Murine- β-coronavirus-induced neuropathogenesis sheds light on CNS pathobiology of SARS-CoV2
AbstractThe pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has caused widespread infection and significant mortality across the globe. Combined virology perspective of SARS-CoV-2 with a deep-rooted understanding of pathophysiological and immunological processes underlying the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 is of prime importance. The characteristic symptom of COVID-19 is respiratory distress with diffused alveolar damage, but emerging evidence suggests COVID-19 might also have neurologic consequences. Dysregulated homeostasis in the lungs has proven to be fatal, but one cannot ignore that the inability to breathe might be due to defec...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - February 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Potential mechanisms of cerebrovascular diseases in COVID-19 patients
AbstractSince the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2019, it is gaining worldwide attention at the moment. Apart from respiratory manifestations, neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, especially the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), has been intensively investigated. In this review, the effects of COVID-19 infection on CVD were summarized as follows: (I) angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) may be involved in the attack on vascular endothelial cells by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), leading to endothelial damage and increased subintimal inflammation, wh...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - February 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Imaging manifestations on sequential magnetic resonance imaging in pharyngolaryngeal involvement by varicella zoster virus
AbstractClarifying temporal changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a good chance to understand the pathology of neural lesions; however, such information is scarce in varicella zoster virus (VZV) neuropathies for the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. Here, we present the changes in sequential MR images of such a pathology over a period of 12  months from symptom onset.A 27-year-old woman with difficulty in swallowing and hoarseness due to a palatal palsy and arytenoid fixation on the left presented 2  days after onset. MRI revealed a lesion which largely filled the left jugular foramen on T2-weighted...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - February 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Persistent COVID-19-associated neurocognitive symptoms in non-hospitalized patients
We present two cases of non-hospitalized patients recovering from COVID-19 with persistent neurocognitive symptoms. Commonly used cognitive screens were normal, while more detailed testing revealed working memory and executive functioning deficits. An observational cohort study of individuals recovering from COVID-19 (14 or more days following symptom onset) identified that among the first 100 individuals enrolled, 14 were non-hospitalized patients reporting persistent cognitive issues. These 14 participants had a median age of 39  years (interquartile range: 35–56), and cognitive symptoms were present for at le...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - February 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association between high proviral load, cognitive impairment, and white matter brain lesions in HTLV-1-infected individuals
AbstractThe association between high proviral load (PVL) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), cognitive disturbance and white matter brain lesions in HTLV-1-infected individuals is still undefined. A cross-sectional study included 62 participants: 22 asymptomatic carriers (mean age 43.4  ± 13.1 years old), 22 patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP) (mean age 51.5 ± 8.7 years old), and 18 uninfected controls (mean age 52.3 ± 11.1 years old). All individuals fulfilled the following criteria: between 18 and 65 years of age, more than 4 years of form...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - February 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prevalence and correlates of chronic fatigue syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder after the outbreak of the COVID-19
AbstractAs the SARS-COV-2 becomes a global pandemic, many researchers have a concern about the long COVID-19 complications. Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a persistent, debilitating, and unexplained fatigue disorder. We investigated psychological morbidities such as CFS and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among survivors of COVID-19 over 6 months. All COVID-19 survivors from the university-affiliated hospital of Tehran, Iran, were assessed 6 months after infection onset by a previously validated questionnaire based on the Fukuda guidelines for CFS/EM and DSM-5 Checklist for PTSD (The P...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - February 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Emergence of myasthenia gravis in dengue infection —first case report
We report a unique case of DENV-1 infection presenting with bilateral ptosis and dysphagia in a previously healthy adult. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - February 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

CD8 +  T cells in the central nervous system of mice with herpes simplex infection are highly activated and express high levels of CCR5 and CXCR3
This study shows that during herpesvirus neuroinflammation anti-viral CD8+ T cells accumulate in the CNS. CD8+ T cells in the CNS also express chemotactic receptors cognate to the chemotactic gradients in the spinal cord. This indicates that anti-viral CD8+ T cells may migrate to infected areas in the spinal cord during herpesvirus neuroinflammation in response to chemotactic gradients. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 25, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, a post-infectious neurologic complication of COVID-19: case series and review of literature
We report seven cases of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome presumably parainfectious in nature and discuss their phenomenology, their possible pathophysiological relationship to COVID-19, and diagnostic and treatment strategy in each case. Finally, we review the relevant data in the literature regarding the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome and possible similar cases associated with COVID-19 and its diagnostic importance for clinicians in various fields of medicine encountering COVID-19 patients and its complications. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 25, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Machine learning prediction of neurocognitive impairment among people with HIV using clinical and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging data
AbstractDiagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI) continues to be a clinical challenge. The purpose of this study was to develop a prediction model for NCI among people with HIV using clinical- and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived features. The sample included 101 adults with chronic HIV disease. NCI was determined using a standardized neuropsychological testing battery comprised of seven domains. MRI features included gray matter volume from high-resolution anatomical scans and white matter integrity from diffusion-weighted imaging. Clinical features included demographics, substance use, and rout...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

HIV-1C and HIV-1B Tat protein polymorphism in Southern Brazil
This study was the first to investigate the genetic diversity and point mutations within HIV-1 Tat C in a Brazilian cohort. This was an observational, cross-sectional study, which included sequences of HIV-1B (n = 20) and HIV-1C (n = 21) from Southern Brazil. Additionally, 344 HIV-1C sequences were obtained from the Los Alamos database: 29 from Brazil and 315 from Africa, Asia, and Europe. The frequency of C31S substitution on HIV-1 Tat C in Brazil was 82% vs. 10% in the HIV-1B group (p 
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Viral protein R polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated acute ischaemic stroke: a case –control study
AbstractHIV-1 viral proteins have been implicated in endothelial dysfunction, which is a major determinant of ischaemic stroke risk in HIV-infected individuals. Polymorphisms in HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) may alter its potential to promote endothelial dysfunction, by modifying its effects on viral replication, reactivation of latent cells, upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and infection of macrophages. We analysed Vpr polymorphisms and their association with acute ischaemic stroke by comparing Vpr signature amino acids between 54 HIV-infected individuals with acute ischaemic stroke, and 80 age-matched HIV-infecte...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Tryptophan depletion predicts lower positive affect in sexual minority men living with HIV who use methamphetamine
AbstractThis longitudinal study with 76 sexual minority men living with HIV who use methamphetamine examined whether dysregulation of essential amino acid precursors for neurotransmitters at baseline predicted positive and negative affect at 15  months. After controlling for covariates including baseline positive affect, a higher baseline kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) ratio independently predicted lower positive affect at 15 months (β = − 18.31; 95% CI = − 35.35, − 1.27;p = 0.036). Future clinical research should examine whether bio-beh...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging features of COVID-19-related cranial nerve lesions
AbstractThe complete features of the neurological complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) still need to be elucidated, including associated cranial nerve involvement. In the present study we describe cranial nerve lesions seen in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of six cases of confirmed COVID-19, involving the olfactory bulb, optic nerve, abducens nerve, and facial nerve. Cranial nerve involvement was associated with COVID-19, but whether by direct viral invasion or autoimmunity needs to be clarified. The development of neurological symptoms after initial respiratory symptoms and the absence of the virus in t...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Low levels of frailty in HIV-positive older adults on antiretroviral therapy in northern Tanzania
AbstractThere are over 3 million people in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) aged 50 and over living with HIV. HIV and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) exposure may accelerate the ageing in this population, and thus increase the prevalence of premature frailty. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of frailty in an older HIV  + population in SSA and screening and diagnostic tools to identify frailty in SSA. Patients aged ≥ 50 were recruited from a free Government HIV clinic in Tanzania. Frailty assessments were completed, using 3 diagnostic and screening tools: the Fried frailty phenotype...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurological features and outcome in COVID-19: dementia can predict severe disease
AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic has infected more than 22 million people worldwide. Although much has been learned about COVID-19, we do not know much about its neurological features and their outcome. This observational study was conducted on the patients of Imam Hossein Hospital, and 361 adult patients (214 males) with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 from March 5, 2020 to April 3, 2020, were enrolled. Data was gathered on age, sex, comorbidities, initial symptoms, symptoms during the disease course, neurological symptoms, and outcome. The mean age of the patients was 61.90  ± 16.76 years. The most com...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Transcriptional signatures of Zika virus infection in astrocytes
AbstractAstrocytes are an early and important target of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in the developing brain, but the impacts of infection on astrocyte function remain controversial. Given that nonhuman primate (NHP) models of ZIKV infection replicate aspects of neurologic disease seen in human infections, we cultured primary astrocytes from the brain tissue of infant rhesus macaques and then infected the cells with Asian or African lineage ZIKV to identify transcriptional patterns associated with infection in these cells. The African lineage virus appeared to have greater infectivity and promote stronger antiviral signalin...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

How microcompetition with latent viruses can cause α synuclein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and eventually Parkinson’s disease
AbstractThe cause of most Parkinson ’s disease cases is unknown. However, it is well documented that mitochondrial dysfunction and misfoldedα synuclein aggregation are important cellular abnormalities associated with the disease. In this paper, we use the microcompetition model to show how latent viruses, which infect the central and peripheral nervous systems, can cause the observed mitochondrial dysfunction and excessα synuclein aggregation, and eventually, Parkinson ’s disease. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pre-clinical atherosclerosis is found at post-mortem, in the brains of men with HIV
AbstractThe aim of this study is to ascertain the burden of pre-clinical atherosclerotic changes in the brains of young adult males with HIV and explore the impact of anti-retroviral therapy (ART). The study design is case-control, cross-sectional. Histological sections from HIV-positive post-mortem brain samples, with no associated opportunistic infection, from the MRC Edinburgh brain bank were evaluated. These were age and sex matched with HIV-negative controls. Immunohistochemical stains were performed to evaluate characteristics of atherosclerosis. The pathological changes were graded blinded to the HIV s...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Identification of dysregulated pathways underlying HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis through co-expression network analysis
AbstractHuman T cell lymphotropic virus-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a pathogen-caused disease which is associated with the progressive neurological disorder. HAM/TSP affects the expression level of several proteins and dysregulates some biological pathways. To identify the interaction patterns among expressed genes in HAM/TSP patients, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was applied. Three microarray datasets regarding HAM/TSP were merged, and the co-expression network was constructed among genes. A total of 38 modules were identified. Three preserved modules in HAM/TS...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pain, psychoaffective symptoms, and quality of life in human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1): a cross-sectional study
The objective of this study is to describe the chronic pain characteristics in individuals infected with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) per subgroup (asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)) compared with controls with chronic pain without HTLV-1. This is a cross-sectional study investigating associations between pain profile, psychopathological symptoms, and quality of life. Individuals infected with HTLV-1 refer high-intensity pain compared with controls, with more severe characteristics being present in oligosymptomatic and HAM/TSP individu...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chronically elevated depressive symptoms interact with acute increases in inflammation to predict worse neurocognition among people with HIV
We examined the joint effects of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)) and systemic inflammation (plasma C-reactive protein (CRP)) on longitudinal profiles of neurocognition in a cohort of 143 people with HIV (PWH) on antiretroviral therapy. Global neurocognition, processing speed, motor skills, and attention/working memory all worsened as CRP increased but only among PWH who, on average, exhibited moderate to severe depressive symptoms (BDI-II  >  22). Findings suggest that some PWH with chronically elevated depressive symptoms may have an inflammatory subtype of depression and a particu...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Brain tissue transcriptomic analysis of SIV-infected macaques identifies several altered metabolic pathways linked to neuropathogenesis and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) as potential therapeutic targets
AbstractDespite improvements in antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent in subjects undergoing therapy. HAND significantly affects individuals ’ quality of life, as well as adherence to therapy, and, despite the increasing understanding of neuropathogenesis, no definitive diagnostic or prognostic marker has been identified. We investigated transcriptomic profiles in frontal cortex tissues of Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected R hesus macaques sacrificed at different stages of infection. Gene expression was compared among...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Predictive factors of human cytomegalovirus reactivation in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients treated with chemoradiotherapy
AbstractThe human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpes virus which infects 40 to 99% of the population. HCMV reactivation may occur in the context of immunosuppression and can induce significant morbidities. Several cases of HCMV infections or HCMV reactivation have thus been reported in glioblastoma (GBM) patients treated with radio(chemo)therapy. With the aim to identify the main risk factors associated with HCMV reactivation, we reviewed all patients treated for a newly diagnosed GBM in our institution from October 2013 to December 2015. Age, sex, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), absolute lymphocyte count (A...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroinvasive potential of human coronavirus OC43: case report of fatal encephalitis in an immunocompromised host
AbstractNeurologic manifestations of COVID-19 include anosmia, ageusia, encephalopathy, agitation, confusion, ischemic strokes, Guillain –Barré syndrome, seizures, and hemorrhagic encephalitis. Although mechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) injury are likely diverse, direct viral invasion of the CNS has been demonstrated in case reports. Neurotropism of human coronaviruses (HCoVs) is therefore of great interest in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Here we present an autopsy-proven case of fatal human coronavirus (HCoV)-OC43 encephalitis in an infant with aplastic thymus and chronic T-cell lymphopenia....
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Collateral damage: Impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in people living with HIV
AbstractPeople living with HIV (PLWH) may be at higher risk for adverse outcomes indirectly associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). When comparing responses to questionnaires administered when social distancing and quarantine guidelines were first implemented, we found that PLWH were more likely to have restricted access to medical care, increased financial stress, increased symptoms of anxiety and depression, and increased substance use compared to demographically-similar people without HIV. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - January 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Meningoencephalitis associated with COVID-19: a systematic review
AbstractWith the growing number of COVID-19 cases in recent times. significant set of patients with extra pulmonary symptoms has been reported worldwide. Here we venture out to summarize the clinical profile, investigations, and radiological findings among patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated meningoencephalitis in the form of a systemic review. This review was carried out based on the existing PRISMA (Preferred Report for Systematic Review and Meta analyses) consensus statement. The data for this review was collected from four databases: Pubmed/Medline, NIH Litcovid, Embase, and Cochrane library and Preprint servers up til...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - December 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with depressive symptoms in older adults with HIV disease
This study examined the possible role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in symptoms of depression and other aspects of mood in 109 PWH and 43 seronegative participants aged 50 and older. Participants completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) which measured six dimensions of mood and was normatively adjusted for sex. A model controlling for medical comorbidities and substance use diagnoses among PWH showed a significant interaction between BDNF and POMS subscales. Planned post hoc analyses revealed that lower BDNF was only associated with higher scores on Depression-Dejection and Confusion-Bewilderment POMS subs...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - November 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Encephalopathy associated with COVID-19 in a patient with multiple sclerosis
AbstractFrom the beginning of COVID-19 pandemics, the involvement of patient ’s nervous system with this virus is increasingly reporting. Although various reports are published on affliction of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with SARS-CoV-2, no report has been published on brain involvement by this virus in MS patients so far. Herein, a 34-year-old patient with MS who ex perienced the decreased level of consciousness and encephalopathy following COVID-19 involvement has been reported. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - October 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Potential neuroinvasive and neurotrophic properties of SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric patients: comparison of SARS-CoV-2 with non-segmented RNA viruses
AbstractThe emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing global health crises. Children can be infected, but are less likely to develop severe neurological abnormalities compared with adults. However, whether SARS-CoV-2 can directly cause neurological impairments in pediatric patients is not known. The possible evolutionary and molecular relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and non-segmented RNA viruses were examined with reference to neurological disorders in pediatric patients. SARS-CoV-2 shares similar functional domains with neuroinvasive and neurotropic RNA viruses. The Spike 1 (S1) rece...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - October 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Status of humoral and cellular immune markers in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) asymptomatic carriers in northeastern Iran, Mashhad
AbstractIt is estimated that about 10 –20 million peoples are infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) around the world and suffered from HTLV-related diseases. The present study was aimed to evaluate the cellular immunity, T-cell activation, humoral immunity, and inflammatory response hallmarks which affect HTLV-1-as sociated disease progression. A total of 78 participants were included in the study, comprising 39 HTLV-1 asymptomatic careers (ACs) and 39 healthy controls. The HTLV-proviral load (PVL) was determined via real-time PCR technique, and anti-HTLV antibody, sIL2R, sCD30, Neoptrin, hs-CRP, ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - October 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Spasticity distribution and severity in individuals with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis
AbstractIn individuals with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), spasticity is one of the main symptoms. The neurological signs of the disease are well defined, but details of how spasticity appears in these individuals have not been well explored. To describe spasticity location and severity of HAM/TSP individuals. Cross-sectional study with individuals older than 18 years, diagnosed with HAM/TSP and with lower limb spasticity. Pregnant women, individuals with other associated neurological diseases, and those using antispastic drugs were not included. Spasticity was assessed by the Modified...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - October 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Peripheral facial nerve palsy associated with COVID-19
We describe the clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of eight patients with COVID-19 who developed peripheral facial palsy during infection. In three patients, facial palsy was the first symptom. Nerve damage resulted in mild dysfunction in five patients and moderate in three. SARS-Cov-2 was not detected in CSF by PCR in any of the samples. Seven out of eight patients were treated with steroids and all patients have complete or partial recovery of the symptoms. Peripheral facial palsy should be added to the spectrum of neurological manifestations associated with COVID-19. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - October 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Elevated serum substance P during simian varicella virus infection in rhesus macaques: implications for chronic inflammation and adverse cerebrovascular events
AbstractVaricella and zoster, produced by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), are associated with an increased risk of stroke that may be due to persistent inflammation and hypercoagulability. Because substance P is associated with inflammation, hypercoagulability, and atherosclerotic plaque rupture that may contribute to increased stroke risk after VZV infection, we measured serum substance P in simian varicella virus –infected rhesus macaques. We found significantly increased and persistent serum substance P concentrations during varicella and zoster compared with pre-inoculation, supporting the hypothesis that VZV-induc...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cognitive impairment in the HTLV-1 infection: a comparative study associated with functional performance
AbstractHuman T cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-1) infection courses with a myelopathy, the tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In a case-control study, we compared the neuropsychological profile and functional characteristics in two case HTLV-1-infected groups (asymptomatic and with HAM/TSP) with a control group negative for HTLV-1. Subjects were paired for age, sex, and educational features. The case group differed from control group in neuropsychological measures such as in episodic memory recall, executive functions, and fine motor dexterity measure. Individuals with HAM/TSP have more depressive symptoms and worst...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders
AbstractAlthough antiretroviral therapy (ART) affects virologic suppression and prolongs life expectancies among HIV-positive patients; HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be diagnosed in patients with HIV-1 undergoing treatment. The extensive clinical manifestations of HAND include behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions that severely affect the patients ’ quality of life. The pathogenesis of HAND has received increasing attention as a potential avenue by which to improve the treatment of the condition. Many studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, autophagy, and thei...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Autonomic dysfunction heralding acute motor axonal neuropathy in COVID-19
AbstractAlbeit primarily a disease of respiratory tract, the 2019 coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) has been found to have causal association with a plethora of neurological and neuropsychological effects. However, the pathogenesis of COVID-19-induced neurological manifestations is still in its infancy. Autonomic dysfunction preceding acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) has not been yet associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We herein report one patient who developed acute onset dysautonomia heralding AMAN during SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroinflammation associates with antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 response throughout the brain in persons living with HIV
AbstractPrevious studies showed that persons living with HIV (PLWH) demonstrate higher brain prefrontal cortex neuroinflammation and immunoproteasome expression compared to HIV-negative individuals; these associate positively with HIV levels. Lower expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) was observed in PLWH with HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (HIV-NCI) compared to neurocognitively normal PLWH. We hypothesized that similar expression patterns occur throughout cortical, subcortical, and brainstem regions in PLWH, and that neuroinflammation and immunoproteasome expression associate with lower e...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Direct antivirals and cognitive impairment in hepatitis C: a clinical-neurophysiologic study
AbstractCognition was assessed in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients, who did not meet the criteria for a minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Their liver function was compensated. We then disentangled potential cognitive changes associated with a sustained virologic response at 12  weeks (SVR-12), following treatment with direct antiviral agents (DAAs). We studied 23 selected HCV patients with a battery of standard neuropsychological tests, and with recordings of the P300 wave, a cerebral potential of “cognitive” significance. There was a baseline evaluation (T0) and a s econd one 6 months later (T1). We ha...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Concurrent tonic pupil and trochlear nerve palsy in COVID-19
We report a case of concurrent tonic pupil and trochlear nerve palsy in this context. A 62-year-old man reported a 5-day history of binocular vertical diplopia and blurred vision in his left eye, noticing that his left pupil was dilated. He had suffered a flu-like syndrome 2  weeks before. Clinical exam showed a right trochlear nerve palsy and a left mydriatic pupil. MRI, X chest ray, and analytical results were normal. Antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 were positive (low IgM and high IgG titers). Antiganglioside antibodies were negative. A 0.125% pilocarpine test confirmed Ad ie’s pupil diagnosis. The patient was treat...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with a lymphoproliferative disorder treated with pembrolizumab
AbstractProgressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system as a result of reactivation of the John Cunningham (JC) polyomavirus and occurs almost exclusively in immunosuppressed individuals. The disease course of PML is variable but usually progressive and often fatal. Treatment is predominantly focused on immune restoration, although this is difficult to do outside of human immunodeficiency virus –associated PML. A recent case series demonstrated a potential role for programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors, such as pembrolizumab, to contain and/...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

COVID-19: update of the Italian situation
AbstractOn the March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak as a pandemic. The first cases in Italy were reported on January 30, 2020, and quickly the number of cases escalated. On March 20, 2020, according to the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS) and National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), the peak of COVID-19 cases reported in Italy reached the highest number, surpassing those in China. The Italian government endorsed progressively restrictive measures initially at the local level, and finally, at the national level with a lockdown of the e...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Novel method to quantify phenotypic markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in a murine SCID model
AbstractDespite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV infection in the CNS persists with reported increases in activation of macrophages (M Φ), microglia, and surrounding astrocytes/neurons, conferring HIV-induced inflammation. Chronic inflammation results in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) with reported occurrence of up to half of individuals with HIV infection. The existing HAND mouse model used by laboratories includi ng ours, and the effect of novel agents on its pathology present with labor-intensive and time-consuming limitations since brain sections and immunohistochemistry assays have to be...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke and COVID-19: a case report
We present a clinical case of a patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection and respiratory symptoms, complicated with a pro-thrombotic state involving multiple vascular territories and concomitant interleukin-6 increase. This case underlines the possibility to develop a COVID-19-related coagulopathy. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Studying the neuropsychological sequelae of SARS-CoV-2: lessons learned from 35 years of neuroHIV research
AbstractThe virology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the human immune response to the virus are under vigorous investigation. There are now several reports describing neurological symptoms in individuals who develop coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The prevalence, incidence, and clinical course of these symptoms will become clearer in the coming months and years through epidemiological studies. However, the long-term neurological and cognitive consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection will remain conjectural for some time and will likely r...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Human cytomegalovirus DNA detection in a recurrent glioblastoma multiforme tumour, but not in whole blood: a case report and discussion about the HCMV latency and therapy perspectives
AbstractIn the current study, a 58-year-old male patient presented with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The patient underwent surgical resection, 4  months earlier, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. During the second surgical intervention, tumour tissue and whole blood were sampled and analysed for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA, immediate early (IE) mRNA and pp65 mRNA. HCMV DNA was detected only in the recurrent tumour tissue but n ot in the whole blood. Neither IE mRNA nor pp65 mRNA was expressed. Our result suggests HCMV latency in the brain tumour with detectable level of viral DNA. More data a...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurological injuries in COVID-19 patients: direct viral invasion or a bystander injury after infection of epithelial/endothelial cells
AbstractA subset of patients withcoronavirus 2 disease (COVID-19) experience neurological complications. These complications include loss of sense of taste and smell, stroke, delirium, and neuromuscular signs and symptoms. The etiological agent of COVID-19 isSARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), an RNA virus with a glycoprotein-studded viral envelope that uses ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) as a functional receptor for infecting the host cells. Thus, the interaction of the envelope spike proteins with ACE2 on host cells determines the tropism and virulence ofSARS-CoV-2. Loss of sense of tast...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

S-EQUOL: a neuroprotective therapeutic for chronic neurocognitive impairments in pediatric HIV
AbstractChronic neurocognitive impairments, commonly associated with pediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (PHIV), are a detrimental consequence of early exposure to HIV-1 viral proteins. Strong evidence supports S-Equol (SE) as an efficacious adjunctive neuroprotective and/or neurorestorative therapeutic for neurocognitive impairments in adult ovariectomized female HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. There remains, however, a critical need to assess the therapeutic efficacy of SE when treatment occurs at an earlier age (i.e., resembling a therapeutic for children with PHIV) and across the factor of biological sex. Utiliza...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - August 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Protein LY6E as a candidate for mediating transport of adeno-associated virus across the human blood-brain barrier
AbstractThe blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Significant progress has been made in developing adeno-associated virus (AAV) variants with increased ability to cross the BBB in mice. However, these variants are not efficacious in non-human primates. Herein, we employed various bioinformatic techniques to identify lymphocyte antigen-6E (LY6E) as a candidate for mediating transport of AAV across the human BBB based on the previously determined mechanism of transport in mice. Our results provide insight into future discovery and optimization of AAV varian...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - August 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurological manifestations of COVID-19: available evidences and a new paradigm
AbstractThe recent pandemic outbreak of coronavirus is pathogenic and a highly transmittable viral infection caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). In this time of ongoing pandemic, many emerging reports suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 has inimical effects on neurological functions, and even causes serious neurological damage. The neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19 include headache, dizziness, depression, anosmia, encephalitis, stroke, epileptic seizures, and Guillain-Barre syndrome along with many others. The involvement of the CNS may be related with poor prognosis and disease wo...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - August 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research