Acute flaccid paralysis due to Echovirus 30 in an immunosuppressed transplant recipient
AbstractAn Italian 13-year-old boy immunosuppressed due to kidney transplant presented in November 2018 with acute flaccid paralysis with anterior horn cell involvement resembling the clinical, radiological, and laboratory features of poliomyelitis. Enterovirus was molecularly identified in cerebral spinal fluid and stool samples and the sequence analysis of the VP1 gene of enterovirus genome revealed the presence of Echovirus 30 both in CSF and in stool samples. Echovirus 30 is an emerging neurotropic virus able to cause outbreaks of aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis all over the world, but acute flaccid paralysi...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - October 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Perspectives on HIV and other age-related neurological diseases
AbstractThis data is mandatory Please provide (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - October 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Central nervous system (CNS) enterovirus infections: A single center retrospective study on clinical features, diagnostic studies, and outcome
The objective of this study was to identify modes of diagnosis including the significance of respiratory and cerebrospinal fluid samples, associated clinical characteristics, inpatient management, and outcome of individuals with EV infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Electronic medical records of individuals with enterovirus infections of the CNS who presented to the Columbia University Irving Medical Center and Children’s Hospital of New York between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2017 w ere reviewed retrospectively for demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data. The median age overall was 1.7&nbs...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Machine learning models reveal neurocognitive impairment type and prevalence are associated with distinct variables in HIV/AIDS
AbstractNeurocognitive impairment (NCI) among HIV-infected patients is heterogeneous in its reported presentations and frequencies. To determine the prevalence of NCI and its associated subtypes as well as predictive variables, we investigated patients with HIV/AIDS receiving universal health care. Recruited adult HIV-infected subjects underwent a neuropsychological (NP) test battery with established normative (sex-, age-, and education-matched) values together with assessment of their demographic and clinical variables. Three patient groups were identified including neurocognitively normal (NN,n = 246), HIV-...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Herpes simplex virus-1 as a rare etiology of isolated acute cerebellitis: case report and literature review
AbstractAcute cerebellitis is one of the most common cerebellar disorders and occurs due to para-infectious, post-infectious, or post-vaccination cerebellar inflammation. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is known as a common infectious cause of sporadic encephalitis. Cerebellar involvement of HSV-1 is rare and almost always associated with meningoencephalitis. To date, HSV-1 has been identified as the cause of acute isolated cerebellitis in only two patients. Here we report another case of isolated acute cerebellitis caused by HSV-1 in a 20-month-old boy. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: Ventral striatal and septal area hypermetabolism on FDG-PET in herpes simplex viral encephalitis
The word “hypermetabolism” needs to be replaced by “hypometabolism” at only ONE place and NOT throughout the article.So the correction could be stated as:“In the case description section, the sentence “A repeat dedicatedbrain FDG-PET scan performed on day 9, under burst suppression,showed diffuse hypermetabolism with persistent relativehypermetabolism in the left ventral striatum and septalarea (Fig. 1b).”should read as“A repeat dedicatedbrain FDG-PET scan performed on day 9, under burst suppression,showed diffuse hypometabolism with persistent relativehypermetabolism in the ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

ZIKAVID —Zika virus infection database: a new platform to analyze the molecular impact of Zika virus infection
AbstractThe recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil and other countries globally demonstrated the relevance of ZIKV studies. During and after this outbreak, there was an intense increase in scientific production on ZIKV infections, especially toward alterations promoted by the infection and related to clinical outcomes. Considering this massive amount of new data, mainly thousands of genes and proteins whose expression is impacted by ZIKV infection, the ZIKA Virus Infection Database (ZIKAVID) was created. ZIKAVID is an online database that comprises all genes or proteins, and associated information, for which expres...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Enterovirus A71 capsid protein VP1 increases blood –brain barrier permeability and virus receptor vimentin on the brain endothelial cells
In this study, we explored the roles of VP1 in the permeability of blood –brain barrier (BBB). Sera albumin, Evans blue, and dextran leaked into brain parenchyma of the 1-week-old C57BL/6J mice intracranially injected with VP1 recombinant protein. VP1 also increased the permeability of the brain endothelial cells monolayer, an in vitro BBB model. Tight junction protein claudin-5 was reduced in the brain tissues or brain endothelial cells treated with VP1. In contrast, VP1 increased the expression of virus receptor vimentin, which could be blocked with VP1 neutralization antibody. Vimentin expression in the VP1-treate...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Detection of Zika virus in paired urine and amniotic fluid samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic women and their babies during a disease outbreak: association with neurological symptoms in newborns
AbstractPaired maternal and newborn urine and amniotic fluid from 138 subjects collected during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak was analyzed for ZIKV by gene amplification (RT-qPCR), and the findings were correlated with clinical symptoms and neurological anomalies in the babies. ZIKV was detected in 1 of 9 symptomatic women (11.1%) and in 19 of 129 asymptomatic women (14.7%). Neurological manifestations were present in 19 babies (13.7%), 10 of 20 (50%) positive and 9 of 119 (7.6%) negative (p
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

2019 Colorado Alphaherpesvirus Latency Society symposium
AbstractMeeting Report on the 9th Annual Symposium of the Colorado Alphaherpesvirus Latency Society (CALS) held on May 8 –11, 2019, in Vail, CO. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neural correlates of maintenance working memory, as well as relevant structural qualities, are associated with earlier antiretroviral treatment initiation in vertically transmitted HIV
AbstractThere is evidence of HIV affecting cognitive functioning across age groups, with adult studies showing related deficits in frontostriatal and hippocampal regional activity. Additionally, delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been associated with poorer cognitive outcomes in HIV-infected youth. Little is known, however, of the neural correlates underlying such cognitive deficits in youth populations. We investigated maintenance working memory –related brain activity in South African HIV-infected youth and controls, and the effect of ART initiation age on underlying structures. Sixty-four per...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - September 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Monocyte activation, HIV, and cognitive performance in East Africa
AbstractChronic inflammation associated with monocyte activation has been linked to HIV-related cognitive outcomes in resource-rich settings. Few studies have investigated this relationship in the African context where endemic non-HIV infections may modulate effects. We characterized immune activation biomarkers in Kenyan and Ugandan participants in relation to neuropsychological testing performance (NTP) from the African Cohort Study (AFRICOS). We focused on activation markers associated with monocytes (sCD14, sCD163, neopterin), T cells (HLA-DR+CD38+ on CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes), and microbial translocation (intestina...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - August 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Limited correlation between systemic biomarkers and neurocognitive performance before and during HIV treatment
AbstractThe AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) study A5303 investigated the associations between neuropsychological performance (NP) and inflammatory biomarkers in HIV-infected participants. Fifteen NP tests were administered at baseline and week 48 to 233 ART na ïve participants randomized to maraviroc- or tenofovir-containing ART. Neurocognition correlated modestly with markers of lymphocyte activation and inflammation pre-ART (percent CD38+/HLA-DR+(CD4+) (r = − 0.22,p = 0.02) and percent CD38+/HLA-DR+(CD8+) (r = − 0.25,p = 0.02)), and ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - August 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

HSV-1 encephalitis relapse after epilepsy surgery: a case report and review of the literature
AbstractHerpes simplex encephalitis relapses have been rarely reported, with only few cases occurring after neurosurgical interventions. A young man presented a late herpes simplex encephalitis relapse after left antero-mesial temporal resection for his refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Eight days after surgery, he developed fever and aphasia. CSF PCR revealed more than 12,000 copies/ml of HSV-1 DNA. Intravenous acyclovir was immediately started with a complete recovery. Postoperative herpes simplex encephalitis can occur as primary infection or as relapse of previous infection. Surgical manipulation of brain parenchyma i...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - August 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Early reduction of the splicing factor2/alternative splicing factor: a cellular inhibitor of the JC polyomavirus in natalizumab-treated MS patients long before developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
We reported that SF2/ASF levels in blood cells increase during the first year of natalizumab therapy and decrease thereafter, inversely related to T-Ag expression, and suggested a correlation with JCV reactivation. Here, we report SF2/ASF levels of longitudinal blood samples of two patients undergoing natalizumab therapy, who developed PML while monitored, in comparison to natalizumab-treated controls and to one-off PML samples. After 6  months of therapy, SF2/ASF levels of the two cases were reduced, instead of increased, and their overall SF2/ASF levels were lower than those from natalizumab controls. Since SF2/ASF ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - August 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Peripheral polyneuropathy associated with Chikungunya virus infection
We report the identification of CHIKV in a serum sample from an elderly woman with febrile illness and severe arthralgia in Brazil. The occurrence was found of peripheral polyneuropathy affecting the upper and lower limbs evidenced by electroneuromyographic findings. The patient was treated with a corticoid associated with methotrexate, suggesting that the pathophysiological basis of the case in question may be related to an immune-mediated response by T cells and inflammatory cytokines. This finding reinforces the need to be aware of the emergence of neuroinfections related to CHIKV and effective diagnoses for the early d...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - August 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Plasma CXCL10 correlates with HAND in HIV-infected women
AbstractHIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is characterized by chronic immune activation. We aimed to identify biomarkers associated with HAND and to investigate their association with cognitive function and sex, in a homogenous cohort of HIV-infected (HIV+) young adults, parenterally infected during early childhood. One hundred forty-four HIV+ Romanian participants (51% women) without major confounders underwent standardized neurocognitive and medical evaluation in a cross-sectional study. IFN- γ, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, CXCL8, CXCL10, and TNF-α were measured in plasma in all participants and in cer...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - August 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Determinants of cognitive health in Indonesian HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy
AbstractCognitive impairment has been described in people living with HIV and stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but has not been monitored in young adults beginning ART with a high burden of cytomegalovirus. We recruited 80 subjects beginning ART with
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - August 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Long-segment transverse myelitis in an immunocompetent patient due to varicella zoster virus reactivation
AbstractTransverse myelitis is a segmental, full-thickness inflammation of the spinal cord with various etiologies including varicella zoster virus infection. Symptoms can manifest as sensory deficits, severe lower back pain radiating down the legs, bowel/bladder incontinence, and extremity weakness. This case report is unique in that it highlights a patient who developed long-segment transverse myelitis after a varicella zoster virus infection which has not been previously reported in the literature. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - August 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

RNA editing blood biomarkers for predicting mood alterations in HCV patients
In this study, we took advantage of the high prevalence of pharmacologically induced depression in patients treated with IFN-α and ribavirin to test the interest of RNA editing–related biomarkers in white blood cells of patients. In this 16-week longitudinal study, a small cohort of patients was clinically evaluated using standard assessment methods prior to and during antiviral therapy and blood samples were collected to analyse RNA editing modifications. A-I RNA editing activity on the phosphodiesterase 8A (PDE8A) gene, a previously identified RNA editing hotspot in the c ontext of lupus erythematosus, was qu...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Polymorphisms in CAMKK2 associate with susceptibility to sensory neuropathy in HIV patients treated without stavudine
AbstractHIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a debilitating neurological complication of HIV infection potentiated by the antiretroviral drug stavudine. While stavudine is no longer used, HIV-SN now affects around 15% of HIV+ Indonesians. Here, we investigate whether polymorphisms within theP2X-block (P2X4R,P2X7R,CAMKK2) and/orANAPC5 mark susceptibility to HIV-SN in this setting. As polymorphisms in these genes associated with HIV-SN in African HIV patients receiving stavudine, the comparison can identify mechanisms independent of stavudine. HIV patients who had never used stavudine (n = 202) attendi...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Plasma (1  → 3)-β- d -glucan and suPAR levels correlate with neurocognitive performance in people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy: a CHARTER analysis
AbstractDespite antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV (PLWH) have higher rates of non-AIDS disorders, such as neurocognitive (NC) impairment (NCI) than the general population. (1-3)- β-d-Glucan (BDG) is a fungal cell wall component which serves as a biomarker for gut barrier integrity failure and microbial and fungal translocation. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether higher plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of BDG and suPAR were associated with NCI in PLWH. Paired blood and CSF samples were collected cross-sectionally from 61 male adult PLWH on ART (95% virally suppres...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Inflammation-related genes are associated with epigenetic aging in HIV
We examined whether three inflammation-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were risk factors for accelerated aging and HIV-associated, non-AIDS (HANA) conditions among PLWH. We exami ned 155 postmortem cases with HIV (mean age = 47.3, 81% male, 68% self-reported White) from the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium who had pre-mortem neurobehavioral/medical/virologic data and epigenomic data from occipital cortex tissue. Accelerated aging was measured according to the Epigene tic Clock; an aging biomarker based on DNA methylation levels. Past or current age-associated HANA conditions including cereb...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ventral striatal and septal area hypermetabolism on FDG-PET in herpes simplex viral encephalitis
AbstractA 71-year-old man presented with sudden onset, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and altered mental status. Initial brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal but a brain FDG-PET scan showed hypermetabolism in the left ventral striatum and septal area. Initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed mildly elevated protein but herpes simplex virus (HSV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was negative. A repeat CSF examination performed 9  days later showed a positive HSV PCR. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of autopsy specimen confirmed the presence of CD45+ lymphocytes and HSV antigen...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurocognitive impairment is worse in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals with liver dysfunction
In this study, we examined HIV/HCV-coinfected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with undetectable HIV RNA in blood (n = 412) who were assessed using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Demographics, host and viral biomarkers, and markers of liver dysfunction were compared between impaired (n = 198) and unimpaired (n = 214) participants using logistic regression. The cohort was predominantly middle-aged men, half of whom (48%) had NCI. The odds of NCI increased by almost two-fold when serum albumin was  50 IU/L, and 2.2-fold with every unit increase in ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Blood amyloid- β protein isoforms are affected by HIV-1 in a subtype-dependent pattern
This study aimed to compare serum amyloid processing biomarkers among HIV subtype B (n = 25), HIV subtype C (n = 26), healthy HIV-negative controls (n = 18), and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD;n = 24). Immunoassays were used to measure main soluble Aβ isoforms Aβ38, Aβ40, Aβ42, and Aβ-total in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). People living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV(−) samples, including AD samples, were compared for gender and age, while HIV subtypes were compared for nadir CD 4 and plasma viral load suppression. CSF/serum...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hepatitis C virus –related factors associated WITH cognitive performance in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients
In conclusion, the duration of HCV infection and HCV-RNA load showed an association with cognitive impairment, suggesting a role of hepatitis-related factors in the development of cognitive disorders in HIV-HCV-coinfected patients. The association between InSTI use and altered cognitiv e performance should prompt investigations about potential neurotoxicity of these drugs. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Atypical clinical manifestations of herpes zoster oticus: diagnostic usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging
AbstractTypical symptoms of Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) consist of painful vesicular eruptions in the external ear, unilateral facial palsy, and/or vestibulocochlear deficit. When RHS patients show atypical clinical manifestations, correct diagnosis can be delayed, and ideal treatment timing for antiviral therapy may be missed. The aim of this study is to describe RHS patients with atypical clinical manifestations and evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for early differential diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and investigated the findings of internal auditory canal (IAC) MRI of...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Theiler ’s murine encephalomyelitis virus infection of astrocytes induces the expression of chemokines which attract activated but not resting T lymphocytes
AbstractIn this article, we studied the production of the chemokine CXCL9, also termed Mig (monokine induced by gamma interferon) by cultured SJL/J mouse astrocytes infected with the BeAn strain of Theiler ’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). This picornavirus induces demyelination in the SJL/J genetically susceptible strain of mice through an immune process mediated by CD4+ Th1 T cells. Those cells were chemoattracted by chemokines inside the central nervous system (CNS) after blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption.cRNAs from TMEV- and mock-infected astrocytes cells were hybridized to the Affymetrix murine genome...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebral venous thrombosis: a rare complication of herpes simplex encephalitis
We report a case of classic HSE with early neurological relapse 7  days after onset of acyclovir treatment secondary to cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). The development of CVT after meningoencephalitis has been described with neurotropic viruses such as HSV, HIV, or enteroviruses and also bacterial or fungal agents. CVT is probably the consequence of the inflamm ation secondary to these infections. A diagnosis of CVT, although rarely described, should be systematically suspected in patients with HSE who present no or only moderate improvement, or early relapse of symptoms despite adapted acyclovir treatment. (Source:...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor
(Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

S100B and its association with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
(Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - July 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Central and peripheral nervous system involvement in Zika virus infection in a child
AbstractA 7-year-old boy that presented an encephalomyeloradiculitis and no classic symptoms of arboviruses. Zika virus (ZIKV) was confirmed by molecular analyses of cerebrospinal fluid and 1  year later by plaque reduction neutralization test. This case demonstrates that ZIKV can be associated with diffuse nervous system infection in children. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Heterogeneity in neurocognitive change trajectories among people with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy in Rakai, Uganda
We examined heterogeneity in neurocognitive change trajectories from HIV diagnosis to 1 –2 years post-antiretroviral therapy (ART). In an observational cohort study in Rakai, Uganda, 312 PWH completed a neuropsychological (NP) test battery at two-time points (ART-naïve, 1–2 years post-ART initiation). All NP outcomes were used in a latent profile analysis to identify subgroups o f PWH with similar ART-related neurocognitive change profiles. In a subset, we examined subgroup differences pre-ART on cytokine and neurodegenerative biomarkers CSF levels. We identified four ART-related change subgroups...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical and neuroimaging correlates of cognition in HIV
This study investigated whether HIV-positive participants, stable on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), showed cognitive impairments relative to HIV-negative controls; and whether clinical and neuroimaging factors correlated with cognitive function in the HIV-positive participants. One hundred and twenty-six white men who have sex with men, of whom 78 were HIV-positive and stable on cART and 48 were HIV negative, were recruited to this cross-sectional study. The median age of HIV-positive participants in this study was 47. They underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging of the ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The “milky way” galaxy of HIV-related central nervous system immune reaction syndromes
We describe a peculiar case of PML –immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) presenting a punctate pattern with “milky way” appearance on magnetic resonance imaging. Despite the fact that brain imaging and histopathology remain the mainstays for extricating through the expanding galaxy of HIV-related central nervous s ystem dysimmune syndromes and although punctate pattern has been already well acknowledged as a suggestive finding of PML among patients on natalizumab, this radiological presentation is still poorly recognised in AIDS-related PML cases, leading to possible life-threatening diagnos...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Interleukin-6 is associated with mortality and neuropsychiatric outcomes in antiretroviral-na ïve adults in Rakai, Uganda
AbstractSerum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer have been associated with multiple adverse outcomes in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals, but their association with neuropsychiatric outcomes, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) and depression, headaches, and peripheral neuropathy have not been investigated. Three hundred ninety-nine HIV+ antiretroviral therapy (ART)-na ïve adults in Rakai, Uganda, were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study and completed a neurological evaluation, neurocognitive assessment, and venous blood draw. Half of the participants had advanced immunosuppression (CD4 count &thi...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Efavirenz is associated with altered fronto-striatal function in HIV+ adolescents
AbstractNeurotoxicity associated with the antiretroviral efavirenz (EFV) has been documented in HIV-infected adults, but there are no data on the impact of EFV on brain function in adolescents. We investigated potential alterations in fronto-striatal function associated with EFV use in adolescents. A total of 86 adolescents underwent a Stop Signal Anticipation Task (SSAT) during functional MRI (fMRI), 39 HIV+ adolescents receiving EFV, 27 HIV+ adolescents on antiretroviral therapy without EFV (matched on age, gender, education, CD4 cell count and HIV viral load) and 20 HIV − matched controls (matched on age and gende...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Disturbances of mitochondrial dynamics in cultured neurons infected with human herpesvirus type 1 and type 2
AbstractHuman herpesvirus types 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2) are neurotropic viruses which remain latent for life and reactivate to cause recurrent infections. HHV-1 has been found to be involved in accumulation of β-amyloid, hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins, and inflammation in the brain, which can later result in neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration. The relationship between HHV-2 and events associated with neurodegeneration has not been extensively studied. Neurons, more than any other cell type, depend on mitochondrial trafficking for their survival, and many types of mitochondrial abnormalities have been d...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - June 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Associations of regional amyloid- β plaque and phospho-tau pathology with biological factors and neuropsychological functioning among HIV-infected adults
In conclusion, Aβ plaque or p-tau pathology in different brain regions was predicted by different sets of biological factors. Aβ plaques in prefrontal neocortex and putamen predicted poorer funct ioning in cognitive domains relevant to these brain regions. The absence of significant impact of regional p-tau lesions on neuropsychological functioning might be explained by the subthreshold burden of p-tau lesions. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Proteomics analysis of HSV-1-induced alterations in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells
In this study, bEnd.3 cells were infected with HSV-1, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 6761 proteins were identified in three independent mass spectrometry analyses. Compared to the uninfected cells, 386 and 293 differentially expressed proteins were markedly upregulated or downregulated, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the activator protein-1 factor, including Fos, Jun, and ATF family proteins and cell adhesion molecules were significantly changed. Further validation of the changes observed for these proteins was carried out by western blotting and quantitative real-t...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Honeysuckle-derived microRNA2911 directly inhibits varicella-zoster virus replication by targeting IE62 gene
AbstractVaricella-zoster virus (VZV) leads to chicken pox on primary infection and herpes zoster on reactivation. Recent studies suggest that microRNA2911 (MIR2911), honeysuckle (HS)-encoded atypical microRNA, has potential as a therapeutic agent against influenza and EV71 virus infections. Here, we report that MIR2911 directly inhibits VZV replication by targeting the IE62 gene. The luciferase reporter assay and bioinformatics prediction revealed that MIR2911 could target the IE62 gene of VZV. The VZV-encoded IE62 protein expression was inhibited significantly by synthetic MIR2911, while the expression of the mutants, who...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A 41-year-old female with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after liver transplant
We report a patient who received liver transplantation due to liver failure resulting from autoimmune hepatitis and advanced PML presenting with aphasia. A 41-year-old female with a history of liver transplantation who received a usual immunosuppression regimen was admitted with a stroke attack resulting in right hemiplegia 2  months after liver transplantation. Surprisingly, she gradually developed dysarthria and left central facial paresis. A brain MRI showed an abnormal multifocal area with a high T2/flair signal in the deep subcortical white matter of the left hemisphere as well as the splenium of the corpus callo...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma secondary to JC virus in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
We present the case of a 43-year-old-man with a past medical history of HIV with recently initiated HAART and existing PML that presented with altered mental status. The initial diagnosis was deemed to be PML-IRIS; however, neuroimaging brought into question this diagnosis. Flow cytometry performed from the cerebrospinal fluid revealed diffuse large B cell lymphoma. JC virus may act in an oncogenic role similarly to EBV and predispose to CNS lymphomas. Patients with PML caused by JC virus may develop secondary malignancies. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: Tat expression led to increased histone 3 tri-methylation at lysine 27 and contributed to HIV latency in astrocytes through regulation of MeCP2 and Ezh2 expression
In the original article the name of author Chris Sanborn was misspelled. It is correct here. Also, in the Acknowledgments section there was an error in the NIH/NINDS grant numbers. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lack of susceptibility in neonatally infected rhesus macaques to simian immunodeficiency virus-induced encephalitis
AbstractDespite combination antiretroviral therapies making HIV a chronic rather than terminal condition for many people, the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is increasing. This is especially problematic for children living with HIV. Children diagnosed HAND rarely display the hallmark pathology of HIV encephalitis in adults, namely infected macrophages and multinucleated giant cells in the brain. This finding has also been documented in rhesus macaques infected perinatally with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). However, the extent and mechanisms of lack of susceptibility to encephalitis in p...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Selective monoaminergic and histaminergic circuit dysregulation following long-term HIV-1 protein exposure
AbstractBetween 30 and 60% of HIV-seropositive individuals develop symptoms of clinical depression and/or apathy. Dopamine and serotonin are associated with motivational alterations; however, histamine is less well studied. In the present study, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats to simultaneously analyze the kinetics of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA), prefrontal cortical serotonin (5-HT), and hypothalamic histamine (HA). For voltammetry, subjects were 15 HIV-1 Tg (7 male, 8 female) and 20 F344/N (11 male, 9 female) adult rats. Both serotonergic and dopaminergic release and reuptake kinetic...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Human adenovirus meningoencephalitis: a 3-years ’ overview
AbstractHuman adenovirus (HAdV) has been recognized as a significant viral pathogen implicated in neurological diseases, particularly in immunocompromised patients. However, its involvement in meningoencephalitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate HAdV and other viral co-infections in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients suspected of having either meningoencephalitis or encephalitis. A total of 373 CSF samples from patients under clinical suspicion of neurological viral infection were included in this study. HAdV was investigated by conventional or multiplex real-time PCR, for different time per...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

HIV-1 Tat and opioids act independently to limit antiretroviral brain concentrations and reduce blood –brain barrier integrity
AbstractPoor antiretroviral penetration may contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence within the brain and to neurocognitive deficits in opiate abusers. To investigate this problem, HIV-1 Tat protein and morphine effects on blood –brain barrier (BBB) permeability and drug brain penetration were explored using a conditional HIV-1 Tat transgenic mouse model. Tat and morphine effects on the leakage of fluorescently labeled dextrans (10-, 40-, and 70-kDa) into the brain were assessed. To evaluate effects on antiretroviral brai n penetration, Tat+ and Tat− mice received three antiretroviral drugs ...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The effect of pyridostigmine on small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and plasma inflammatory biomarkers in HIV-associated autonomic neuropathies
AbstractSmall intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is common among patients with HIV-associated autonomic neuropathies (HIV-AN) and may be associated with increased bacterial translocation and elevated plasma inflammatory biomarkers. Pyridostigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor which has been used to augment autonomic signaling. We sought preliminary evidence as to whether pyridostigmine could improve proximal gastrointestinal motility, reduce SIBO, reduce plasma sCD14 (a marker of macrophage activation and indirect measure of translocation), and reduce the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF α in patients w...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - May 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research