Using a Video Modeling-Based Intervention Package to Toilet Train Two Children with Autism
Abstract The current study evaluated the effects of an intervention package designed to teach independent toileting skills to two boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants design was employed to investigate the effects of video modeling that utilized animation to depict in-toilet voiding combined with prompting and reinforcement procedures. Results indicated that the intervention package was effective in teaching a sequence of behaviors necessary for successful and independent toileting (e.g., walking to the toilet, undressing, sitting on the toilet, dressing,...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - March 4, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Pain Experience and Expression in Rett Syndrome: Subjective and Objective Measurement Approaches
This study investigated pain experience and expression using multiple complementary subjective and objective approaches among a clinical RTT sample. Following informed consent, 18 participants (all female) with RTT (mean age = 12.8 years, SD = 6.32) were characterized in terms of pain experience and interference, typical pain expression, and elicited pain behavior during a passive range of motion-like examination procedure. Parents completed the Dalhousie Pain Interview (DPI; pain type, frequency, duration, intensity), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI; pain interference), and the Non-Communica...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 28, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Supporting the Production of Graphic Symbol Combinations by Children with Limited Speech: A Comparison of Two AAC systems
Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy with which the use of a speech generating device (Apple iPadTM with GoTalk NowTM application) versus a communication board promoted the production of two-symbols combinations (agent-action and attribute-entity combinations) by children limited speech within a shared story reading context. Four children between the ages of 6;8 (years; months) and 11;4 with severe motor speech disorders and a variety of developmental disabilities participated in the study. An adapted alternating treatment design was used. All four participants showed increased production of ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 14, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Communication Intervention to Teach Requesting Through Aided AAC for Two Learners With Rett Syndrome
This study examined the effectiveness of an intervention package to teach multiple, aided communication requests for two persons with Rett syndrome (ages 27 and 7) through within participant, adapted multiple baseline designs across items/activities. Participants were taught graphic mode requests on speech generating devices, with access methods based on motor ability; one participant responded by pressing a touch screen, and one participant responded by fixed eye-gaze. Results are discussed in relation to the effectiveness of the intervention packages on increasing the accuracy of independent request selection responses e...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 12, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Speech Generating Device for Persons with Intellectual and Sensory-Motor Disabilities
This study assessed a new Speech Generating Device (SGD) with three adult participants whose multiple disabilities included blindness or minimal residual vision. The side of the device facing the participants measured 35 cm × 20 cm and was divided into 15 sections each containing an optic sensor. Above each optic sensor, there was a small object or tag with a word in Braille referring to an activity. Removing an object/tag activated the underlying optic sensor and caused the device to verbalize a request for the activity that the object/tag indicated. The caregiver responded by ensuring the oc...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 10, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Brief Component Analysis to Identify the Active Variable in the Maintenance of Tolerance for Delay of Reinforcement Intervention for an Adolescent with Autism
This study adopted a brief component analysis to examine the active variable in a tolerance for delay of reinforcement (TFD) intervention procedure to decrease tangible-maintained problem behavior for a male adolescent with autism. Antecedent-based functional analysis suggested that problem behavior occurred most when access to tangible items or activities was restricted. With the introduction of a TFD intervention procedure using a combination of a general delay cue and an explicit delay cue, the learner’s problem behavior decreased to a low level and he quickly learned to wait for access to preferred items for 10&n...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 10, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Autism Severity as a Predictor of Comorbid Conditions
Abstract The relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and comorbid disorders has become an increasingly popular area of study. This trend has been spurred by the recognition that many physical and psychological problems are present when a diagnosis of ASD has been confirmed. This paper studied comorbid psychopathology and challenging behaviors of 207 individuals diagnosed with ASD between 2 and 16 years of age. More severe symptoms of ASD resulted in more symptoms on multiple comorbidities. The implications of these data are discussed. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 1, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Two Experiment Treatment Comparison Study: Teaching Social Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract The present study is a series of two experiments of treatment comparisons addressing the acquisition of social skills for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In Experiment 1, a multi-element design was used to assess the efficacy of video modeling as compared with Social Stories™ to teach various social skills to the children with ASD. Results from video modeling yielded positive and quick acquisition, consistent with previous literature. However, treatment with Social Stories did not. Upon close inspection of the Social Stories literature, it became apparent that most effective social sto...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 22, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Relationships Between Anxiety and Sleep and Feeding in Young Children with ASD
This study included 118 children with an average age of nearly 4 years. Parents completed reports of anxiety symptoms, sleep, and feeding. Regression modeling was used to determine if elevated anxiety symptoms were related to age, cognitive functioning, diagnostic status, sleep, and feeding behaviors. Anxiety symptoms were present in 16–19 % of the sample. Anxiety symptoms predicted more sleep disturbance and were associated with a higher likelihood of elevated score on the feeding measure. Anxiety symptoms are present in young children with ASD more than in young typically developing children. Moreover, an...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 15, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Comparative Effectiveness of Portable Video Modeling vs. Traditional Video Modeling Interventions with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Abstract Newly developed technologies are being incorporated into treatments for children with autism but there is only limited research examining how this affects child outcomes. In the present study, a multiple baseline design across children and an adapted alternating treatments design within child were used to compare the effectiveness of video modeling interventions implemented on the iPad® to video modeling interventions implemented on the traditionally used television. Two targets were selected for each child and behaviors were randomly assigned to a treatment condition. Target behaviors were acquired a...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 4, 2015 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Comparing Acquisition, Generalization, Maintenance, and Preference Across Three AAC Options in Four Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract We compared acquisition, generalization, maintenance, and preference for three AAC options. Four children with autism spectrum disorder were taught to use (a) a manual sign, (b) a picture exchange card, and (c) a speech-generating device to request toys. Intervention was staggered across children in a delayed multiple-probe design with acquisition and maintenance compared in an alternating treatments design. Generalization to new settings and people and preference for using each option were assessed. Three of the four children reached the acquisition criterion with each AAC option in 15 to 65 trials. One ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 16, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Living Arrangement, Social Connectedness, and Life Satisfaction among Korean Older Adults with Physical Disabilities: The Results from the National Survey on Persons with Disabilities
We examined the association between living arrangement and life satisfaction among older adults with physical disabilities and the mediating and moderating roles of social connectedness. We used data from the 2011 National Survey on Persons with Disabilities, South Korea, and analyzed a sub-sample of adults aged 65 and older with physical disabilities. We employed multivariate regression analyses to assess life satisfaction by living arrangement, taking into account social connectedness (social participation and quality of social relations) as well as background characteristics including the degree of independence in activ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 12, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Decision-Making Regarding Early Intervention by Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract Seventy-five parents of preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) completed surveys designed to identify factors considered when selecting an intervention approach for their child and to elucidate the relative importance of those factors in the decision-making process. For decisions to use interventions, the most important factor related to the individual needs of the child. This factor and several others; including staff attributes, whether the intervention was ASD-specific, and intuition/gut feelings, were weighted more highly than research evidence in both decisions to use and to rejec...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 7, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Effect of Prompts within Embedded Circumscribed Interests to Teach Initiating Joint Attention in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Abstract Joint attention occurs when two people engage in eye contact, verbalizations, or gestures between each other and a common object for the purpose of social interaction. Interventions which embedded participant’s circumscribed interests (i.e., specific topics or themes of abnormal intensity) in materials found increases in joint attention without direct intervention. Previous joint attention intervention successfully taught three children with autism to respond to others’ joint attention directives using interventions with circumscribed interest-related materials. However, initiating joint atten...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 3, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Comparison of Self- vs Parent Reports of Generalised Anxiety Disorder Symptomatology Across Six Age Groups for Boys with an ASD
This study investigated the extent and nature of parent–child disagreement on ratings of Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in a sample of 140 high-functioning boys with an ASD aged 6 to 18 years and one of their parents. Results indicated that, after a peak at ages 7 to 8 years, GAD decreased for ages 9 to 18 years. There were statistically significant differences between parents’ and sons’ ratings for the total GAD score and for several of the individual GAD symptoms, although the clinical impact of those differences was limited. Some minor variation in those differences was present accor...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 27, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Erratum to: The Acquisition of Letter Writing using a Portable Multi-Media Player in Young Children with Developmental Disabilities
(Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 25, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

VABS-II Ratings and Predictors of Adaptive Behavior in Children with HFASD
This study was conducted to extend the research on the adaptive skills of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (VABS-II). Specifically, this study (a) examined the VABS-II adaptive profile, (b) compared adaptive functioning and cognitive ability, and (c) assessed predictors (age, IQ, ASD symptomatology) of adaptive skills of 71 children, ages 7 to 12 years, with HFASD. Results of normative comparisons indicated significant adaptive deficits on the Adaptive Behavior Composite and all three VABS-II domains (Communication, Daily Living...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 24, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Toward a Behavior Analysis of Complex Language for Children with Autism: Evaluating the Relationship between PEAK and the VB-MAPP
Abstract The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between two behavioral language assessments that are currently used to evaluate the verbal repertoires of individuals with autism. The assessments include Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Relational Training System (PEAK) and the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP). Forty students with autism were administered each of the assessments. The results suggest that there was a strong correlation between PEAK total scores and the VB-MAPP (r = 0.8266, p 
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 15, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

RCT of a Psychosocial Treatment for Children with High-Functioning ASD: Supplemental Analyses of Treatment Effects on Facial Emotion Encoding
This study evaluated the effect of a comprehensive psychosocial intervention on supplemental measures of facial emotion encoding for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) who were enrolled in prior randomized trials. A total of 60 children, ages 7 to 12 years were randomly assigned to treatment or wait-list control groups. Photographs of six posed facial expressions (happy, sad, angry, scared, surprised, and disgusted) taken at pretest and posttest were rated for encoding accuracy by naïve raters. Ratings consisted of a) the extent to which the facial expression reflected each of the six...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 3, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of Research on Sensory Integration Therapy for Individuals with Developmental and Learning Disabilities
Abstract Sensory integration therapy (SIT) is a widely used intervention for people with disabilities to address educationally related outcomes and has been subject to ongoing controversy. The outcomes from 30 comparison group studies on sensory integration therapy for people with, or at-risk of, a developmental or learning disability, disorder, or delay were reviewed and analyzed. Studies comparing SIT to no treatment yielded a statistically significant but small effect. However, when SIT was compared to alternative interventions, differences were non-significant. Numerous methodological flaws were identified, su...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 29, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Perspective-Taking and Empathic Concern as Mediators for Happiness and Positive Affect in Adolescents With and Without Asperger Syndrome
Abstract The present study explored the mediating role of cognitive and affective components of empathy in the relationship between happiness and positive and negative affect in adolescents with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and their non-AS peers. For that purpose, we measured empathy, subjective happiness, and affect experienced by a group of 42 adolescents with AS compared to 44 of their non-AS peers. Adolescents in both groups were matched on age, sex, and IQ, and were administered a battery of measures assessing their self-reports of empathy, perspective-taking, subjective happiness, and positive and negative affec...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 24, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Understanding, Experiences, and Reactions to Bullying Experiences in Boys with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract Most previous studies of bullying in young people with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have relied on data from adults’ rather than the person with an ASD themselves, thus limiting our understanding of the bullying experience from the child’s perspective. To investigate this issue, 48 high-functioning boys with an ASD, and their mothers, completed an online questionnaire about various aspects of bullying. There were some minor discrepancies between mothers’ and their sons’ reported frequency of bullying. Boys demonstrated an understanding of the behaviour that constitutes bullyi...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 24, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Role of Self-Beliefs in Predicting Postschool Outcomes for Deaf Young Adults
This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) that collected longitudinal data from youths with disabilities across the nation, 550 of which were deaf or hard of hearing and met the selection criteria in this study. This study examined the relationships between these deaf adolescents’ self-beliefs and actual future achievements that were reached as they transitioned to adult life, in three domains: life, employment, and education. Despite the generally positive self-beliefs of deaf individuals, which were, in some cases, related to postschool outcomes, the self-beliefs assessed in...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 24, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Measuring Five Factor Personality Traits in Autism During Early Childhood
This study reports data indicating that the Five Factor facets measured with the Inventory of Children’s Individual Differences- Short Form (ICID-S; Deal, Halverson, Martin, Victor, & Baker, Journal of Personality Assessment, 89, 162–166, 2007) differentiate children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from typically developing children during early childhood. Two 2 (ASD versus typical) by 2 (Sex) age controlled MANCOVAs were performed: (1) ASD versus a contemporaneous comparison group and (2) ASD versus a norming data subset. Socio-economic status was also controlled in the contemporaneous comparison. R...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 24, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Comparing Social Skills in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder According to the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5
Abstract Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) changed significantly with the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) with more symptoms needed to meet criteria for ASD. Several researchers have suggested that this will lead to a significant decrease in prevalence for the disorder. Because social skills have been established as a core symptom since autism was first described, the present study examines differences in social functioning using the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills in Youngsters-II (MESSY-II) among children diagnosed with ASD (ages 3&nda...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 24, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Effects of Simultaneous Prompting on the Acquisition of Calculating Elapsed Time in Children with Autism
Abstract Simultaneous prompting has been effective in teaching a variety of skills, of different levels of complexity, to children with learning difficulties. The current study replicated and extended previous research by teaching three children with Autism to calculate elapsed time. Elapsed time is the duration from a start to end time. When the minutes of the start time are greater than the end time, regrouping is necessary. Simultaneous prompting was used to teach participants to discriminate the type of problem and engage in the respective behavior chain for problems that required (5-step) and did not require...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 24, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Social Validity Assessment of Job Satisfaction, Resources, and Support Among Educational Service Practitioners for Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Abstract We conducted social validity assessment with educational service practitioners (N = 46) to document their satisfaction and acceptance of resources, supports, roles, and responsibilities at a specialized school for children and youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The findings revealed several positive ratings as well as other endorsements of programmatic needs. These assessment results informed recommendations for performance improvement and positive staff perceptions. The study illustrates application of social validity assessment to systems issues affecting practitioner...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 24, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Acquisition of Letter Writing using a Portable Multi-Media Player in Young Children with Developmental Disabilities
This study investigated the use of the iPod Touch® and the application Letter School in the acquisition of letter writing in three preschool aged children diagnosed with a developmental disability, using a multiple baseline across letters design. Additionally, the generalization of the acquisition of letter writing from the iPod Touch® and stylus pen to paper and pencil was evaluated. Finally, participant preference for instruction using the iPod Touch ® with a stylus pen or paper and pencil was assessed. The results indicated that all three participants acquired the ability to write letters using a pencil and ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 24, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Technology-aided Programs to Enable Persons with Multiple Disabilities to Move through Sequences of Occupational Activities Independently
Abstract These two studies assessed technology-aided programs for fostering sustained occupational engagement and mobility in persons with multiple disabilities who typically failed to move through sequences of activities. Study I involved two participants with severe intellectual disability and blindness. The program ensured automatic presentation of (a) auditory cues to guide the participants to different workstations with activities, and (b) musical and social (reinforcing) stimulation at the participants’ arrival at each of the workstations. Study II involved one participant with severe to profound inte...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 24, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Adult Interpretations of Communicative Behavior in Learners with Rett Syndrome
This study examined adults’ interpretations of the communicative functions of “potential” communicative acts as defined by Sigafoos, et al. (2009) produced by individuals with Rett Syndrome (RTT). Video recordings of three learners with RTT engaged in daily routines were parsed into 5-second clips. Each clip demonstrated a potential communicative act. The primary caregivers and educational professionals who served each of the learners viewed the video clips and rated the communicative function of each behavior, if any. Analyses examined adults’ judgments as a function of their familiarity with the l...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 16, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

An iPad-Based Intervention for Teaching Picture and Word Matching to a Student with ASD and Severe Communication Impairment
Abstract iPads® have been successfully used as speech-generating devices (SGD) for children with ASD and limited speech, but little research has investigated the use of iPads to enhance academic skills, such as picture/word matching. In the present study, a student with ASD received intervention to teach picture and word matching using an iPad-based SGD as the response mode. A multiple baseline across matching tasks design was used to evaluate the effects of a graduated guidance prompting procedure and differential reinforcement on correct matching across four matching tasks (i.e., picture to picture, word to ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 15, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Effects of a Modified Power Card Strategy on Turn Taking and Social Commenting of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Playing Board Games
In this study, a modified Power Card strategy was used to teach two boys with ASD appropriate turn taking and social commenting while playing board games. Participants’ appropriate initiating a turn and relinquishing a turn increased with intervention; however, consistent increases in participants’ appropriate commenting were not observed. Students and parents favorably rated the Power Card Strategy following intervention. Results are discussed in relation to limitations and future research. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 9, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A case study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in a child with 15q13.3 deletion and Williams syndrome
We present a case study of a young child with both WS and 15q13.3 deletion syndrome and significant ASD-related symptomatology. The results of a developmental evaluation, specifically the rationale for ruling out a comorbid ASD, are the focus of the present report. Implications for careful diagnostic consideration in cases of patients with known genetic conditions are also discussed. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 9, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Using Video Modeling Incorporating Animation to Teach Toileting to Two Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract A multiple-baseline across behaviors design was employed to investigate the effects of a video modeling intervention incorporating real and animated models and a chaining procedure, on increasing independent toileting skills in two young boys diagnosed with ASD. Results showed this intervention was effective in reducing the number of prompts required for the boys to walk to the toilet, undress, sit on and urinate in the toilet, redress and flush. Gains were maintained over a 4 week period and generalized to other settings. Both participants could independently complete the toileting sequence post-int...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 2, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Conservative Interventions on the Gait of Ambulant Adults with Cerebral Palsy
Abstract To identify, appraise and synthesize evidence regarding efficacy of conservative interventions (physiotherapeutic, pharmacological) to improve walking in ambulant adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Standard search and extraction methods were utilised. A descriptive synthesis was performed with additional limited meta-analysis where the same outcome measurements were used and clinical heterogeneity was low. Interventions were considered according to target domain (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health). From 1571 papers identified, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study exclusion was ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Teaching Persistence in Social Initiation Bids to Children with Autism Through a Portable Video Modeling Intervention (PVMI)
Abstract Children with autism make and accept fewer social initiations and spend more time playing alone than with typical peers. Interventions that capitalize on technology have proven to be particularly successful in improving social initiation skills because they increase motivation, maintenance, and generalization of new social behaviors (Nikopoulos and Keenan 2004). In the present study, a portable video modeling intervention (PVMI) was used to teach persistence in social initiations to four children with autism. Two hypotheses were tested: 1) that children with autism would effectively learn persistence in ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

An Individualized Numeracy Curriculum for Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Single Blind Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Abstract Research investigating structured, comprehensive numeracy curricula appropriate for children with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) is limited. We conducted a pilot study focused on an adaptation of the Maths Recovery program. Twenty four elementary school children with severe ID or autism were randomly allocated into the intervention and control groups. For 12 weeks, children in the intervention group received individualized numeracy teaching based on the adapted Maths Recovery curriculum, whereas children in the control group received “mathematics as usual” teaching. Pre- and post- interv...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Acquisition, Preference, and Follow-up Data on the Use of Three AAC Options by Four Boys with Developmental Disability/Delay
Abstract We compared how quickly four boys with developmental disability/delay learned to use manual signing (MS), picture exchange (PE), and a speech-generating device (SGD) to request the continuation of toy play. Opportunities to choose to use MS, PE, and SGD were included to determine if the boys showed a preference for using one of these options. Follow-up sessions occurred at 12, 15, and 18 months post-intervention. With intervention, three of the four participants learned to use each option, but one child only learned to use PE. Trials to criterion across children ranged from 22 to 28 for the SGD, fro...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Effects of Skill Training on Preference for Children with Severe Intellectual and Physical Disabilities
Abstract Some researchers have reported difficulties in identifying preferred items for individuals with severe intellectual and physical disabilities (SIPD), in part because these individuals often do not possess the motor skills needed to select and manipulate the items included within the assessments. The purpose of the current study was to address three research questions: a). Would differences in preference patterns occur between assessments that required an individual with SIPD to perform a motor response that was difficult for them to emit versus assessments that used an augmentative device (i.e., press a ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Emotional Lexicon Understanding and Emotion Recognition: A Longitudinal Study in Children with Down Syndrome
This study addressed this issue by investigating the abilities of children with DS to recognize emotion from emotional terms, using the same visual material as in a previous nonverbal study with which they had no difficulty. Their performance was compared to that of typically developing children (TD) and children with nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID) of the same developmental age, during a 3-year longitudinal follow-up. Results showed that the abilities of children with DS were significantly poorer and developed slower than those of TD children, but not children with NSID. These cross-sectional and longitudinal d...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Clinical Report: A Replication of the Analysis of the Reinforcing Properties of Hand Mouthing
Abstract A reinforcing properties assessment was conducted with five participants with severe to profound intellectual disability to determine whether automatically maintained hand mouthing (as identified through an analogue functional analysis) was more specifically maintained by sensory stimulation to the mouth, hands, or both. Participants were provided free-access to one or two high preference items, and hand mouthing, hand-toy contact, and toy-mouth contact were measured. Results indicated that stimulation to the hand was the predominant reinforcer for all five participants, replicating the findings of Goh e...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Effects of Peer Assisted Communication Application Training on the Communicative and Social Behaviors of Children with Autism
This study sought to evaluate an iPod-based SGD and a peer mediated intervention to teach children with autism more sophisticated communication skills. Using a multiple baseline design, four children with autism were taught through peer assisted communication application (PACA) training how to mand using a two-step sequence and respond to the questions, “What do you want?” and “What is your name?” using a two-step sequence. Data were taken on the number of independent mands and independent responses. Results indicated that three of the four participants were able to acquire communicative skills. The...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

PEAK Relational Training System for Children with Autism and Developmental Disabilities: Correlations with Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Assessment Reliability
Abstract The present investigation sought to explore initial psychometric properties of the PEAK Relational Training System—Module 1: Direct Training for children with autism. Thirteen children diagnosed with autism or related disorders were exposed to an initial assessment designed to evaluate skill deficits within their repertoire, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the Illinois Early Learning Standards Test. Additionally, staff performances were evaluated on reliability of delivery of the PEAK assessment. Results yielded significant positive correlations among the obtained PEAK assessment scores, t...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Cup Distance Fading to Decrease Inappropriate Behavior in a Child with Autism
Abstract The present study involves a replication and extension of previous research examining distance fading to decrease inappropriate mealtime behavior and increase liquid consumption from a cup. The presentation of a cup of water was associated with high levels of inappropriate behavior and low levels of consumption. A cup distance fading procedure was used to systematically expose the participant to a cup of water that initially resulted in high levels of inappropriate mealtime behavior and no consumption. Inappropriate mealtime behavior decreased and consumption increased during the distance fading interven...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Ethnic Disparities in Early Autism Assessment: A Large Scale Screening Study of Infants and Toddlers
This study investigates the impact of ethnicity and referral for autism assessment in 7,464 toddlers ages 17–37 months who were assessed by a government supported, state-wide program. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Principal Component Analysis of the PEAK Relational Training System
Abstract The purpose of the present study was to examine the underlying constructs within the Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge (PEAK) Relational Training System Direct Training Module. Ninety-eight children with Autism or other developmental and intellectual disabilities were evaluated using the PEAK Direct Training Assessment, which endorsed the presence or absence of 184 possible skills within their repertoire. Following this evaluation, a Principal Component Analysis was run which yielded a four-factor model of the PEAK Direct Training Module. Specifically, factors that possessed Eigenvalues greate...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 27, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Computer-aided Program Regulating the Presentation of Visual Instructions to Support Activity Performance in Persons with Multiple Disabilities
This study assessed whether a computer-aided program presenting static pictorial instructions or video prompts according to prearranged time intervals would be suitable for teaching six persons with multiple (i.e., intellectual, sensory, and social) disabilities to perform simple daily activities. The program was applied with each participant according to a multiple probe across activities design. The results showed that all participants (i.e., the five using pictorial instructions and the one using video prompts) had a fairly rapid performance improvement with the introduction of the program. A post-intervention probe car...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 24, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Requesting and Verbal Imitation Intervention for Infants with Down syndrome: Generalization, Intelligibility, and Problem Solving
Abstract Part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype is significant impairment in expressive communication. This begins early with impairments in verbal imitation and requesting observed in infants with Down syndrome. In contrast, social interaction is a relative strength. We replicated intervention procedures using social reinforcement and prompting (Feeley et al. 2011) to teach infants with Down syndrome to imitate sounds and engage in increasingly sophisticated forms of social and instrumental requests and examined generalization and collateral changes in intelligibility and problem solving. Infants learned ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 2, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Peer-Video Modeling: Teaching Chained Social Game Behaviors to Children with ASD
Abstract There is considerable research focusing on remediating social deficits in children with autism. Learning to engage in childhood games such as Duck Duck Goose with peers fosters a multitude of other positive social outcomes. The present study examined peer-video modeling as an intervention to teach two common childhood social games with two participants on the autism spectrum. The games involved chained gross motor behaviors that were performed in an interactive small group setting. Performance was measured by total percentage of correct responding as outlined in a task analysis of the games. Children&prim...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 2, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Review of the Differences in Developmental, Psychiatric, and Medical Endophenotypes Between Males and Females with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is over four times more prevalent in males compared to females. Increased understanding of sex differences in ASD endophenotypes could add insight into possible etiologies and the assessment and management of the disorder. Consequently, the purpose of this review is to describe current literature regarding sex differences in the developmental, psychiatric, and medical endophenotypes of ASD in order to illustrate current knowledge and areas in need of further research. Our review found that repetitive behaviors and restricted interests are more common in males than females wi...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 26, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research