Isolated cerebrospinal fluid hypertension in chronic headache: diagnostic innovations and clinical implications
AbstractIsolated cerebrospinal fluid hypertension (ICH) is a condition of increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure in the cranial-spinal compartment without an identifiable cause. Isolated headache is the most common symptom of ICH, while missing may be signs such as papilledema or sixth nerve palsy. This fact makes difficult the clinical diagnosis of headache attributable to ICH in headache sufferers. Another source of confusion stems from the CSF pressure measurement. It has been observed that a single-spot CSF opening pressure measurement may be insufficient to identify elevated CSF pressure in headache sufferers. A...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: Cognitive assessment in multiple sclerosis —an Italian consensus
In the original article, Maria Pia Amato ’s second affiliation was not included. The second affiliation is IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Florence, Italy. The correct affiliation is presented here. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lack of inter-muscular coherence of axial muscles in Pisa syndrome
ConclusionThis finding is suggestive of a defective muscular fine-tuning, which has been associated with bradykinesia. These data support the hypothesis of PS as a clinical sign of bradykinesia, impacting on therapeutic and rehabilitative options. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The flavor test is a sensitive tool in identifying the flavor sensorineural dysfunction in Parkinson ’s disease
AbstractGustatory perception has been poorly explored in Parkinson ’s disease (PD). Aim of this study was to assess the flavor ability in PD patients, using the “flavor test” (FT), a new standardized and validated tool to examine the flavor perception. Thirty-eight patients (17 F and 21 M) and 36 control subjects (15 F and 21 M) comparable for age and gender were enrolled. All the subjects underwent the flavor test (FT), the Sniffin’ Sticks test (SST), and the gustometry test (GT), based on the basic four tastants (“salty,” “sour,” “sweet,” and “bitter&rdquo...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Leading symptoms in cerebrovascular diseases: what about headache?
AbstractHeadache is a milestone in cerebrovascular disorders; indeed, it may represent the only symptom at onset or predominates over the other neurological features. Unfortunately, headache associated with cerebrovascular diseases lacks clear-cut characteristics as it may resemble a migraine attack, tension-type headache, or cluster headache; pain localization is also misleading along with drug (analgesic) response. However, in this review, we have analyzed and described the most common patterns of headache for different vascular disorders: it is known that headache due to subarachnoid aneurysmal hemorrhage presents pecul...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Unilateral recurrent periorbital pain: the role of the neuro-ophthalmologist
AbstractUnilateral recurrent periorbital pain is an aspecific symptom that may have originated from different orbital and ocular regions and structures that share the same innervation and can be provoked by different pathological disease. Since in some cases the patient is unable to associate with certainty the pain to a specific structure or region, a neuro-ophthalmological evaluation may be addressed to highlight signs useful to suspect the involvement of the eye, the optic nerve, the extra-ocular muscles, or intraorbital tissue or the cavernous sinus. This review describes the clinical patterns of periocular pain relate...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurological manifestations and neuroimaging presentations in patients with severe preeclampsia: predisposing factors and clinical implications
AbstractBackground and purposeNeurological manifestations and neuroimaging abnormalities are common in patients with severe preeclampsia; however, the differences between these abnormal features occurring during early- and late-onset severe preeclampsia are unclear, and the factors associated with abnormal imaging changes in patients with neurological manifestations have not yet been fully elucidated.Materials and methodsA retrospective study was conducted on 172 patients with severe preeclampsia from January 2017 to June 2018 in the Department of Neurology and Obstetrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University. Th...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Abnormal nuclear aggregation and myotube degeneration in myotonic dystrophy type 1
In this study, we examined the muscle regeneration (myotube formation) in normal and DM1 myoblasts in vitro to establish outcome measures for therapeutic monitoring. We found normal proliferation of DM1 myoblasts, but abnormal nuclear aggregation during the early stage myotube formation, as well as myotube degeneration during the late stage of myotube formation. We concluded that early abnormal nuclear aggregation and late myotube degeneration offer easy and sensitive outcome measures to monitor therapeutic effects in vitro. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

“When giants learn to dance”: international clinical collaboration in headache medicine
AbstractCollaboration is more than evolutionary advantage, it is good business and good for learning. It is through collaboration that we open new doors, create new options, and develop unforeseen opportunities. More than simple information exchange, collaboration allows the joint creation of new value and creates multiple layers of interpersonal connection and interaction leading to enhanced learning. This newly created value has been termed the “collaborative advantage.” The headache group at the C. Besta Institute in Milan, Italy, and the John Graham Headache Center in Boston, MA, have begun a collaboration ...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Epidemiology and management of medication-overuse headache in the general population
AbstractMedication-overuse headache is a worldwide challenge as it affects 1 –2% of the general population. Some people are more prone to medication overuse, which can be ascertained by applying five simple questions about dependence. Detoxification of the overused medication is a cheap and effective treatment strategy. A short advice seems to be sufficient for people from the general population whom seek their general practitioner. Treatment is often more complicated in neurologist and hospital settings, most likely due to a combination of treatment failure in general practice and co-morbidity of other disorders inc...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Migraine during pregnancy and in the puerperium
AbstractPregnancy can be seen as a positive time for women migraineurs because the elevated estrogen and endogenous opioid levels raise the pain threshold and the stable hormone levels, which no longer fluctuate, eliminate a major trigger factor for the attacks. In a great majority of cases, indeed, migraine symptoms spontaneously improve throughout pregnancy. Generally, migraine without aura (MO) improves better than migraine with aura (MA), which can occur ex novo in pregnancy more frequently than MO. After childbirth, the recurrence rate of migraine attacks increases, especially during the first month; breastfeeding exe...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Highlights of the issue 4, 2019
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus resolves dorsal midbrain syndrome
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Migraine in childhood: an organic, biobehavioral, or psychosomatic disorder?
AbstractMigraine is one of the most frequent complaints in children and adolescents and it can have a significant impact on quality of life. There are several factors underlying the onset and the maintenance of this disorder and there is still no a clear etiopathogenesis common to all subjects suffering from migraine. Psychological factors such as individual characteristics, psychiatric comorbidities, and temperament are strictly related to psychosomatic disorders and to migraine. Also, the environmental influence is very relevant and studied: socio-economic status, family dysfunctions, attachment style, or psychiatric dis...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cluster headache: crosspoint between otologists and neurologists —treatment of the sphenopalatine ganglion and systematic review
AbstractAmong cephalgias, cluster headache (CH) is the rarest and the most disabling, explaining the appellation of “suicide headache.” Up to 20% of chronic CH reveals to be resistant to pharmacological treatments, in which case interventional procedures should be considered. Many reports evaluated invasive approaches and a wide strand of research is dedicated to the sphenopalatine ganglion. Our paper will no w be focused on providing an overview on modern applications on the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG), their outcomes, and their feasibility in terms of risks and benefits. The group reviewed the international...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Headache attributed to IIH: clinical evolution in IHS criteria through the years
AbstractIdiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure without a detectable cause. The most common symptom of IIH is a headache, which occurs in almost all cases at the time of diagnosis with various headache phenotypes. In clinical practice, diagnosis of headache attributed to IIH is given referring to the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. In the present publication, we consider how the IHS diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to intracranial idiopathic hypertension have evolved through...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

ERCC6L2 rs591486 polymorphism and risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Greek population
ConclusionsThe current study provides preliminary indication for an implication of ERCC6L2 rs591486 in ALS development, as a possible genetic risk factor. These results possibly suggest that oxidative stress may be the main contributor in the pathophysiology of ALS. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Response of migraine without aura to kudzu
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A review of electrophysiological studies of lower motor neuron involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
AbstractAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease involving both the upper and lower motor neuron diseases. In this review, we studied and compared different articles regarding the electrodiagnostic criteria for diagnosis of lower motor neuron pathology in ALS. We reviewed the most recent articles and metaanalysis regarding various lower motor neuron electrodiagnostic methods for ALS and their sensitivities. We concluded that Awaji Shima criteria is by far the most sensitive criteria for diagnosis of ALS. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Small vessel disease and clinical outcomes after endovascular treatment in acute ischemic stroke
ConclusionsPre-existing SVD burden, mainly driven by brain atrophy, negatively affects early and late clinical outcomes in anterior circulation ischemic stroke treated with endovascular therapy. Our results may help prognostic stratification of stroke patients treated with endovascular therapy. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

White matter correlates of disease duration in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: updated review of literature
ConclusionOur results were obtained from DMRI connectometry, which indicates the connectivity and the level of diffusion in nerve fibers rather just the direction of diffusion. Compared to previous studies investigating the correlation between duration of epilepsy and white matter integrity in mTLE patients, we detected broader and somewhat different associations in midline structures and component of limbic system. However, further studies with larger sample sizes are required to elucidate previous and current results. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical, radiological features and surgical strategies for 23 NF1 patients with intraorbital meningoencephalocele
AbstractIntraorbital meningoencephalocele is a rare manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) caused by secondary changes in sphenoid dysplasia, and it seriously affects patients ’ vision and facial appearance. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 23 patients with NF1 and intraorbital meningoencephalocele, summarized the surgical strategies employed, and evaluated their clinical efficacy in order to better understand its management in clinical practice, establi sh a reasonable surgical strategy, and assess prognosis. Before surgery, 22 patients had unilateral pulsatile exophthalmos, 18 patients had ...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Catastrophizing attitude changes after onabotulinumtoxin A treatment in chronic migraine
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prevention, education and counselling: the worldwide role of the community pharmacist as an epidemiological sentinel of headaches
AbstractHeadache disorders are the third among the worldwide causes of disability, measured in years of life lost to disability. Given the pharmacies ’ importance in general in headache patient and, in particular in migraine patient management, various studies have been carried out in recent years dealing with this issue. Indeed, in 2014, our research group first analysed publications on a number of studies conducted worldwide. As five years ha ve passed since our first analysis of the literature and having carried out a number of specific studies in Italy since 2014, we wish to analyse once again the studies carried...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prevalence and clinical profile of migraine with aura in a cohort of young patients with stroke: a preliminary retrospective analysis
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias: spectrum or continuum? Insights from a family
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ear acupuncture in the prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

ACT for migraine: effect of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for high-frequency episodic migraine without aura: preliminary data of a phase-II, multicentric, randomized, open-label study
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebral venous outflow in migraine
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cortical and spinal excitability changes after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined to physiotherapy in stroke spastic patients
AbstractObjectiveRepetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has been used to treat post-stroke upper limb spasticity (ULS) in addition to physiotherapy (PT). To determine whether rTMS associated with PT modulates cortical and spinal cord excitability as well as decreases ULS of post-stroke patients.MethodsTwenty chronic patients were randomly assigned to either the intervention group-1  Hz rTMS on the unaffected hemisphere and PT, or control group-sham stimulation and PT, for ten sessions. Before and after sessions, ULS was measured using the modified Ashworth scale and cortical excitability using the output ...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of aging on brain volumes in healthy individuals across adulthood
AbstractIn this retrospective study, we analyzed the effects of age on brain volumes in healthy brains across adulthood. We investigated the correlations between brain volumes and age in the brains of 563 healthy individuals (age range: 20 –86, 55% female) whose MRI scans and related information were drawn from the IXI database (brain-development.org/ixi-dataset/). We conducted a regression analysis to assess the effect of age on whole-brain volumes as well as selected regional volumetric measures. The whole-brain analysis revealed a negative linear relationship between gray matter (GM) and age as well as nonlinear p...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The role of low-frequency rTMS in the superior parietal cortex during time estimation
This study analyzes the effect of the low-frequency rTMS on time estimation when applied in the parietal medial longitudinal fissure. For the proposed study, 20 subjects were randomly selected for a crossover study with two conditions (sham and 1  Hz). Our findings reveal that participant underestimate 1-s time interval and overestimate 4-s and 9-s time intervals after 1-Hz rTMS (p ≤ 0.05). We conclude that the 1-Hz rTMS in the parietal medial longitudinal fissure delays short interval and speed up long time intervals. This could be due to the effect of parietal inhibition on the attentional level and...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome overlapping contrast-induced encephalopathy after coronary angiography
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Access to migraine centres by educational level of patients and awareness of the disease
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical issues of headaches: a personal view
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Widening the spectrum of secondary headache: intracranial hypotension following a non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
DiscussionLong-standing intracranial hypotension has been reported as the cause of chronic subarachnoid hemorrhage and a single case of intracranial hypotension as the consequence of intracranial pressure fluctuations after acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage has been described.This is the first description of intracranial hypotension caused by acute non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We hypothesize that blood in the subarachnoid space could have determined a spine cerebrospinal fluid leak through intracranial pressure fluctuations or mechanical action, causing arachnoiditis and possibly a dural tear. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pulsed radiofrequency of the C2 dorsal root ganglion and epidural steroid injections for cervicogenic headache
This study was undertaken to evaluate pain control and quality of life after pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) for the C2 dorsal root ganglion and epidural steroid injections (ESI) for CEH.MethodsThis was a case-control study. One hundred thirty-nine patients suffering from CEH were enrolled in this study. Of these patients, 87 CEH patients underwent PRF for the C2 dorsal root ganglion and ESI therapy, and 52 CEH patients only underwent ESI therapy. Quality of life and pain control were measured with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and Izbicki pain sc...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Metacognition and theory of mind in children with migraine and children with internalizing disorders
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cancer and motor neuron disease —causal or coincidental? Two contrasting cases
ConclusionIn cases with rapidly progressive MND, particularly of upper limb onset, consideration should be given to testing anti-neuronal antibodies and searching for an occult tumour. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dural sinus collapsibility, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and the pathogenesis of chronic migraine
AbstractAvailable evidences suggest that a number of known assumption on idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) with or without papilledema might be discussed. These include (1) the primary pathogenetic role of an excessive dural sinus collapsibility in IIH, allowing a new relatively stable intracranial fluids pressure balance at higher values; (2) the non-mandatory role of papilledema for a definite diagnosis; (3) the possibly much higher prevalence of IIH without papilledema than currently considered; (4) the crucial role of the cerebral compliance exhaustion that precede the raise in intracranial pressure and  ...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia: the state of art
In conclusion, the present review supports the idea that TN is a complex disease and radiosurgery represents an effective and relatively new treatment modality, which enriches the treatment armamentarium for these unfortunate patients. To optimize the RS results, a correct patient selection has to be performed. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Binaural stimulation in migraine: preliminary results from a 3-month evening treatment
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebral blood flow in migraine without aura: ASL-MRI case control study
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

New insights into the role of neuron-specific enolase in tic disorders
ConclusionOur findings suggested that NSE may be a significant biomarker in TD but should be confirmed in further investigation. (Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Acupuncture treatment of migraine, nausea, and vomiting in pregnancy
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The neurosurgical treatment of craniofacial pain syndromes: current surgical indications and techniques
AbstractCraniofacial pain syndromes are comprised of multiple pathological entities resulting in pain referred to the scalp, face, or deeper cranial structures. In a small subset of patients affected by those syndromes, pharmacological and physical therapies fail in alleviating pain. In some of those refractory patients surgical procedures aimed at relieving pain are indicated and have been adopted with variable results and safety profiles. In this review, the authors describe craniofacial pain syndromes that most commonly fail to respond to pharmacological therapies and may be amenable to tailored surgical procedures. In ...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

CGRP and headache: a brief review
AbstractThe advent of anti-CGRP medications is an example of translational research made real. Pioneering research by Drs. Lars Edvinsson and Peter Goadsby has yielded the monoclonal antibody therapeutics and will likely also result in the gepants. The availability of MABs represents a watershed moment in the treatment of migraine. These medications have specificity, as they were designed for primary migraine prevention. They work across a group of wide therapeutic targets, episodic migraine, chronic migraine, medication-overuse headache, and episodic cluster headache. They separate from placebo within 1  week, and of...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ten years of iron chelation in a patient with superficial siderosis
(Source: Neurological Sciences)
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

G327E mutation in SCN9A gene causes idiopathic focal epilepsy with Rolandic spikes: a case report of twin sisters
AbstractThe voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7, encoded by the geneSCN9A, is located in peripheral neurons and plays an important role in epileptogenesis. Previous studies have identified an increasing number of SCN9A mutations in patients with variable epilepsy phenotypes. Phenotypes of SCN9A mutations include febrile seizures (FS), genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), and Dravet syndrome (DS), which pose challenges in clinical treatment. Here, we identified a heterozygous SCN9A mutation (c.980G  >  A chr2:167149868 p.G327E) from two twin sisters with Rolandic epilepsy by whole-exome sequ...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The global burden of cerebral small vessel disease related to neurological deficit severity and clinical outcomes of acute ischemic stroke after IV rt-PA treatment
AbstractBackground and purposeVarious types of cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD) are commonly coexisting and the clinical outcome possibly is determined by their combined effect. The present study was designed to explore the possible relationship between the global burden of CSVD and clinical outcomes after recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment of ischemic stroke.MethodsWe enrolled patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) after IV rt-PA treatment between August 2016 and July 2018. According to the total burden rating scale of CSVD, we calculated the total CSVD score for white matter hyperintensiti...
Source: Neurological Sciences - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research