Vocational Skills Interventions for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review of the Literature
Abstract With a disproportionately high unemployment rate, obtaining and maintaining employment is exceptionally difficult for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Further, few individuals with ASD have been trained in the vocational skills needed to obtain gainful employment. The need to evaluate not only our current knowledge about the employment needs of individuals with ASD, but also to inquire about interventions, strategies, and supports in the workplace is pressing. The harsh reality of high unemployment rates for adults with ASD, and the consequently high cost of services, can be aided by exam...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - March 2, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Factors Influencing Agreement between Parent and Child Reports of Anxiety Symptoms among Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders
In this study, agreement and factors influencing agreement (caregivers’ educational level and stress; child’s age, gender, verbal and performance IQ) between parent and child reports of anxiety symptoms was examined in a sample of 70 children with an ASD (66 boys; 9–16 years; mean age = 11.21, SD = 1.79 years). The participants completed the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) - Child Version, while their parents completed the SCAS - Parent Version and the Parenting Stress Index. Children rated themselves as having significantly more anxiety symptoms compared to pare...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 26, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Erratum to: Visual Attention and Key Word Sign in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
(Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 19, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Psychometric Properties of the Family Quality of Life Scale in Greek Families with Intellectual Disabilities
Abstract In recent years intellectual disability has changed from the individual quality of life to an evaluation of the quality concerning the whole family. The aims of the present study were to examine the psychometric properties of the Greek version of Family Quality of Life Scale (FQoL). A total of 180 caregivers of people with intellectual disabilities participated in the current study. The participants were all informal caregivers of adults with disabilities and comorbidities (other chronic diseases), belonging to the intimate family context (cousins, uncles, neighbours, professional in-home caregivers, neig...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 17, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Social Participation and Health Related Quality of Life in Early and Established Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
Abstract Social participation has been recognized as one of the key variables to be addressed in disability research yet few studies addressed the association between restriction in participation and quality of life in the context of rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between restrictions in social participation and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in early and established group of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Two samples with early (n = 97; age = 53 ± 12.3 years; disease duration = 2.8 ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 11, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Erratum to: Communication Intervention to Teach Requesting Through Aided AAC for Two Learners With Rett Syndrome
(Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 6, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Erratum to: A Speech Generating Device for Persons with Intellectual and Sensory-Motor Disabilities
(Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 28, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Erratum to: Supporting the Production of Graphic Symbol Combinations by Children with Limited Speech: A Comparison of Two AAC systems
(Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 28, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Quantitative Evaluation of the Effects of Ankle Foot Orthosis on Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy Using the Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Scores
Abstract Ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) are often used in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) to facilitate and optimise their impaired gait pattern. The aim of this study was to assess quantitatively the effects of AFOs on gait in CP using a summary measure obtained by Gait Analysis (GA): the Gait Profile Score (GPS) with its Gait Variable Scores (GVSs). A total of 21 children with CP (hemiplegic group: 11 children; diplegic group: 10 children) were evaluated barefoot and wearing AFOs using GA; GPS with its GVSs were calculated from GA data. The results evidenced that in diplegic children significant improveme...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 23, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

What Constitutes Self-Concept for Children with CP? A Delphi Consensus Survey
This study aimed to identify constructs (factors) and content (items) that constitutes self-concept for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Three participant groups were recruited for a three-round Delphi survey: 12 children with CP aged 8–12 years, 18 caregivers, and 21 professionals working with this population. Delphi Round I involved item generation and literature review. In Round II, participants used a five-point scale to rate the importance of factors/items collated from (a) existing self-concept measures identified from literature review and (b) additional factors/items raised in Round I. To increase unde...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 9, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Understanding Communication Intervention for Young Children with Autism and Their Parents: Mixing Behavioral and Social Validity Findings
We present the methods and results of this secondary analysis and discuss the potential value of using mixed methods to combine observational behavioral data with self-report social validity data in behavioral research. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 4, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Association Between Social Responsivity and Depression in High-Functioning Boys with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract The links between behaviours related to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and depression were investigated in a sample of 90 pre-adolescents (M age = 8.8 yr) and 60 adolescent males (M age = 14.6 yr). Parents completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Depression subscale from the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (CASI-D). Pre-adolescents had significantly higher SRS scores than adolescents, and there were also differences in the associations between SRS subscales and depression across the two age groups. Pre-adolescents’ feelings of depression, worthless...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 29, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Social-Communication Intervention for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Eye Gaze in the Context of Requesting and Joint Attention
In this study we examined the effects of a social-communication intervention involving prompting and reinforcement to teach gaze shift (GS; shifting gaze from an object to the interventionist’s eyes) in the context of responding to a request and initiating JA to four toddlers with ASD. Intervention lasted 3–9 weeks with all toddlers demonstrating GS to mastery across both contexts. Toddlers also showed generalization to a repertoire of social-communication behavior, including initiating requests and increases in smiling. Some improvements in symptoms of ASD and overall functioning were observed. Results su...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 22, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue: Teaching AAC Use to Individuals with Developmental and Physical Disabilities
(Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 19, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Psychosocial Impact of Tic Disorders: Nature and Intervention
Abstract Tic disorders (TDs) are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by repetitive movements and vocalizations. Although significant research has been devoted to causes and treatments, comparatively little attention has been devoted to the psychosocial experience associated with TDs. Indeed, TDs significantly impact a variety of psychosocial domains and are often associated with co-occurring behavioral and cognitive problems. Persons with TDs are also viewed negatively by others, which results in peer victimization and other social problems. In order to alleviate negative psychosocial outcomes associated w...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 14, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Evaluating the Language Builder™ Application in the Acquisition of Listener Responding in Young Children with Autism
This study evaluated the use of the iPad® Mini and application Language Builder™ in teaching listener responding skills to two preschool aged children with autism, using a multiple baseline across responses design. Training consisted of the participants completing a pre-programmed receptive label lesson contained within Language Builder™ application on an iPad® Mini. Following training trials, an evaluation of the participant’s ability to generalize the skill from the electronic device to two-dimensional picture cards was assessed. Each participant acquired the ability to receptively identify thre...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 7, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Repetitive Behavior in Children with Down Syndrome: Functional Analysis and Intervention
This study extends current functional analysis methodologies to decrease repetitive behavior for learners with Down syndrome. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 1, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Relations Between Consumption of Functional and Arbitrary Reinforcers During Functional Communication Training
Abstract We conducted a retrospective analysis of consumption of classes of reinforcement during functional communication training (FCT). The four participants were diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder and displayed problem behavior maintained by positive (tangibles) and negative (escape from demands) reinforcement via a functional analysis (FA). In Experiment 1 of the current analysis, data were collected on consumption of tangibles, attention, and escape during reinforcement intervals of FCT. As hypothesized, reinforcers shown to maintain problem behavior were often consumed. However, three participants al...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 1, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Teachers’ Perceptions of Individualized Education Program (IEP) Goals and Related Services
This study focused on investigating teachers’ views of the most important IEP goals for their young deaf students, as well as to ask them which services students were receiving. Our purpose was to identify the most prevalent IEP goals guiding early childhood education (ECE) programs and to determine whether services provided were appropriate for addressing the students’ most critical needs. The participants included 118 young deaf children, ages 3–5, participating in the VL2 Early Educational Longitudinal Study (EELS). Results found that the IEP goals focused on three main areas: 1) improving school readi...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 28, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Comparison between iPad-Assisted and Teacher-Directed Reading Instruction for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
This study also sought to investigate the effects of utilizing teacher-directed instruction (TDI) in comparison to iPad® -assisted instruction (IAI) as the primary mode of instructional delivery during reading sessions. The multicomponent intervention during the TDI sessions consisted of teaching text preview strategy (i.e., looking at text and picture, making predictions), identifying the main idea of each paragraph using a graphic organizer, and the use of a token economy system. Whereas IAI treatment sessions consisted of the use of an iPad® application that focused on identifying main idea paired with implement...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 23, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Mothers’ Scaffolding Techniques Used During Play in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder
This study (n = 3; M age = 26.5 months) examined mothers’ scaffolding techniques used during a social-communication intervention for toddlers with ASD while also assessing the toddlers’ play. Mothers’ scaffolding techniques (comments, requests, prompts) were explored during mother-toddler play samples. Results showed that mothers’ scaffolding techniques increased, and all toddlers exhibited pretend play by the end of intervention. Thus, scaffolding during play is an important contribution in spurring toddlers with ASD to reach their potential. (Source: ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 20, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Peer Interaction Package for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders who Use Speech-Generating Devices
Abstract Three elementary-aged boys with autism spectrum disorder who used speech-generating devices (SGD) and their paraprofessionals participated in a multiple baseline design study. This research evaluated the impact of an intervention package on interactions between the focus student and peers in three inclusive classrooms. Each paraprofessional received 35–50 min of training on strategies (e.g., identifying opportunities, prompting initiations) and self-monitoring procedures. Observational data were collected on students’ peer interactions, use of SGD, and paraprofessional prompts. Informatio...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 18, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Recurrent Streptococcus Pneumoniae Meningitis in a Child with Split Hand and Foot Malformation and Undiagnosed Mondini Dysplasia
We report on a child with split hand and foot (SHFM), confirmed incorrect karyotype 46, XY, t(7:12)(q21.2;q21.3) and a fourth episode of fulminant meningitis caused by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. After a broad evaluation of factors predisposing to recurrent meningitis, the undiagnosed malformation of his inner and middle ears - Mondini dysplasia was found. We suggest examining all children with SHFM for hearing impairment before they develop recurrent meningitis. The time when the radiological procedure for searching for inner ear dysplasia should be performed could be a controversial issue: before or af...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 12, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Social Motivation is Associated with Elevated Salivary Cortisol in Boys with an ASD
Abstract Because social communication difficulties and stress are common in children with an ASD, and because it has been hypothesised that the two are related, the association between these two variables was investigated in a sample of 90 boys with an ASD and who were aged between 6 years and 12 years of age. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was completed by the parents of these boys about their sons, plus salivary cortisol samples were collected from the boys. Results indicated that only one aspect of the boys' SRS was significantly correlated with cortisol—Social Motivation (SM). Factor ana...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 26, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Kansas Inventory of Parental Perceptions: Spanish Adaptation of a Shortened Form
Abstract Previous research has highlighted the critical role of parents’ perceptions of their family member with intellectual disability (ID) in family well-being and adjustment. The Kansas Inventory of Parental Perceptions (KIPP; Behr et al. 1992) was specifically designed to assess parents’ perceptions of their children with disability. The KIPP is composed of four scales: Positive Contributions, Social Comparisons, Causal Attributions and Perceived Control. The goal of this study was to adapt a shortened form of the KIPP to the Spanish population. The study participants comprised 861 families with a...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 21, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Perceived Attainment of Developmental Tasks in Adolescents with and without Physical Disabilities
Abstract The present study explored whether adolescents with (N = 183) and without (N = 320) physical disabilities (PD) differed in their perceived attainment of 12 age-typical developmental tasks. We were also interested in whether the success varied according to the extent of motoric restriction. The groups differed in the perceived attainment of three out of 12 tasks. Adolescents with physical impairments perceived lower levels of success than their peers without PD with regard to peer-group integration, but higher levels of success in gaining academic competence and autonomy from parents. T...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 19, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Eye Gaze Technology as a Form of Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Individuals with Rett Syndrome: Experiences of Families in The Netherlands
Abstract This paper provides a brief report on families’ experiences of eye gaze technology as one form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT), and the advice, training and support they receive in relation to this. An online survey exploring communication and AAC was circulated to 190 Dutch families; of the 67 questionnaires that were returned, 63 had answered questions relating to eye gaze technology. These 63 were analysed according to parameters including: experiences during trial periods and longer-term use; expert knowledge, advice and support; fundi...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 19, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Just-in-Time Supports in Augmentative and Alternative Communication
Abstract Individuals with developmental disabilities such as autism, physical disabilities, and intellectual disabilities frequently are candidates for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems as well as visual supports. The purpose of this paper is to apply the business construct of just-in-time (JIT) to the field of AAC with particular reference to new possibilities for JIT support arising from the advent of the mobile technology revolution. In addition to a review of the history of JIT within AAC, a taxonomy of JIT supports is proposed. Potential benefits of JIT supports are postulated based on ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 10, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Use of Continuous Video Prompting to Teach a Student With a Significant Disability
Abstract Video prompting has been demonstrated to be a successful procedure for teaching students with various disabilities to complete a variety of tasks. Traditionally, a video clip is only shown once before the student has an opportunity to engage in the step. Recent research has demonstrated that continuously showing the video in a loop can be an effective approach to video-based instruction. In the current study, we used a multiple probe across tasks design to evaluate the effects of continuous video prompting to teach a student with significant disabilities to complete three vocational tasks. Results demonst...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 3, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Erratum to: Autism Spectrum Disorder Screening Refusal Rates: Findings from a Statewide Early Intervention Program
(Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 2, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Teaching Early Numeracy Skills Using Single Switch Voice-Output Devices to Students with Severe Multiple Disabilities
Abstract A multiple probe design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of a systematic instructional package with individualized adaptations (e.g., use of AAC and additional manipulatives) on the acquisition of early numeracy skills for three participants with severe multiple disabilities (i.e., severe physical disabilities, moderate intellectual disability, blindness) and complex communication needs. The intervention included scripted lessons, math story read-alouds, manipulatives, and graphic organizers that were adapted to meet participant needs. Voice-output single switch devices were used by pa...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 1, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Erratum to: Psychological Adjustment in Families Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder
(Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 28, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Autism Spectrum Disorder Screening Refusal Rates: Findings from a Statewide Early Intervention Program
This study examined the refusal rates of ASD screening among infants and toddlers enrolled in EarlySteps, the State of Louisiana’s early intervention program. Participants (n = 4,296) were children aged from birth to 36 months who were enrolled in EarlySteps. The Battelle Developmental Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-2) and demographic section of the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtism Traits- Part 1 (BISCUIT: Part 1) were administered to a parent or caregiver as part of the EarlySteps assessment protocol. ASD screenings were refused by 23.3 % of children sampled. Females were found...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 22, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Erratum to: Heart Rate Measurement during Stereotyped Motor Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder
(Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 17, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Communication Training Supporting an AAC User with Severe Intellectual Disability: Application of the Communication Partner Instruction Model
Abstract This investigation employed the Communication Partner Instruction (CPI) training model in a large North Carolina residential facility for persons with significant intellectual disabilities. A single-subject multiple baseline study design was employed by researchers. Four adult women (staff participants) were trained to support the expressive communicative abilities of one individual with severe intellectual disabilities (resident) who used AAC (a static book of approximately 100 symbols). Staff participants varied with respect to their daily contact and interaction with the resident. Two participants were...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 21, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Psychological Adjustment in Families Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract There is extensive evidence that parents and carers of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are vulnerable to experiencing mental health issues including having high risk of depression, anxiety and familial stress. Research also suggests that this stress can coexist with positive experiences of caregiving. However, the capacity to remain resilient, or thrive during difficult emotional experiences, is a relatively new concept in the ASD literature. The present study adds to current understanding of the mental health needs of female caregivers by evaluating data from a nationwide survey (N...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 15, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Heart Rate Measurement during Stereotyped Motor Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract Previous research has suggested that a relationship may exist between physiological arousal and engagement in motor stereotypy among children and adolescents with autism. It has been speculated that levels or alterations of physiological arousal may act as antecedents or reinforcing consequences for stereotypy. The current study sought to investigate the relationship between these two variables among five children aged between four and 17 years who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The results revealed little association between physiological arousal and stereotypy among these participant...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 14, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Visual Attention and Key Word Sign in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children’s visual attention to, and acquisition of, Key Word Sign (KWS). Our hypothesis was that children’s visual attention to the clinician’s modelling would be associated with their acquisition and production of KWS. A multiple baseline single case experimental design with additional exploratory analyses was used to examine the effect of visual attention on sign acquisition among three preschool children with ASD. This paper extends from the previous intervention study (see Tan et al. 2014) by examining visual attention as ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 8, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Which Aspects of Sensory Features are Associated With Elevated Cortisol Concentrations in Boys With an Autism Spectrum Disorder?
Abstract Difficulties in Sensory Features (SF) have been included in the most recent diagnostic processes for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and are more common in children with an ASD than their non-ASD peers. In addition, these difficulties with SF have been suggested as causing elevated stress and concentrations of salivary cortisol in young people with an ASD. However, previous studies have not examined the specific aspects of SF that are associated with elevated cortisol and that was the focus of this study with 135 boys with an ASD aged 6–18 years. The boys’ mothers assessed their sons&rsquo...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - July 25, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Narrative Skills of Youth with Down Syndrome: a Comprehensive Literature Review
Abstract Given the role that narratives play in organizing experience, as well as their contribution to social interaction and literacy development, children’s narrative skills have received considerable research attention. This paper provides a comprehensive review and thematic analysis of 30 studies conducted over the last three decades on the narrative skills of children and adolescents with Down syndrome. Themes include the global structure of their narratives, narrative comprehension, and use of vocabulary and grammar. The review demonstrates that youth with Down syndrome have basic narrative skills, ge...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - June 28, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Predictors of Parenting Stress in Children Referred for an Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnostic Evaluation
Abstract Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report significantly higher stress than parents of children with other developmental disorders. Symptoms that overlap with the autism spectrum are often present in other developmental disorders, which could significantly increase parenting stress. Additionally, the severity of ASD symptoms within a group of children with ASD can greatly vary. In the present study, problem behaviors, cognitive and adaptive functioning, and parenting stress were examined in a group of 40 children aged 2–5 years who were referred for an autism evaluation. The...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - June 23, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Art Educators’ Use of Adaptations, Assistive Technology, and Special Education Supports for Students with Physical, Visual, Severe and Multiple Disabilities
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine art educators’ use of adaptations, including assistive technology, and their reported supports from special education personnel to meet the needs of students with physical, sensory, severe, and multiple disabilities in the art classroom. Seventy-seven P-12 art teachers responded to an online survey items consisting of perceived knowledge and preparedness and strategies and resources, including assistive technology, used in the art classroom. Results showed that (a) neither years of teaching experience nor number of students with disabilities taught were relat...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - June 21, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Behavioral Parent Training to Address Feeding Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Trial
Abstract The purpose of this study was to pilot a newly developed manualized behavioral parent training program (PT-F) for parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and feeding problems, and test the feasibility and initial efficacy of the treatment in a small open trial. Parents of a sample of 14 young children diagnosed with ASD, with an average age of 4 years, were enrolled in this study. Parents participated in a 9-session program delivered individually over the 16 weeks of the study. Outcome measures of feasibility, fidelity, and efficacy were collected. Parent attendance and satisfact...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 31, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Use of the Gait Profile Score for the Quantification of Gait Pattern in Down Syndrome
In this study, the Gait Profile Score (GPS) and the Gait Variable Scores (GVSs) were selected among the summary indexes for describing gait pattern of individuals with Down Syndrome (DS). Twenty-four participants with DS and 15 healthy individuals took part in this study. From their gait analysis data, the GPS and the GVSs were computed. The Mann-Whitney U test compared data of DS group and control group (p 
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 27, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Measurement of Fine-Motor Skills in Young Children with Visual Impairment
Abstract Insight into the typical motor development of children with visual impairment (VI) is necessary in order to recognise whether children with VI are at risk of motor developmental problems, and to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise interventions. In 2003 the ManuVis was published with reference values for children with VI of ages from 6 to 11 years. This paper reports on a follow-up study of the ManuVis focused on: a) comparison of fine motor skills between children with VI and normal sighted (NS) children; b) sampling norm-references for children with VI in the 4-11 years age range to increas...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 23, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Acquisition of Intraverbal Responding using a Speech Generating Device in School Aged Children with Autism
Abstract Powerful, portable, and readably available handheld computing technology has led to an increase in research investigating the use of such technology as a speech-generating device (SGD). The results of such research have been favorable and the use of such devices as a SGD has become common practice. However, despite this increased interest in such devices, little research has gone beyond the acquisition of a mand (i.e., requesting) repertoire. The focus of the current investigation sought to expand the preliminary evidence base for the use of devices such as the iPad® as a SGD, by evaluating its use on...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 16, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Developing Consumer and System-Level Readiness for Effective Self-Advocacy: Perspectives from Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors Working With Deaf and Hard of Hearing Individuals in Post-Secondary Settings
Abstract Effective self-advocacy skills have been shown to positively influence lifetime outcomes of d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) individuals. The literature suggests that many DHH individuals may be underprepared to effectively self-advocate in post-secondary settings due to a lack of effective training and opportunity. Vocational rehabilitation counselors (VRCs) who work with and serve DHH consumers are in a unique position to support their clients’ self-advocacy skill building, especially during the transition into the workforce and other post-secondary settings. The purpose of this qualitative study ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 12, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Using Video Modeling with Voiceover Instruction to Train Staff to Conduct Stimulus Preference Assessments
Abstract There is an ongoing need to identify stimuli that may function as reinforcers due to the reliance on reinforcement techniques during teaching. Three commonly used stimulus preference assessments (SPAs) are the single-stimulus (SS; Pace et al., Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 249–255, 1985), paired-stimulus (PS; Fisher et al., Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 491–498, 1992), and multiple-stimulus-without-replacement (MSWO; DeLeon and Iwata, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 519–533, 1996) preference assessments. The current study examined the effectiveness of vi...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 27, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

An Informant Report Behavior Diary for Measuring Temper Outbursts in an Intervention Setting
Abstract Temper outbursts are associated with several psychological disorders and comprise a high priority for intervention. However, the low frequency of outbursts presents a challenge for valid measurement. In the present study an informant report behavior diary for measuring temper outbursts was developed and its validity assessed in a case series. Caregivers of 12 individuals with the neurodevelopmental disorder Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS, in which temper outbursts are common) completed a behavior diary over 4 weeks, and a structured interview. Heart rate and movement data were recorded during a sample of...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 24, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Effects of Physical and Mental Practice on Motor Learning in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy
In this study we investigated the effects of physical and mental practice in acquisition, retention, and transfer of a motor skill in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). For this reason, 29 males diagnosed with CP type I (18.51 ± 5.03 years of age) were chosen and, according to a pretest, were assigned to three homogenous groups; physical practice (n = 10), mental practice (n = 10), and control (n = 9). The experimental groups practiced for 5 sessions (6 blocks of 5 trials in each session). The acquisition test was run immediately at the end of each prac...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 22, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research