Neuroinvasion, neurotropic, and neuroinflammatory events of SARS-CoV-2: understanding the neurological manifestations in COVID-19 patients
AbstractRespiratory viruses are opportunistic pathogens that infect the upper respiratory tract in humans and cause severe illnesses, especially in vulnerable populations. Some viruses have neuroinvasive properties and activate the immune response in the brain. These immune events may be neuroprotective or they may cause long-term damage similar to what is seen in some neurodegenerative diseases. The new “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2” (SARS-CoV-2) is one of the Respiratory viruses causing highly acute lethal pneumonia coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with clinical similarities to those rep...
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dyspnea perception and neurological symptoms in non-severe COVID-19 patients
AbstractIntroductionThe relationship between dyspnea and COVID-19 is unknown. In COVID-19 patients, the higher prevalence of neurological symptoms and the lack of dyspnea may suggest common underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. The aim of this preliminary study is to address whether there is a lack of dyspnea in COVID-19 patients and if there is a relationship between neurological symptoms and the perception of dyspnea.MethodsA structured interview regarding the occurrence of subjective neurological symptoms was performed and coupled with a questionnaire about the intensity and qualities of dyspnea. Respiratory rate (RR) and...
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Acutely altered mental status as the main clinical presentation of multiple strokes in critically ill patients with COVID-19
ConclusionAcutely altered mental status might be the main manifestation of multiple brain infarctions in critically ill COVID-19 patients. It should be specially considered in those with suspected COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Full-dose anticoagulation and clinical-radiological monitoring might reduce their neurological consequences. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Discovery of specific mutations in spinal muscular atrophy patients by next-generation sequencing
AbstractSpinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a type of autosomal recessive genetic disease, which seriously threatens the health and lives of children and adolescents. We attempted to find some genes and mutations related to the onset of SMA. Eighty-three whole-blood samples were collected from 28 core families, including 28 probands with clinically suspected SMA (20 SMA patients, 5 non-SMA children, and 3 patients with unknown etiology) and their parents. The multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA) was performed for preliminary diagnosis. The high-throughput sequencing technology was used to conduct the whole-exome sequ...
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Marchiafava –Bignami disease–like corpus callosum lesions due to moyamoya disease
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The distribution of the transient global amnesia in the province of Ferrara, Italy, a clue to the pathogenesis?
AbstractThe pathophysiology of transient global amnesia (TGA) is still uncertain. In the province of Ferrara (Fe-province), Italy, given the health organization and the alarming clinical features, the cases of TGA in the resident population virtually correspond to the resident outpatients diagnosed as TGA cases in the ER of the University Hospital of Ferrara. Thanks to this, a retrospective survey identified 35 (14 men, 21 women) first-ever TGA cases in the resident population in 2018 (346,975 inhabitants) giving a crude incidence rate of 10.10/100,000 (95% CI 7.00 –14.00), 8.40/100,000 (95% CI 4.60–14.10) for ...
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in ischemic stroke patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case –control studies
AbstractSerum VEGF level is regarded to be a biomarker for the diagnosis of stroke. Even though there have been published plethora of original articles describing higher blood VEGF concentrations since the 1970s, however, there is no any meta-analysis report for serum VEGF levels in the field of evidence-based medicine yet. A systematic review was performed by searching the online biomedical databases including retrieving 14 case –control studies including within-article subgroups after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria without the beginning date restriction, until 2020 for ischemic stroke patients. The...
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Age-related assessment of diffusion parameters in specific brain tracts correlated with cortical thinning
In this study, we evaluated age-related changes in WM and gray matter (GM) parameters and how they correlate for specific brain tracts in a cohort of 158 healthy individuals, aged between 18 and 83 years old. In the tract-cortical analysis, cortical regions connected by tracts demonstrated similar thinning patterns for the majority of tracts. Additionally, a significant relationship was found between mean cortical thinning rate with fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) alteration rates. For all tracts, age was the main effect controlling diffusion parameter alterations. We found no direct correlations betwe...
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Migraine and rare neurological disorders
AbstractAlthough migraine is generally considered an idiopathic and isolated neurological condition, it may also represent the presenting symptom of several uncommon heritable and acquired neurological diseases contributing to the recognition of such conditions. Migraine may indeed present with atypical characteristics or prolonged duration and may be associated with specific neuroradiological findings that may help in identifying the underlying condition. However, features of migraine in rare diseases are usually little known because of the lack of systematic studies. The aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with an...
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of Solid self-nanoemulsifying delivery system (SSNEDDS) loaded with curcumin and duloxetine in attenuation of neuropathic pain in rats
AbstractThe present investigation is focused on improving oral bioavailability of poorly soluble and lipophilic drugs, curcumin (CRM) and duloxetine (DXH), through the solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SNEDDS) and identifying their potential against attenuation of NP in chronic constriction injury (CCI) –induced rats through the solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SNEDDS). The optimized batch of S-SNEDDS reported was containing CRM and DXH (30 mg each), castor oil (20% w/w), tween-80 (40% w/w), transcutol-P (40% w/w), and syloid 244 FP (1 g). The high dose of each of naïve CRM (NC...
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Multidimensional assessment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients. Usefulness of a comprehensive score system
ConclusionThis study demonstrates that CSS model taking into consideration functional assessment by mJOA score, neurologic evaluation, cervical MRI, and MEP may be a feasible method to predict outcome in patients candidate to surgery, supporting surgeon ’s decisions both for those patients candidate to surgery and for patients in whom a “wait and see” approach could be proposed. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sleep and migraine
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Moving closer to the ideal migraine acute treatment
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The inflammatory markers and prognosis of cervicocephalic artery dissection: a stroke center study from a tertiary hospital
AbstractObjectiveCervicocephalic artery dissection (CeAD) is the most common cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. Although the exact cause is unknown, inflammation is thought to have a role. Here, we investigated the relationship between CeAD and inflammation.MethodsPatients diagnosed with CeAD in our stroke center were evaluated retrospectively, and their demographic and clinical features were recorded. The C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were recorded on admission...
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Guillain-Barre syndrome during COVID-19 pandemic: an overview of the reports
AbstractSimilar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has neurological symptoms. COVID-19 patients have such clinical symptoms as headache, vomiting, nausea, dizziness, myalgia, anosmia, ageusia, and disorder of consciousness. These symptoms confirm that the nervous system is involved in the COVID-19 infection. Guillain-Barr é syndrome (GBS) is a heterogeneous disorder which often follows a viral infection. According to the assessment case reports from the beginning of the COVID-19 infection so ...
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Covid-19-associated acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalomyelitis
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Headache and pleocytosis in CSF associated with COVID-19: case report
We report an elderly female with asthenia, dry cough, anosmia, ageusia, fever, nausea, and a severe and persistent headache. She had confirmed COVID-19 using the nasal swab RT-PCR technique. Her cranial tomography was normal. The CSF analysis demonstrated a cell count of 21 cells/mm3 (80% lymphocytes and 20% monocytes), 34  mg/dl protein, and 79 mg/dl glucose. She improved after 4 days. Our report draws attention to the meningeal involvement of SARS-Cov-2. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Persistence and regredience of intraspinal fluid collection determine symptom control in intracranial hypotension syndrome
AbstractBackground and purposeAn intraspinal fluid collection (ISFC) can be observed on spinal MRI in cases of intracranial hypotension syndrome (IHS). The goal of this study was to analyze the possible persistence of ISFC after therapy and its correlation to clinical disease activity and secondary complications.Materials and methodsTwenty patients in our database of 57 patients, who were treated for IHS between 2009 and 2015, fulfilled the inclusion criteria of (a) diagnosed and treated IHS as well as (b) an ISFC in MRI imaging. Ten of these participated in our study. We performed follow-up visits, which included a histor...
Source: Neurological Sciences - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Quality of life in neuro-Beh çet’s disease: a cross-sectional study
ConclusionsNBD negatively affects many aspects of the quality of life. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - August 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A case of acute cerebellar ataxia with two possible etiologies: viral cerebellitis and paraneoplastic antibody-positive ovarian cancer
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Electroencephalography during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: practical recommendations from the task force of the Italian Society of Neurophysiology (SINC), the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), and the Italian Association of Neurophysiology Technologists (AITN)
ConclusionsDuring the different phases of COVID-19 pandemic, the EEG should be reserved for patients really benefiting from its execution in terms of diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and avoidance of emergency room access. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Evaluation of serum uric levels in migraine
AbstractObjectiveIn our study, the aim was to identify the serum uric acid levels, a marker of oxidative stress, according to migraine subtypes (aura/without aura and episodic/chronic migraine).MethodThe study included 300 migraine patients and 150 healthy controls for a total of 450 individuals. Migraine and subtypes were diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders-2013 criteria. Patients were evaluated during attendance at the neurology clinic.ResultsOur patient group was 77.0% female and disease duration was 9.2  ± 7.2 years. Our control group comprised 77.3% femal...
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Low-dose methadone for refractory chronic migraine accompanied by medication-overuse headache: a prospective cohort study
AbstractObjectivesA refractory chronic migraine (RCM) accompanied by medication-overuse headache (MOH) is an extremely disabling disease. Evidence suggests that in selected patients, chronic opioids may be a valuable therapeutic option for RCM. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of prophylaxis with low-dose methadone (LDM) in patients affected by RCM with continuous headache and MOH.MethodsA prospective cohort study was performed between May 2012 and November 2015 at the Headache Center and Toxicology Unit of the Careggi University Hospital. Eligible patients were treated with prophyl...
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Atypical motor neuron disease with bent spine clinical onset and long survival carrying C9orf72 expansion
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pearl and pitfalls in brain functional analysis by event-related potentials: a narrative review by the Italian Psychophysiology and Cognitive Neuroscience Society on methodological limits and clinical reliability —part II
AbstractThis review focuses on new and/or less standardized event-related potentials methods, in order to improve their knowledge for future clinical applications. The olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) assess the olfactory functions in time domain, with potential utility in anosmia and degenerative diseases. The transcranial magnetic stimulation-electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) could support the investigation of the intracerebral connections with very high temporal discrimination. Its application in the diagnosis of disorders of consciousness has achieved recent confirmation. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and event...
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Determinant factors of sarcopenia in individuals with Parkinson ’s disease
ConclusionDespite the low prevalence in the present study, sarcopenia progresses with the worsening of the nutritional status and functional capacity of individuals with PD. Further studies are needed on the factors involved in the genesis of sarcopenia. The SARC-F questionnaire is related to parameters for the diagnosis and severity of sarcopenia as well as the severity of PD. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lentiform fork sign in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus
We describe a 73-year old female with a 2-month history of rapidly deteriorating imbalance, bradykinesia, confusion, and disorientation. At examination, she was encephalopathic. She had a pyramidal and rigid-akinetic parkinsonian syndrome, with signs of polyneuropathy. MRI revealed the “lentiform fork sign”. She exhibited a high ANA titer, positive anti-dsDNA, anti-ENA, and anti-β2GPI-IgM antibodies, as well as positive cerebrospinal fluid IgG and albumin indices. No metabolic acidosis was recorded. A diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was established. She was treated initially with methylpred...
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Screening for depression in movement disorders clinic
ConclusionEmotions Thermometer and NDDI-E are quick and reliable screening tools for depression in the MD population and are comparable to HADS. We suggest routine use of visual analogue ET4 as it is briefer, requires less time to complete and does not require scoring from the clinicians. It has the potential to be widely implemented across busy neurology clinics to assist in depression screening. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Proposed minimal essential co-expression and physical interaction networks involved in the development of cognition impairment in human mid and late life
ConclusionWe propose the minimal co-expression and physical interaction networks and their single clustering in the development of cognition impairment in human mid and late life. This is a pilot study, warranting identification of more risk genes, using additional validated databases in the future. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Validation of the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale in Poland and its reliability in conditions of the medical experiment
This study analyses the reliability of the Polish version of the ALSFRS-R as a tool to assess the health condition of patients with ALS and presents experience related to the use of this tool in monitoring the effects of experimental medical therapy.Materials and methodsThe scale questionnaire was translated using the cross-translation method. The final tool was used by researcher, who was conducting the interview directly by telephone with patients and their caregivers and additionally compared with neurologopedic measurement. The health status of 60 patients was assessed between 4 and 7 times, which gives a total of 327 ...
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Increased rapid eye movement density in Chinese patients with Parkinson ’s disease and RBD
AbstractObjectiveImpaired rapid eye movement sleep is common among patients with Parkinson ’s disease (PD). However, information on rapid eye movement density (REM) among PD patients is currently lacking. The current study sought to characterize REM density in PD patients and to examine the associations between REM density sleep parameters and clinical manifestations.Participants and methodsWe retrospectively recruited 172 PD patients. All participants were assessed with a two-night polysomnography, and REM density was calculated. Clinical assessments were completed in PD patients before polysomnography.ResultsRapid ...
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hot cross bun sign and prominent cerebellar peduncle involvement in a patient with oculodentodigital dysplasia
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Severe acquired brain injury and high specialty neurorehabilitation needs
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuropathy and primary headaches affect different subgroups of inflammatory bowel disease patients
AbstractBackgroundPeripheral neuropathies (PN) and primary headaches (PH) are common comorbidities in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. We aimed to evaluate whether PN and PH affect the same subgroups of IBD patients.MethodsSince 2004, we established a cohort study to evaluate neurological diseases in IBD patients. Over 2  years, all consecutive (N = 155) IBD patients (either Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) were evaluated for the presence of PN and PH. PH were also evaluated in dyspeptic patients (N = 84) and IBD relatives (controls,N = 101). Aft...
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinico-pathological and molecular characterization of diffuse midline gliomas: is there a prognostic significance?
ConclusionsThe study highlights the differences in frequency and location of pediatric and adult DMGs. IHC (H-scoring) for H3K27M mutation is an excellent surrogate for sequencing. Prognosis remains dismal irrespective of age, location, and H3K27M status. Potential therapeutic targets need to be explored. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The emotional impact of COVID-19 outbreak in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: evaluation of depression, anxiety and interoceptive awareness
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Management of antiepileptic drug –induced nutrition-related adverse effects
AbstractAlthough antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are mainstay of the treatment of epilepsy, they are associated with significant adverse effects. The present study reviews the adverse effects of AEDs on some of the nutrition-related issues, including bone health, body weight, glucose and lipid metabolism, vitamin homeostasis, antioxidant defense system, and pregnancy. This paper also provides some nutritional recommendations for people with epilepsy. Patients with epilepsy should be regularly evaluated with regard to their nutrition status and any possible nutritional problems. Daily intake of adequate amounts of all nutrients ...
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Functional movement disorders in a patient with COVID-19
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Urinary kynurenine as a biomarker for Parkinson ’s disease
ConclusionUrine KYN were significantly associated with PD severity and mild cognitive impairment. Urine KYN may be a new biomarker for early-stage PD. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome —a case series and review
ConclusionOur extensive review favors MRI, CT, and prolonged EEG monitoring to rule out other differentials and showed that initiation of corticosteroid therapy and antiepileptic treatment were helpful in the resolution of symptoms and prevent recurrences. Therefore, future studies should be focused on early identification and management guidelines for SMART syndrome. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Giovanni Mingazzini (1859 –1929) and his opposition to Pierre Marie’s conception of motor aphasia
This article describes the contribution of Giovanni Mingazzini (1859 –1929), the “Father of Italian Neurology,” in the description of the subcortical structures involved in motor aphasia and his opposition to Pierre Marie’s (1853–1940) conception of aphasia. In one of the most famous controversies in the history of neurology, the French neurologists Joseph Jules Dejerine (1849–1917), Augusta Dejerine-Klumpke (1859–1927), and Pierre Marie (1853–1940) faced each other during the three symposiums of the French Society of Neurology in 1908. The debate, which was later called &ldq...
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Frequency and outcome of olfactory impairment and sinonasal involvement in hospitalized patients with COVID-19
ConclusionsSudden olfactory dysfunction and sinonasal symptoms have a considerable prevalence in patients with COVID-19. No significant association was noted between the sinonasal symptoms and the olfactory loss, which may suggest that other mechanisms beyond upper respiratory tract involvement are responsible for the olfactory loss. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The quality of measurement properties of neurocognitive assessment in brain tumor clinical trials over the last 30 years: a COSMIN checklist-based approach
ConclusionOur findings suggest that the cognitive assessment in brain tumor clinical trials should be implemented according to specific endpoints and should be addressed to investigate all the cognitive domains known to be affected by brain tumor and treatment. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

DAPT score: predictive model of dual-antiplatelet therapy for acute cerebral infarction
ConclusionsThe DAPT Score might be useful to for identifying with ACI who are suitable to receive aspirin combined with clopidogrel. Future large-scale, multi-center prospective studies are necessary. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Patient characteristics with negative diffusion-weighted imaging findings in acute lateral medullary infarction
ConclusionSmoking history and headache were associated with initial negative results in standard axial DWI-MRI in acute LMI. Additional thin-slice coronal DWI-MRI was sometimes useful in detecting acute LMI. Follow-up MRI is important for patients showing negative findings in initial DWI-MRI. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A single-centre experience of intravenous thrombolysis for stroke in COVID-19 patients
In conclusion, in this article, we provide information about these cases and discuss the possible explanation behind this trend. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Medulloblastoma of the adult: results from a multicenter retrospective study by AINO (Italian Association of Neuro-Oncology) and SIN (Italian Society of Neurology)
ConclusionsThe data collected were mainly consistent with the literature. A limitation of this study was the large number of patients lost to follow-up and the lack of molecular data for most patients diagnosed until 2010. An important challenge for the future will be MB biologic characterization in adults, with the identification of specific genetic patterns. It will be important to have more national and international collaborations to provide evidence-based management strategies that attempt to obtain a standard of care. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of acute mild hypoxia on cerebral blood flow in pilots
ConclusionThese changes may impact the functional activity of the brains of pilots experiencing hypoxia in flight, but the related mechanisms require further investigation. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation for post-thalamic stroke complex movement disorders
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ischemic stroke in young adults in Bogota, Colombia: a cross-sectional study
ConclusionThis study demonstrates the need to make a deep evaluation of the past medical history, laboratory tests, and new risk factors in young adults. On the other hand, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors top the list, showing the need to implement health promotion strategies for young adults. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - July 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research