Depressive Symptoms of Latinx Women in Rural Farmworker and Urban Non-Farmworker Families in North Carolina
ConclusionAddressing mental health among immigrant women, particularly those in farmworker families, is a complex undertaking. Rural versus urban locality provides a context for mental health. Determining the proximal determinants of locality requires further analysis. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 25, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Impact of Medicaid Expansion Status and Race on Metastatic Disease at Diagnosis in Patients with Melanoma
AbstractBackgroundBlack patients are diagnosed with  melanoma at a later stage, as compared with their white counterparts. It is unknown if Medicaid expansion might ameliorate this disparity.MethodsUsing data from the 2016 National Cancer Database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study.  The primary objective was to evaluate whether being diagnosed with melanoma at a Medicaid Expansion State (MES) and black race are associated with a late diagnosis of melanoma.  Main exposure: Being diagnosed in a MES. Secondary exposure: Race. Main outcome: Odds of Stage IV vs Sta...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 14, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

2020 Syndemic: Convergence of COVID-19, Gender-Based Violence, and Racism Pandemics
ConclusionRacialized women are experiencing a2020 Syndemic: a convergence of COVID-19, GBV, and racism pandemics, placing their wellbeing at a disproportionate risk. GBV is a public health issue and gender-responsive COVID-19 programming is essential. Anti-racist and equity-promoting policies to GBV service provision and disaggregated data collection are required. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 14, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Racial Disparities in Breast Reconstruction at a Comprehensive Cancer Center
AbstractIntroductionBreast reconstruction after a mastectomy is an important component of breast cancer care that improves the quality of life in breast cancer survivors. African American women are less likely to receive breast reconstruction than Caucasian women. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the reconstruction disparities we previously reported at a comprehensive cancer center by assessing breast reconstruction rates, patterns, and predictors by race.MethodsData were obtained from women treated with definitive mastectomy between 2000 and 2012. Sociodemographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics ...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 13, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Disproportionate Impact of COVID-19 on Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups in the United States: a 2021 Update
AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic ’s disproportionate impact on people from some racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. persisted throughout 2021. Black, Latinx, and American Indian persons have been hospitalized and died at a higher rate than White persons consistently from the start of the pandemic. Early data show that hospitaliz ation and mortality rates for Black, Latinx, and American Indian children are higher than White children in a worrying trend. The pandemic has likely worsened the gaps in wealth, employment, housing, and access to health care: the social determinants of health that caused the disparities in the...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 13, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Testing an Alzheimer ’s Disease Educational Approach in Two African American Neighborhoods in Florida
AbstractAfrican Americans experience a significantly greater burden of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) compared to non-Hispanic White Americans. Raising awareness and increasing knowledge of AD within African American communities is an important step towards addressing these disparities. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two approaches to sharing AD knowle dge with community residents. Using a quasi-experimental design, African American participants were recruited through community partners and local resources in two comparable neighborhoods in Duval County, Florida, which formed the intervention...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 13, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

What Factors Lead to Racial Disparities in Outcomes After Total Knee Arthroplasty?
AbstractTotal knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most commonly performed, major elective surgeries in the USA. African American TKA patients on average experience worse clinical outcomes than whites, including lower improvements in patient-reported outcomes and higher rates of complications, hospital readmissions, and reoperations. The mechanisms leading to these racial health disparities are unclear, but likely involve patient, provider, healthcare system, and societal factors. Lower physical and mental health at baseline, lower social support, provider bias, lower rates of health insurance coverage, higher utilization...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 12, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

A National Survey Assessing COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Among Arab Americans
AbstractBackgroundArab Americans ’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic have been largely undocumented. Disparities in vaccine hesitancy between non-Hispanic Whites and minoritized groups have been observed, warranting exploration into the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among Arab Americans.MethodsData from the Survey of Arab Health in America (SAHA) (n = 638), collected between May 2020 and September 2020, were analyzed to determine predictors for vaccine intention among Arab Americans. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression models were performed to determine the relationship between s...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 8, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

COVID-19 Inpatient Mortality Disparities Among American Indian Adults in Mississippi ’s Safety Net Hospital
AbstractBackgroundLong-standing health disparities experienced by American Indians (AIs) are associated with increased all-cause mortality rates and shortened life expectancies when compared to other races and ethnicities. Nationally, these disparities have persisted with the COVID-19 pandemic as AIs are more likely than all other races to be infected, hospitalized, or die from SARS-CoV-2. The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, the only federally recognized American Indian tribe in the state, has been one of the hardest hit in the nation.MethodsUsing de-identified data from the University of Mississippi Medical Center &r...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 4, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Discrimination and Health Among First-Generation Hispanic/Latinx  Immigrants: the Roles of Sleep and Fatigue
ConclusionSleep and fatigue play an important role in linking discrimination and health among first-generation Hispanic/Latinx immigrants. The development and implementation of interventions that focus on reducing fatigue among this population could mitigate the effects of unfair treatment on health outcomes. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 4, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Stress Reduction to Decrease Hypertension for Black Women: A Scoping Review of Trials and Interventions
ConclusionsThis scoping review found that faith-based strategies and meditation can be effective stress reduction techniques to reduce BP among NHB women. However, much remains to be known about how these strategies may be leveraged to reduce blood pressure within this highly vulnerable population. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 4, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

COVID-19 Inpatient Mortality Disparities Among American Indian Adults in Mississippi ’s Safety Net Hospital
AbstractBackgroundLong-standing health disparities experienced by American Indians (AIs) are associated with increased all-cause mortality rates and shortened life expectancies when compared to other races and ethnicities. Nationally, these disparities have persisted with the COVID-19 pandemic as AIs are more likely than all other races to be infected, hospitalized, or die from SARS-CoV-2. The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, the only federally recognized American Indian tribe in the state, has been one of the hardest hit in the nation.MethodsUsing de-identified data from the University of Mississippi Medical Center &r...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 4, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Discrimination and Health Among First-Generation Hispanic/Latinx  Immigrants: the Roles of Sleep and Fatigue
ConclusionSleep and fatigue play an important role in linking discrimination and health among first-generation Hispanic/Latinx immigrants. The development and implementation of interventions that focus on reducing fatigue among this population could mitigate the effects of unfair treatment on health outcomes. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 4, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Stress Reduction to Decrease Hypertension for Black Women: A Scoping Review of Trials and Interventions
ConclusionsThis scoping review found that faith-based strategies and meditation can be effective stress reduction techniques to reduce BP among NHB women. However, much remains to be known about how these strategies may be leveraged to reduce blood pressure within this highly vulnerable population. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 4, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Educational, Health, and Economic Impacts of COVID-19 Among Haitians in the USA: Time for Systemic Change
AbstractHaitians are the fourth largest Afro-Caribbean immigrant group in the USA, and there is a dearth of research focusing on the factors impacting their lives. As a marginalized group with extensive pre-existing conditions, Haitian immigrants are disproportionately affected by the pandemic in areas such as education, health, and economics. This paper provides a summary of existing disparities among Haitians in the USA and how COVID-19 has significantly impacted this group. It concludes with an analysis of how theStrategic Framework for Improving Racial and Ethnic Minority Health and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Health...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Racial Disparities in COVID-19 Hospitalization and In-hospital Mortality at the Height of the New York City Pandemic
AbstractObjectivesInvestigate whether or not race is associated with differences in hospitalization and survival to discharge among patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) at the height of the pandemic in New York City (NYC).MethodsSingle-center retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients hospitalized at our university-affiliated NYC hospital from 3/10/20 through 4/13/20 with follow-up to 5/1/20. Our primary endpoint was hospitalization rate among patients with confirmed COVID-19 compared with the regional population based on race. Our secondary endpoint survival to discharge among hospitalized COVID-19 patie...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Risk and Protective Factors for Preterm Birth Among Black Women in Oakland, California
AbstractThis project examines risk and protective factors for preterm birth (PTB) among Black women in Oakland, California. Women with singleton births in 2011 –2017 (n = 6199) were included. Risk and protective factors for PTB and independent risk groups were identified using logistic regression and recursive partitioning. Having less than 3 prenatal care visits was associated with highest PTB risk. Hypertension (preexisting, gestational), previous PTB, and u nknown Women, Infant, Children (WIC) program participation were associated with a two-fold increased risk for PTB. Maternal birth outside of the ...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Institutional and Faculty Partnerships to Promote Learner Preparedness for Health Professions Education
AbstractBy the year 2060, it is projected that 57% of the US population will be members of minority groups, with no one group being the majority. While there is increasing diversity of the population, there remain significant disparities in morbidity and mortality affecting minority groups, and persistent low numbers of underrepresented students in the health professions. Increasing the numbers of underrepresented minority students in health care and decreasing the disparity gap have been a priority for many institutions. Increasing diversity requires an approach that not only involves health professions schools but also i...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Race, Nativity, and Sex Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Young Adults in the USA
This study also investigated the associations between nativity and vaccination, and sex differences between race/ethnicity and vaccination and nativity and vaccination. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of adults aged 18 –26 years drawn from the 2014 NHPI National Health Interview Survey (n = 2590) and the general 2014 National Health Interview Survey (n = 36,697). Log-binomial models were fitted to examine differences in vaccination. There was a statistically significant racial/ethnic difference in HPV vaccination (p = 0.003). More women than men were ...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Role of Social Cognition in Medical Decision Making with Asian American Patients
AbstractAsian Americans, the fastest growing racial group in the USA, face a host of major health disparities. There are several reasons for these disparities, and one possible contributor is provider perceptions of Asian Americans, which in turn can affect their medical decision making when treating Asian American patients. There is evidence for the influence of provider perceptions on medical decision making among patients of other racial minority groups; however, literature on Asian American patients is lacking. The present paper addresses this gap in the literature by using social cognitive theory to outline the mechan...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among African American Children and Adolescents: Risk Factors, Health Outcomes, and Prevention/Intervention Strategies
AbstractThis paper examines the biological, psychosocial, cultural, and obesogenic environmental factors that might account for the high prevalence rates of overweight and obesity among African American young children (aged 2 –11) and adolescents (aged 12–19). Research findings are discussed on the practices associated with the development of childhood obesity including maternal overweight and obesity, physiological predisposition, infant feeding practices, breastfeeding, rapid infant weight gain, sleep disruption, l ow nutrition diets, physical inactivity, and sedentary behavior. The psychological correlates o...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Language in a Time of COVID-19: Literacy Bias Ethnic Minorities Face During COVID-19 from Online Information in the UK
ConclusionReadability of COVID-19 information is below national standards and that there is a lack of accompanying translated and graphics-based material online. This may lead to an amplified level of misunderstanding in BAME populations about the COVID-19 pandemic and the rulings put in place. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Denominational and Gender Differences in Hypertension Among African American Christian Young Adults
This study investigates whether denominational affiliation predicts within-group differences in odds of having hypertension among African American Christian young adults. Data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) were used to examine hypertension differences between 1932 African American young adults based on self-reported religious denomination. Gender-separated logistic regressions included religious service attendance and coping measures, as well as personal characteristics and health behaviors to adjust for potential effects on BP. The odds of having hypertension we...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Implementation of Universal Colorectal Cancer Screening for Lynch Syndrome in Hispanics Living in Puerto Rico
ConclusionsOur data is consistent with the results from other studies including US Hispanics, where approximately 10% of Hispanic individuals with colorectal cancer have microsatellite instability. Our results support universal tumor-based screening for LS among Hispanics in accordance with National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Perfect Storm: COVID-19 Health Disparities in US Blacks
AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) accounts for over 180,000 deaths in the USA. Although COVID-19 affects all racial ethnicities, non-Hispanic Blacks have the highest mortality rates. Evidence continues to emerge, linking the disproportion of contagion and mortality from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a result of adverse social determinants of health. Yet, genetic predisposition may also play a credible role in disease transmission. SARS-CoV-2 enters cells by interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the receptor molecule angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expressed on the...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Risk Factors Associated with Mortality Among Patients with Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Africa
ConclusionsThe COVID-19 pandemic is evolving gradually in Africa. Among patients with COVID-19 in Africa, older age, presence of chronic disease, travel history, and the locations of Central Africa and West Africa were associated with increased mortality. A regional response should prioritize strategies that will protect these populations. Also, conducting a further in-depth study could provide more insights into additional factors predictive of mortality in COVID-19 patients. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Acculturative Stress and Depressive Symptoms Among Chinese Immigrants: the Role of Gender and Social Support
AbstractThe USA has among the largest immigrant population of any country in the world, and over the past few decades, the proportion of Chinese immigrants in the USA has increased significantly. Immigrants may experience substantial acculturative stress as they learn to navigate their new environment, and this stress can contribute to depressive symptoms and poor mental health. Social support can help mitigate the effects of stress on depressive symptoms, but the protective effects of social support have been reported to differ between men and women. Thus, the present study examined associations of acculturative stress an...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Household Food Insecurity During the COVID-19 Pandemic: a Nationally Representative Study
AbstractPrevious research has demonstrated that the burden of household food insecurity is disproportionately high among racial/ethnic minority groups, yet no peer-reviewed studies have systematically examined racial/ethnic disparities in household food insecurity in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study on household food insecurity during COVID-19 used data from a nationally representative sample of US households through the 2020 Household Pulse Survey (HPS) (including all 50 states and the District of Columbia,n = 74,413 households). Six generalized estimating equation (GEE) model...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Correction to: Denominational and Gender Differences in Hypertension Among African American Christian Young Adults
Readers should note that the “95% CI” column of estimates for Model 1 was erroneously included under the Model 2 heading in Table 2 in this article as originally published. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Correction to: Sharing the Power of White Privilege to Catalyze Positive Change in Academic Medicine
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-021-01002-x (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Educational, Health, and Economic Impacts of COVID-19 Among Haitians in the USA: Time for Systemic Change
AbstractHaitians are the fourth largest Afro-Caribbean immigrant group in the USA, and there is a dearth of research focusing on the factors impacting their lives. As a marginalized group with extensive pre-existing conditions, Haitian immigrants are disproportionately affected by the pandemic in areas such as education, health, and economics. This paper provides a summary of existing disparities among Haitians in the USA and how COVID-19 has significantly impacted this group. It concludes with an analysis of how theStrategic Framework for Improving Racial and Ethnic Minority Health and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Health...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - October 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

“I Live in This Neighborhood Too, Though”: the Psychosocial Effects of Gentrification on Low-Income Black Men Living in Washington, D.C.
AbstractGentrification —the process by which middle-class individuals (often White) move into lower-income neighborhoods (often Black), consequently displacing existing residents and changing the neighborhood’s social character—is a relatively new and rapid phenomenon in Washington, DC. From 2000 to 2010, DC had the second fastest rate of gentrification in the USA. Gentrification is a major and disproportionate source of disadvantage for low-income Black DC residents. In light of the relative dearth of psychological research focused on gentrification, this study sought to answer the following research que...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Territories Under Siege: Risks of the Decimation of Indigenous and Quilombolas Peoples in the Context of COVID-19 in South Brazil
AbstractThe current health, political, and environmental crisis ongoing in Brazil and the advances of the impacts of COVID-19 in traditional populations (as indigenous andquilombolas) are not yet prioritized in the scientific production about the novel coronavirus. We performed spatial correlation analysis to map the clusters and outliers of COVID-19 in South of Brazil to identify indigenous andquilombolas communities impacted right now in the pandemic. We show that communities located nearby metropolitan areas and mid-sized cities are the most impacted by the COVID-19 and the advance of the transmission to inner states ma...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Racial Disparities in COVID-19 Hospitalization and In-hospital Mortality at the Height of the New York City Pandemic
AbstractObjectivesInvestigate whether or not race is associated with differences in hospitalization and survival to discharge among patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) at the height of the pandemic in New York City (NYC).MethodsSingle-center retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients hospitalized at our university-affiliated NYC hospital from 3/10/20 through 4/13/20 with follow-up to 5/1/20. Our primary endpoint was hospitalization rate among patients with confirmed COVID-19 compared with the regional population based on race. Our secondary endpoint survival to discharge among hospitalized COVID-19 patie...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Role of Social Cognition in Medical Decision Making with Asian American Patients
AbstractAsian Americans, the fastest growing racial group in the USA, face a host of major health disparities. There are several reasons for these disparities, and one possible contributor is provider perceptions of Asian Americans, which in turn can affect their medical decision making when treating Asian American patients. There is evidence for the influence of provider perceptions on medical decision making among patients of other racial minority groups; however, literature on Asian American patients is lacking. The present paper addresses this gap in the literature by using social cognitive theory to outline the mechan...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Perfect Storm: COVID-19 Health Disparities in US Blacks
AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) accounts for over 180,000 deaths in the USA. Although COVID-19 affects all racial ethnicities, non-Hispanic Blacks have the highest mortality rates. Evidence continues to emerge, linking the disproportion of contagion and mortality from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a result of adverse social determinants of health. Yet, genetic predisposition may also play a credible role in disease transmission. SARS-CoV-2 enters cells by interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the receptor molecule angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expressed on the...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Acculturative Stress and Depressive Symptoms Among Chinese Immigrants: the Role of Gender and Social Support
AbstractThe USA has among the largest immigrant population of any country in the world, and over the past few decades, the proportion of Chinese immigrants in the USA has increased significantly. Immigrants may experience substantial acculturative stress as they learn to navigate their new environment, and this stress can contribute to depressive symptoms and poor mental health. Social support can help mitigate the effects of stress on depressive symptoms, but the protective effects of social support have been reported to differ between men and women. Thus, the present study examined associations of acculturative stress an...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life Among African American Men
AbstractAfrican American men have the lowest life expectancy of any ethnic gender group in the USA. Furthermore, these men endorse having a lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than any other group. There have been recent calls from national organizations to improve HRQoL —a multidimensional indicator of health strongly associated with mortality and morbidity. Following these calls, there have been widespread efforts implemented to improve HRQoL among the US population, though no known effort has been implemented that is tailored to the unique experiences of Africa n American men. Health promotion efforts tha...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 17, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Diagnostic and Medication Treatment Disparities in African American Children with ADHD: a Literature Review
AbstractBackgroundDespite a national focus on achieving health equity, limited attention has been paid to behavioral and pediatric health disparities. As the most common pediatric neurobehavioral disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) provides an opportunity to assess the status of pediatric behavior health disparities. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a synthesis of existing research on ADHD diagnostic and treatment disparities between African American and White children.MethodsStudies were systematically identified through searches in PubMed, CINAHL, and APA PsycInfo using the terms ...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 14, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Latinos ’ Conceptualization of Depression, Diabetes, and Mental Health–Related Stigma
AbstractDepression and diabetes are two of the most common health conditions experienced by those from Latino backgrounds. However, community-based stigma toward these health conditions may discourage those experiencing symptoms of depression or diabetes from seeking professional assistance. To assess stigma in the Latino community toward these common health conditions, a community-based sample of 469 Latino participants in a major urban area in the [Southwestern United States — Houston, TX] completed a face-to-face survey using an experimental vignette methodology. Participants were asked to name the problem that th...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 10, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Racial Differences and In-Hospital Outcomes Among Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19
AbstractObjectiveThere is a paucity of data on how race affects the clinical presentation and short-term outcome among hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2, the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19).MethodsHospitalized patients  ≥ 18 years, testing positive for COVID-19 from March 13, 2020 to May 13, 2020 in a United States (U.S.) integrated healthcare system with multiple facilities in two states were evaluated. We documented racial differences in clinical presentation, disposition, and in-hospital outcomes for hos pitalized patients with COIVD-19. Multivariable regression analysis was utilized to evaluate in...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 10, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Intersection of Pain Outcomes and Social Isolation Among African Americans
AbstractThere is increasing evidence suggesting the influence social isolation has on health outcomes and mental well-being. Chronic medical conditions, such as pain, have been shown to impact social relationships and isolation among majority populations, but there is little evidence documenting this relationship among African Americans. To address this lack of scholarly work, the current study aimed to examine subjective and objective social isolation, pain interference with daily life, and problems with pain in a sample of African American adults 18  + years of age. Taken from the National Survey of America...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 10, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Cognitive Disability Among Arab Americans by Nativity Status and Arrival Year: Lack of Evidence for the Healthy Migrant Effect
The objectives of this study were to estimate the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence and associations of cognitive disability by (1) nativity status and (2) arrival year (pre-1991, 1991 –2000, 2001–2013, and 2014–2018). We analyzed 11 years (2008–2018) of data from the American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Samples (weightedn = 264,086; ages ≥ 45 years). Weighted means, percentages, age- and sex-adjusted prevalence estimates, and logistic regression results (crude and adjusted) were calculated. Among all Arab Americans, the age- and sex-adjusted p...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 9, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Correction to: Risk Factors for Death Among Hospitalized Patients Aged 21 –64 Years Diagnosed with COVID-19—New York City, March 13–April 9, 2020
(Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 8, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The Role of Community-Level Factors on Disparities in COVID-19 Infection Among American Indian/Alaska Native Veterans
ConclusionsNeighborhood-level social determinants of health may contribute to the disproportionate COVID-19 infection burden on AI/ANs; differences are exacerbated among AI/ANs living near reservations. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 7, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Colorblind Racial Ideology and Physician Use of Race in Medical Decision-Making
ConclusionsPhysicians who adhere to a color blind racial ideology, particularly those who deny institutional racism, are more likely to use race in medical decision-making. As the use of race may be due to a colorblind racial ideology, and therefore due to a poor understanding of how systemic racism affects health, more physician education about racism as a health risk is needed. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 7, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Undoing Racism and Mitigating Bias Among Healthcare Professionals: Lessons Learned During a Systematic Review
ConclusionsA considerable knowledge gap exists regarding effective methods, tools, and outcomes to use for undoing racism and mitigating bias in healthcare professionals. Nothing less than a seismic paradigm shift is called for, one in which an anti-racist perspective informs all healthcare education, research, and practice. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - September 3, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Prosocial Beliefs and Prevention Behavior During the COVID-19 Pandemic
AbstractControlling the COVID-19 pandemic has required communities to engage in prosocial action, including behaviors that may inconvenience individuals, but protect the collective (e.g., mask wearing, social distancing). The purpose of this study was to understand to what extent COVID-19  prosocial beliefs and behavior differ by race/ethnicity and why this might be the case. A US nationally representative sample of 410 adults completed a survey about COVID-19 beliefs and prevention behaviors between June 12 and 18, 2020. Compared to White respondents, Black respondents perceived th e risk of COVID-19 to be greater to...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - August 30, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Actual Racial/Ethnic Disparities in COVID-19 Mortality for the Non-Hispanic Black Compared to Non-Hispanic White Population in 353 US Counties and Their Association with Structural Racism
ConclusionsThere are large disparities in COVID-19 mortality rates between the Black and White populations at the county level, there are profound differences in the level of these disparities, and those differences are directly related to the level of structural racism in a given county. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - August 30, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research