Sperlágh, Balázs Lendvai, E. Sylvester Vizi Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Atorvastatin does not ameliorate nephrogenic diabetes insipidus induced by lithium or potassium depletion in mice
In conclusion, atorvastatin does not appear to be able to prevent or rescue Li-NDI or to prevent hypokalemic-ind uced NDI. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - November 11, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Maria L. Thomsen, Camilla Gr ønkjær, Anna Iervolino, Soham Rej, Francesco Trepiccione, Birgitte M. Christensen Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Folic acid, either solely or combined with L ‐citrulline, improves NO signaling and ameliorates chronic hypoxia‐induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn pigs
We report for the first time that oral administration of the B vitamin, folic acid, either solely, or when combined with the amino acid, L-citrulline, ameliorated the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in a newborn piglet animal model. We also provide data showing that the mechanistic impact of folic acid is due to improving pulmonary vascular NO signaling. Thus, folic acid merits further investigation as a potential treatment for human infants with PH due to cardiopulmonary conditions associated with chronic hypoxia. AbstractConcomitant with developing pulmonary hypertension (PH), newborn piglets exposed to chroni...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 11, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Matthew Douglass, Anna Dikalova, Mark R. Kaplowitz, Yongmei Zhang, Gary Cunningham, Marshall Summar, Candice D. Fike Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Respiratory disturbances and high risk of sudden death in the neonatal connexin ‐36 knockout mouse
Neonatal Cx36-knockout mice show breathing instability at rest, exacerbated chemoreflexes, disturbances in the mechanisms of cardiorespiratory coupling, and an elevated risk of sudden infant death. The principal determinants leading to the sudden infant death in the Cx36-knockout mice submitted to hypoxic-hypercapnic stress were the oxygen desaturation caused by the early suppression of mechanisms of cardiorespiratory coordination and the generation of a paroxysmal generalized clonic-tonic activity that changes of respiratory pattern from eupneic to a gasping mode. AbstractNeural circuits at the brainstem involved in the c...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Leonel F. P érez‐Atencio, Ana M. Casarrubios, José M. Ibarz, Juan A. Barios, Cristina Medrano, David Pestaña, David L. Paul, Luis C. Barrio Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

A novel evaluation of endothelial dysfunction ex vivo: “Teaching an Old Drug a New Trick”
Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is sine qua non of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases in humans, yet the mechanisms that contribute to ED are still being investigated. Our study demonstrates a novel methodological twist using an old drug (L-NAME) to screen for ED in aorta ex vivo. AbstractCardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many CVDs begin with endothelium dysfunction (ED), including hypertension, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. Our assay evaluated ED in isolated murine aorta by quantifying phenylephrine-induced contractions (PE) in the presence of L-NAME, wh...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Lexiao Jin, Daniel J. Conklin Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Respiratory disturbances and high risk of sudden death in the neonatal connexin ‐36 knockout mouse
Neonatal Cx36-knockout mice show breathing instability at rest, exacerbated chemoreflexes, disturbances in the mechanisms of cardiorespiratory coupling, and an elevated risk of sudden infant death. The principal determinants leading to the sudden infant death in the Cx36-knockout mice submitted to hypoxic-hypercapnic stress were the oxygen desaturation caused by the early suppression of mechanisms of cardiorespiratory coordination and the generation of a paroxysmal generalized clonic-tonic activity that changes of respiratory pattern from eupneic to a gasping mode. AbstractNeural circuits at the brainstem involved in the c...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Leonel F. P érez‐Atencio, Ana M. Casarrubios, José M. Ibarz, Juan A. Barios, Cristina Medrano, David Pestaña, David L. Paul, Luis C. Barrio Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

A novel evaluation of endothelial dysfunction ex vivo: “Teaching an Old Drug a New Trick”
Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is sine qua non of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases in humans, yet the mechanisms that contribute to ED are still being investigated. Our study demonstrates a novel methodological twist using an old drug (L-NAME) to screen for ED in aorta ex vivo. AbstractCardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many CVDs begin with endothelium dysfunction (ED), including hypertension, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. Our assay evaluated ED in isolated murine aorta by quantifying phenylephrine-induced contractions (PE) in the presence of L-NAME, wh...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Lexiao Jin, Daniel J. Conklin Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effects of changes in end ‐tidal PO2 and PCO2 on neural responses during rest and sustained attention
Changes in arterial blood gases (e.g., from high-altitude exposure) are associated with impairments of a variety of cognitive functions, potentially via disruption of how blood flow responds to brain activity. We used a novel multimodal approach to simultaneously measure human brain electrical activity using electroencephalography and blood flow using transcranial Doppler ultrasound, while participants performed a demanding sustained attention task at varying levels of arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide (CO2). We observed changes in both spontaneous and task-related brain activity as a function of changes in arterial CO2 a...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Tom Bullock, Barry Giesbrecht, Andrew E. Beaudin, Bradley G. Goodyear, Marc J. Poulin Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Age is associated with reduced urethral pressure and afferent activity in rat
This study examines the age-related loss of urethral signaling capability by measuring the afferent activity directly. We find that less urethral pressure develops in response to fluid flow in old rats compared to young rats and that pressure and flow evoke less urethral afferent activation. These findings are consistent with our previous study demonstrating that the urethra-to-bladder reflex, which is required for efficient voiding, becomes weaker with age. We measured the pudendal afferent response in young (4 –7 months) and old (18–24 months) rats to fluid flow in the urethra across a range of flow...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Arezoo Geramipour, Zachary C. Danziger Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Microbial disruption in the gut promotes cerebral endothelial dysfunction
This study highlights the potential of the microbiota as a target to reverse endothelial dysfunction and a preventative approach to reducing risk of stroke and aneurysms. (Source: Physiological Reports)
Source: Physiological Reports - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: April J. Rustia, James S. Paterson, Giles Best, Elke M. Sokoya Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Expression of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS ‐R1a) in the brain
The review presents data on the expression of GHS-R1a in the brain in model animals and in the human brain. Every year, new data appear showing that GHS-R1a plays an important role on physiological processes. Numerous data indicate the involvement of the receptor in the development of neurodegenerative process in various pathological conditions of the brain. AbstractThe review presents data on the expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) in the brain regions in model animals (zebrafish, rodents, primates), and in the human brain. Studies show widespread distribution of the receptor in the brain, whic...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Marat I. Airapetov, Sergei O. Eresko, Andrei A. Lebedev, Evgenii R. Bychkov, Petr D. Shabanov Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Involvement of PAR2 in platelet ‐derived growth factor receptor‐α‐positive cell proliferation in the colon of diabetic mice
AbstractOur previous study indicated that streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes leads to colonic platelet-derived growth factor receptor- α-positive (PDGFRα+) cell proliferation accompanied by slow colonic transit in mice; however, the mechanism of this effect is unclear. The present study used western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative PCR to investigate whether proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) mediates PDGFR α+ cell proliferation. Our results showed that PDGFR α, PAR2, and Ki-67 coexpression was increased in the diabetic colonic muscle layer. PDGFRα and PAR2 mRNA and...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Yu ‐Jia Li, Jun‐Ping Ao, Xu Huang, Hong‐Li Lu, Han‐Yue Fu, Ni‐Na Song, Wen‐Xie Xu, Jie Chen Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Delayed angiopoietin ‐2 blockade reduces influenza‐induced lung injury and improves survival in mice
This study characterized the time course of lung Ang-2 expression in severe influenza pneumonia and tested the therapeutic potential of Ang-2 inhibition. We inoculated adult mice with influenza A (PR8 strain) and measured angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), Ang-2, and Tie2 expressions during the evolution of inflammatory lung injury over the first 7  days post-infection (dpi). We tested a peptide-antibody inhibitor of Ang-2, L1-7, administered at 2, 4, and 6 dpi and measured arterial oxygen saturation, survival, pulmonary edema, inflammatory cytokines, and viral load. Finally, we infected primary human alveolar type II epith...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Jeffrey E. Gotts, Mazharul Maishan, Lauren Chun, Xiaohui Fang, Chun ‐Ya Han, Venice Chiueh, Aarif Y. Khakoo, TaeWeon Lee, Marina Stolina, Michael A. Matthay Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Blockade of the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor attenuates proteinuria in a mouse model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
The effects of blocking natriuretic peptide clearance from the circulation was examined in a mouse model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). We found that blockade of the natriuretic clearance receptor protected glomerular podocytes from apoptosis and inhibited albuminuria in FSGS. AbstractGlomerular podocytes play a key role in proteinuric diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that cGMP signaling has podocyte protective effects. The major source of cGMP generation in podocytes is natriuretic peptides. The natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPRC) binds and degrades natriuretic peptides. As a result, NPRC ...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Liming Wang, Yuping Tang, Anne F. Buckley, Robert F. Spurney Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effect of voluntary exercise upon the metabolic syndrome and gut microbiome composition in mice
In this study, we sought to determine if endurance exercise is sufficient to prevent or ameliorate the development of metabolic syndrome and its associated diseases and the impact of physical activity under metabolic syndrome progression upon the gut microbiome. Utilizing the whole-body low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) knockout mice on a “Western Diet,” we show that long-term exercise acts favorably upon glucose tolerance, adiposity, and liver lipids. Our results indicate that exercise can ameliorate some aspects of the metabolic syndrome progression and alter the gut microbiome. AbstractThe metabolic sy...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Timothy M. Moore, Anthony Terrazas, Alexander R. Strumwasser, Amanda J. Lin, Xiaopeng Zhu, Akshay T. S. Anand, Christina Q. Nguyen, Linsey Stiles, Frode Norheim, Jennifer M. Lang, Simon T. Hui, Lorraine P. Turcotte, Zhenqi Zhou Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research