A review of the potential mechanisms of neuronal toxicity associated with antiretroviral drugs
AbstractHighly active antiretroviral treatment has led to unprecedented efficacy and tolerability in people living with HIV. This effect was also observed in the central nervous system with the nowadays uncommon observation of dementias; yet in more recent works milder forms are still reported in 20 –30% of optimally treated individuals. The idea of a subclinical neuronal toxicity induced by antiretrovirals has been proposed and was somehow supported by the late-emerging effects associated with efavirenz use. In this manuscript we are reviewing all the potential mechanisms by which antiretrov iral drugs have been ass...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effectiveness of virtual reality games for falls, postural oscillations, pain and quality of life of individual HAM/TSP: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial
This study investigated the effectiveness of a balance training exercise protocol through a virtual game. This is a randomized crossover clinical trial performed in subjects with imbalance disorders (HAM/TSP). To evaluate postural oscillations by baropodometry (total area, anterior, posterior and lateral projection), the Footwork ® system was used and by cinemetry (angle of the body, hip and ankle alignment in the lateral view), the CVMob system. In addition, the Brief Pain Inventory and the WHOQoL Bref were used to measure pain intensity and quality of life. Comparison tests of the averages (intra and inter groups) an...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Peripheral blood lymphocyte proviral DNA predicts neurocognitive impairment in clade C HIV
AbstractIt is not known if proviral DNA in the periphery corresponds to cognitive status in clade C as it does in clade B and recombinant forms. A cross-sectional study was conducted on participants investigated for HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in South Africa. HIV-1 proviral DNA was quantified using a PCR assay targeting a highly conserved HIV-1 LTR-gag region. Fifty-four (36.7%) participants were cognitively impaired and 93 (63.3%) were not impaired. Forty-three (79.6%) of the cognitively impaired participants were female and 11 (20.4%) were male. There was no significant age difference between cognitively im...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Coronaviruses and the central nervous system
AbstractSeven coronavirus (CoV) species are known human pathogens: the epidemic viruses SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and MERS-CoV and those continuously circulating in human populations since initial isolation: HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63. All have associations with human central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. In infants and young children, the most common CNS phenomena are febrile seizures; in adults, non-focal abnormalities that may be either neurologic or constitutional. Neurotropism and neurovirulence are dependent in part on CNS expression of cell surface receptors mediating viral entry, and host immune...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of HIV serostatus and metabolic syndrome with neurobehavioral disturbances
AbstractMetabolic syndrome (MetS), a constellation of related metabolic risk factors, is a common comorbidity associated with cognitive difficulty in people living with HIV (PLWH). Neurobehavioral disturbances (e.g., behavioral manifestations of frontal-subcortical dysfunction) are also prevalent in HIV, yet the role MetS might play in HIV-associated neurobehavioral disturbances is unknown. Thus, we examined the link between MetS and neurobehavioral disturbances in PLWH. Participants included 215 adults (117 PLWH, 98 HIV-uninfected), aged 36 to 65  years, from a cohort study at the University of California San Diego. ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Tryptophan degradation is associated with risk-taking propensity in methamphetamine users with treated HIV infection
We examined the associations between kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio with BART scores using multiple linear regression. A higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio was independently associated with greater BART scores (beta  = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.05–1.23;p = 0.034). The phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio was not significantly associated with BART scores. Findings support the need for further research to elucidate the neuroimmune mechanisms linking tryptophan degradation with impulsivity to catalyze the development novel pharmacologic treatments for peo ple living...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intracerebral transfection of anti-rabies virus antibodies is an effective therapy for rabies
AbstractRabies is a neurological disease with 100% lethality. Some of the rare human patients who survived after multiple drug treatment had severe sequelae. The present study showed that after 48  h of RABV inoculation, mice injected intracerebrally with anti-RABV F (ab’)2 plus Bioporter ® showed 70% survival compared to the control group, suggesting that transfection of anti-RABV antibodies to the brain may prevent or delay the spread of RABV at an early stage of infection. This result may provide important protocol results in intracellular antibody delivery to prevent the fatal o utcome of the disease. (S...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lifetime antiretroviral exposure and neurocognitive impairment in HIV
AbstractDespite the availability of modern antiretroviral therapy (ART), neurocognitive impairment persists among some persons with HIV (PWH). We investigated the role of exposure to four major classes of ARTs in neurocognitive impairment in PWH. A single-site cohort of 343 PWH was recruited. Lifetime ART medication history was obtained from medical health records. We evaluated the role of ART exposure as a predictor of neurocognitive impairment using univariate analyses and machine learning, while accounting for potential effects of demographic, clinical, and comorbidity-related risk factors. Out of a total of 26 tested v...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Severe rapidly progressive Guillain-Barr é syndrome in the setting of acute COVID-19 disease
We report a patient wh o developed severe GBS following SARS-CoV-2 infection at the peak of the initial COVID-19 surge (April 2020) in New York City and discuss diagnostic and management issues and complications that may warrant special consideration in similar patients. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and cellular immune response in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis
AbstractHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HAM/TSP is an inflammatory disease of the spinal cord and clinically characterized by progressive spastic paraparesis, urinary incontinence, and mild sensory disturbance. The interaction between the host immune response and HTLV-1-infected cells regulates the development of HAM/TSP. HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4+ T cells and is maintained by proliferation of the infected T cells. HTLV-1-infected cells rarely express viral antigens in vivo; however,...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical spectrum and prognosis of neurological complications of reactivated varicella-zoster infection: the role of immunosuppression
In conclusion, the clinical spectrum of neurological complications in VZV reac tivation is wide. Mortality was low and sequelae were mild. The presence of IS may play a role on the severity of neurological symptoms, and a shorter time between HZ and the onset of neurological symptoms appears to be a negative prognostic factor. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Using neuronal extracellular vesicles and machine learning to predict cognitive deficits in HIV
AbstractOur objective was to predict HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in HIV-infected people using plasma neuronal extracellular vesicle (nEV) proteins, clinical data, and machine learning. We obtained 60 plasma samples from 38 women and 22 men, all with HIV infection and 40 with HAND. All underwent neuropsychological testing. nEVs were isolated by immunoadsorption with neuron-specific L1CAM antibody. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), neurofilament light (NFL), and phosphorylated tau-181 (p-T181-tau) proteins were quantified by ELISA. Three different computational algorithms were performed to predict cognitiv...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Typical gene expression profile of pseudorabies virus reactivation from latency in swine trigeminal ganglion
In this study, PRV-free piglets were infected with PRV. Viral shedding in nasal and ocular swabs demonstrated that PRV infection entered the latent period. The anti-PRV antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the serum neutralization test, which suggested that the PRV could establish latent infection in the presence of humoral immunity. Immunohistochemistry and viral genome detection of TG neurons suggested that PRV was reactivated from latency. Viral gene expressions of IE180, EP0, VP16, and LLT-intron were readily detected at 3-h post-DEX treatment, but gB, a γ1 gene, was not detectable. The ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Acute paraparesis in HIV-infected patient after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy
We report a case of transverse myelitis in a recently diagnosed HIV patient who was otherwise asymptomatic initially and developed paraparesis after 1  month of initiation of antiretroviral therapy. After ruling out opportunistic infections and other causes of compressive and non-compressive myelopathy, development of transverse myelitis was attributed to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in view of baseline low CD4 count and their impr ovement after HAART initiation. Prompt treatment with corticosteroids successfully reversed the symptoms. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus infection in a patient with multiple sclerosis: could these conditions positively influence each other ’s course?
We report on a 35-year-old woman with relapsing-remitting MS, who acquired HIV infection 8  years after MS onset. During 7 years of follow-up without combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), CD4+ counts decreased and HIV viremia increased progressively, but slightly. These trends reverted after starting cART, with optimal viro-immunological control. While the patient had many MS relapses before acquiring HIV infection, she had then only one relapse, shortly after HIV infection, despite irregular or no MS therapy. This case contributes to the discussion about MS and HIV potential interactions and describes for the ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Disseminated cortical and subcortical lesions in neonatal enterovirus 71 encephalitis
In this study, we report a case of a patient with neonatal encephalitis who presented with normal white blood cell counts in the initial cerebrospinal fluid analysis. A lumbar puncture retap identified pleocytosis, and polymerase chain reaction assays detected enterovirus 71 in the blood and stool samples. Furthermore, MRI revealed atypical disseminated cortical and subcortical white matter lesions on diffusion weighted images, and neuroradiological re-evaluation showed necrotic changes 2  weeks later. This unique case expands our knowledge of the spectrum of neurological disorders due to enterovirus 71 infection in n...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ageusia and anosmia, a common sign of COVID-19? A case series from four countries
We present a series of ten cases of RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected patients diagnosed with viral-associated olfactory and taste loss from four different countries. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The association of peripheral immune markers with brain cortical thickness and surface area in South African people living with HIV
AbstractA spectrum of cognitive impairments known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are consequences of the effects of HIV-1 within the central nervous system. Regardless of treatment status, an aberrant chronic neuro-immune regulation is a crucial contributor to the development of HAND. However, the extent to which inflammation affects brain structures critical for cognitive status remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine associations of peripheral immune markers with cortical thickness and surface area. Participants included 65 treatment-na ïve HIV-positive individuals and 26 HIV-negativ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Extracranial ectasia and embolic infarcts in HIV: two case reports and a clinical decision-making algorithm
AbstractHIV is known to increase the risk of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. There are many postulated mechanisms for this elevated risk including an HIV-induced vasculopathy and/or coagulopathy, opportunistic infections, and cardioembolic etiologies, among others. Regarding vasculopathy, prior reports have described the various changes to the arterial vasculature that can occur in the setting of HIV, yet the appropriate workup and management of this condition remains poorly defined. Here we describe two cases of patients with HIV presenting with large vessel intracranial occlusions in the setting of ectatic extracr...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: A candidate gene study of intermediate histopathological phenotypes in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
Due to a production error data in Table 1 were not presented correctly. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in rhesus macaque model infected with SIV
AbstractGiven the current lack of understanding of brain volume changes caused by HIV infection, this study aimed tolongitudinally assess the changes in regional brain tissue volume following HIV infection and to explore its relationship with peripheral blood absolute CD4+ lymphocyte count (CD4+), the percentage of monocytes in plasma(MON%) and cerebrospinal fluid viral load (CFVL).Four adult male rhesus monkeys were examined in healthy status and following infection with simian immunodeficiency virus using high-resolution 3D T1-weighted sagittal whole brain magnetic resonance imaging. DPABI and SPM were used to process an...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurocognitive impairment and gray matter volume reduction in HIV-infected patients
AbstractAlthough neuropsychological studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have demonstrated heterogeneity in neurocognitive impairment and neuroimaging studies have reported diverse brain regions affected by HIV, it remains unclear whether individual differences in neurocognitive impairment are underpinned by their neural bases. Here, we investigated spatial distribution patterns of correlation between neurocognitive function and regional gray matter (GM) volume across patients with HIV. Thirty-one combination antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-infected Japanese male patients and 33 age- and sex-m...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intracranial hemorrhage complicating anticoagulant prophylactic therapy in three hospitalized COVID-19 patients
AbstractSARS-CoV2 has led to a global pandemic affecting almost 3 million people in almost over 3  months. Various clinical presentations have been reported so far and no definite therapy is established. Anticoagulation is recommended by several experts to address the potential prothrombotic complications from COVID-19, but its safety and regimen need further clinical trials and safety and effi cacy profile. Here, we present three cases of intracranial hemorrhage in three critically ill patients with COVID-19 and discuss their course in relation to various regimens of anticoagulation used. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pseudorabies virus encephalitis in humans: a case series study
This study involved all the patients whose CSF samples were positive for PRV-DNA; their clinical features were evaluated, and species-specific PCR and serological tests were sequentially applied for validation. Among the 472 patients tested from June 1, 2016, to December 1, 2018, six were positive for PRV-DNA, which were partially validated by PCR and serological tests. Additionally, we retrospectively examined another case with similar clinical and neuroimaging appearance and detected the presence of PRV-DNA. These patients had similar clinical manifestations, including a rapid progression of panencephalitis, and similar ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The “Three Italy” of the COVID-19 epidemic and the possible involvement of SARS-CoV-2 in triggering complications other than pneumonia
AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first reported in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China, has been associated to a novel coronavirus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the SARS-CoV-2 infection a global pandemic. Soon after, the number of cases soared dramatically, spreading across China and worldwide. Italy has had 12,462 confirmed cases according to the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS) as of March 11, and after the “lockdown” of the entire territory, by May 4, 209,254 cases of COVID-19 and 26,892 associated...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A rare case of isolated cauda equina Nocardia farcinica infection
We present an extremely rare case of cauda equina syndrome due to isolated intramedullaryNocardia farcinica infection. A 44-year-old male presented with low backache and gradually progressive weakness in bilateral lower limbs followed by paraplegia. He was found to have a well-defined, sharply demarcated ring-enhancing lesion located from T11-T12 to L3 vertebral body. He underwent laminectomy and decompression. The histopathological examination revealed a Gram-positive filamentous organism that looks likeNocardia. The culture report was suggestive ofNocardia farcinica. He was then treated with antibiotics and had a remarka...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Miller Fisher syndrome diagnosis and treatment in a patient with SARS-CoV-2
AbstractThis case report describes the clinical characteristics of a 50-year-old woman that developed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and was admitted at the COVID-19 dedicated unit where she developed neurological symptoms 10 days after admission. After neurological examination, including a panel of blood cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, a diagnosis of Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) was hypothesized and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) was initiated. Fourteen days after the start of IVIG treatment, the patient has been discharged at home with the resolution of respiratory symptoms and only minor hyporeflexia at the lower limbs...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

High efavirenz levels but not neurofilament light plasma levels are associated with poor neurocognitive functioning in asymptomatic HIV patients
AbstractThe aim of this study is to assess the effect of efavirenz exposure on neurocognitive functioning and investigate plasma neurofilament light (Nfl) as a biomarker for neurocognitive damage. Sub-analysis of the ESCAPE-study, a randomised controlled trial where virologically suppressed, cognitively asymptomatic HIV patients were randomised (2:1) to switch to rilpivirine or continue on efavirenz. At baseline and week 12, patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment (NPA), and serum efavirenz concentration and plasma Nfl levels were measured. Subgroups of elevated ( ≥ 4.0 mg/L) and therapeutic (0.74 to
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Evidence for a novel subcortical mechanism for posterior cingulate cortex atrophy in HIV peripheral neuropathy
AbstractWe previously reported that neuropathic pain was associated with smaller posterior cingulate cortical (PCC) volumes, suggesting that a smaller/dysfunctional PCC may contribute to development of pain via impaired mind wandering. A gap in our previous report was lack of evidence for a mechanism for the genesis of PCC atrophy in HIV peripheral neuropathy. Here we investigate if volumetric differences in the subcortex for those with neuropathic paresthesia may contribute to smaller PCC volumes, potentially through deafferentation of ascending white matter tracts resulting from peripheral nerve damage in HIV neuropathy....
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Comparison of tick-borne encephalitis between children and adults —analysis of 669 patients
AbstractThe aim of our study was to compare the course of TBE in children and adults. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of 669 patients was performed. The patients were categorized into 2 groups: Group I with 68 children and group II with 601 adults. TBE symptoms in children were milder compared with adults, with meningitis in 97% of cases. In adults, meningoencephalitis and meningoencephalomyelitis made up 49.26% of cases. Nausea and vomiting are more frequent in children, while neurological manifestations are more frequent in adults. There were no differences in CSF pleocytosis at the onset of disease in bo...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Changes in functional connectivity in people with HIV switching antiretroviral therapy
AbstractWe assessed changes in functional connectivity by fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) and cognitive measures in otherwise neurologically asymptomatic people with HIV (PWH) switching combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). In a prospective study (baseline and follow-up after at least 4  months), virologically suppressed PWH switched non-nuclease reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI; tenofovir-DF/emtricitabine with efavirenz to rilpivirine) and integrase-strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTI; tenofovir-DF/emtricitabine with raltegravir to dolutegravir). PWH were assessed by resting -state fMRI and sto...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The regional pattern of abnormal cerebrovascular reactivity in HIV-infected, virally suppressed women
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to assess whole brain and regional patterns of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) abnormalities in HIV-infected women using quantitative whole brain arterial spin labeling (ASL). We hypothesized that HIV-infected women would demonstrate decreased regional brain CVR despite viral suppression. This cross-sectional study recruited subjects from the Bay Area Women ’s Interagency Health Study (WIHS)—a cohort study designed to investigate the progression of HIV disease in women. In addition to conventional noncontrast cerebral MRI sequences, perfusion imaging was performed before a...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Determinants of neurological syndromes caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV)
AbstractVaricella zoster virus (VZV) is a pathogenic human herpes virus which causes varicella as a primary infection, following which it becomes latent in peripheral autonomic, sensory, and cranial nerve ganglionic neurons from where it may reactivate after decades to cause herpes zoster. VZV reactivation may also cause a wide spectrum of neurological syndromes, in particular, acute encephalitis and vasculopathy. While there is potentially a large number of coding viral mutations that might predispose certain individuals to VZV infections, in practice, a variety of host factors are the main determinants of VZV infection, ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Differential regulation of TREM2 and CSF1R in CNS macrophages in an SIV/macaque model of HIV CNS disease
AbstractHIV-associated neuroinflammation is primarily driven by CNS macrophages including microglia. Regulation of these immune responses, however, remains to be characterized in detail. Using the SIV/macaque model of HIV, we evaluated CNS expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) which is constitutively expressed by microglia and contributes to cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Loss-of-function mutations in TREM2 are recognized risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Nasu-Hakola disease (NH...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The intracellular DNA sensors cGAS and IFI16 do not mediate effective antiviral immune responses to HSV-1 in human microglial cells
AbstractGlia play a key role in immunosurveillance within the central nervous system (CNS) and can recognize a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) via members of multiple pattern recognition receptor (PRR) families. Of these, the expression of cytosolic/nuclear RNA and DNA sensors by glial cells is of particular interest as their ability to interact with intracellular nucleic acids suggests a critical role in the detection of viral pathogens. The recently discovered DNA sensors cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and interferon gamma-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) have been reported to be important for th...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease associated with rituximab therapy
We present a patient with WNVND during therapy with rituximab, and a review of the literature for previous similar cases with the goal to describe the clinical spectrum of WNVND in patients treated specifically with rituximab. Our review indicates that the most common initial complaints are fever and altered mental status, brain magnetic resonance imaging often shows bilateral thalamic hyperintensities, and cerebrospinal analysis consistently reveals mild lymphocytic pleocytosis with elevated protein, positive WNV polymerase chain reaction, and negative WNV antibodies. Treatment is usually supportive care, with intravenous...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy despite immune recovery in a HIV/HCV co-infected patient
We describe here the case of a HIV/HCV co-infected patient with cirrhosis who developed PML despite HIV suppression and CD4 cell count above 250/mm3 for 2  years. Immunological studies performed at onset of PML and before HCV therapy showed a decrease in naïve CD4 cells (CD45RA+CCR7+CD27+ CD4+ T cells − 23% cells, i.e. 75/mm3) and NK lymphopenia with abnormal and activated NK cells (CD3− CD16+ and/or CD56+) (5% lymphocytes, i.e. 58/mm3, CD69 91%, NKp30 26%). This impaired immunity, possibly related to HIV infection, or HCV infection or cirrhosis, or a combination thereof, could have led to the ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

COVID-19 and the nervous system
AbstractA pandemic due to novel coronavirus arose in mid-December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and in 3  months’ time swept the world. The disease has been referred to as COVID-19, and the causative agent has been labelled SARS-CoV-2 due to its genetic similarities to the virus (SARS-CoV-1) responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic nearly 20 years earlier. The spike pro teins of both viruses dictate tissue tropism using the angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE-2) receptor to bind to cells. The ACE-2 receptor can be found in nervous system tissue and endothelial cells among the tiss...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A special symptom of olfactory dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019: report of three cases
AbstractThree patients of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) showed the symptoms of olfactory dysfunction. Clinical characteristics and treatment were retrospective analyzed. Olfactory disorders are uncommon symptoms of COVID-19 in China. Early diagnosis and intervention are keys to the recovery of olfactory disorders. Particular attention should be devoted to olfactory dysfunction. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

COVID-19 virus may have neuroinvasive potential and cause neurological complications: a perspective review
AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported at the end of 2019 in China for the first time and has rapidly spread throughout the world as a pandemic. Since COVID-19 causes mild to severe acute respiratory syndrome, most studies in this field have only focused on different aspects of pathogenesis in the respiratory system. However, evidence suggests that COVID-19 may affect the central nervous system (CNS). Given the outbreak of COVID-19, it seems necessary to perform investigations on the possible neurological complications in patients who suffered from COVID-19. Here, we reviewed the evidence of the neuroinva...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A candidate gene study of intermediate histopathological phenotypes in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
This study did not support the role of host genotype in the histopathology underlying HAND. The findings lend further support for synaptodendritic degeneration as the proximal underlying neu ropathological substrate of HAND. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pomalidomide-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in multiple myeloma: cortical susceptibility-weighted imaging hypointense findings prior to clinical deterioration
AbstractAlthough there are several case reports of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in multiple myeloma (MM), there are few reports of cases associated with pomalidomide. Here, we report the case of a 69-year-old female who had received 41 cycles of pomalidomide and dexamethasone treatment for relapsed/refractory IgG- κ MM presented with right-hand weakness; she was diagnosed as pomalidomide-associated PML. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) on admission showed high signals in the bilateral front-parietal lobe white matter, with multiple punctate lesions in the vicinity of the main lesions. T...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Acute zoster plasma contains elevated amyloid, correlating with A β42 and amylin levels, and is amyloidogenic
AbstractHerpes zoster is associated with an increased dementia and neovascular macular degeneration risk and a decline in glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Because amyloid is present and pathogenic in these diseases, we quantified amyloid, A β40, Aβ42, and amylin in 14 zoster and 10 control plasmas. Compared with controls, zoster plasma had significantly elevated amyloid that correlated with Aβ42 and amylin levels and increased amyloid aggregation with addition of exogenous Aβ42 or amylin. These results suggest that zoster plasma co ntains factor(s) that promotes aggregation of amyloidogenic peptid...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurologic, clinical, and immunologic features in a cohort of HTLV-1 carriers with high proviral loads
AbstractA high proviral load (PVL) is recognized as a risk factor for human T cell leukemia virus-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), but there is a lack of prospective studies evaluating whether or not HTLV-1 carriers with high PVL are at risk of developing HAM/TSP or other HTLV-1-related diseases. Here, we compare the incidence of clinical manifestations and the cytokine levels in 30 HTLV-1 carriers with high (>  50,000 copies/106 PBMC) and an equal number of subjects with low proviral load. Participants were followed for 3 to 16  years (median of 11 years). The PVL, IFN-&g...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Acupuncture in the treatment of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy / tropical spastic Paraparesis
AbstractWe investigate the possible effects of acupuncture on the improvement of neurological problems in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)disease. Twenty patients with HAM/TSP were studied in this pre and post-test clinical trial. Urinary incontinence, global motor disability, spasticity, and pain severity were evaluated before, one month, and three-month after the intervention. Analyses demonstrated a significant reduction of urinary symptoms one month after acupuncture (P = 0.023). A significant improvement was observed in patients’ pain and the spasticity at the upp...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - April 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

HSV-1 infection and pathogenesis in the tree shrew eye following corneal inoculation
AbstractHerpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) infection causes inflammation in the cornea known as herpes simplex virus keratitis (HSK), a common but serious corneal disease. It is not entirely clear whether the virus during recurring infection comes from the trigeminal ganglia or the eye tissue, including the retina and ciliary ganglion. Because the tree shrew is closely related to primates and tree shrew eye anatomic structures are similar to humans, we studied HSV-1 corneal infection in the tree shrew. We found that HSK symptoms closely mimic those found in human HSK showing typical punctiform and dendritic viral keratiti...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - April 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Expression of TSLC1 in patients with HAM/TSP
This study aims to explore the expression level of the adhesion molecule during the expression level of the adhesion molecule among HAM/TSP disease activity. In lymphocyte function–associated antigen 1 and DNAX accessory molecule 1, no variation in expression levels specific to HTLV-1 infection was observed in CD4-positive T cells; however, TSLC1 expression was higher in HAM patients than in asymptomatic carriers and non-infected persons. TSLC1 tended to be higher in patients whose symptoms were worsening. On the contrary, the expression level of TSLC1 in CD8-positive T cells was lower in HAM patients than in asympto...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - April 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The IL-18 , IL-12 , and IFN- γ expression in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients, HTLV-1 carriers, and healthy subjects
In this study, the gene expression and plasma levels of these cytokines were evaluated. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in 20 HAM/TSP patients, 21 a symptomatic carriers (ACs), and 21 healthy subjects (HSs) were assessed for the expression ofIL-18,IL-12, andIFN- γ, using qRT-PCR. The plasma level of IL-18 and IFN- γ were measured by an ELISA method. The mean of HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) in the HAM/TSPs was 1846.59 ± 273.25 and higher than ACs at 719.58 ± 150.72 (p = 0.001). TheIL-12 was considerably expressed only in nine ACs, five HAM/TSPs...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - April 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Beta-amyloid (A β) uptake by PET imaging in older HIV+ and HIV- individuals
The objective of this study was to determine if beta-amyloid (A β) deposition measured by [18F] AV-45 (florbetapir) positron emission tomography (PET) is increased in older HIV+ individuals compared to HIV- individuals. Forty-eight HIV+ and 25 HIV- individuals underwent [18F] AV-45 PET imaging. [18F] AV-45 binding to A β was measured by standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) relative to the cerebellum in 16 cortical and subcortical regions of interest. Global and regional cortical SUVRs were compared by (1) serostatus, (2) HAND stage, and (3) age decade, comparing individuals in their 50s and> 60s. There...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - April 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Blood-based inflammation biomarkers of neurocognitive impairment in people living with HIV
The objective of this study is to identify blood-based markers of neurocognitive function in a demographic balanced cohort of PLWH. Seven neurocognitive domains were evaluated in 121 seropositive Black/African American, Non-Hispanic White, and White Hispanic men and women using computerized assessments. Associations among standardized neurocognitive function and HIV-related parameters, relevant sociodemographic variables, and inflammation-associated cytokines measured in plasma and cellular supernatants were examined using multivariate and univariate regression models. Outlier and covariate analyses were used to identify a...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - March 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research