An iPad-Based Intervention for Teaching Picture and Word Matching to a Student with ASD and Severe Communication Impairment
Abstract iPads® have been successfully used as speech-generating devices (SGD) for children with ASD and limited speech, but little research has investigated the use of iPads to enhance academic skills, such as picture/word matching. In the present study, a student with ASD received intervention to teach picture and word matching using an iPad-based SGD as the response mode. A multiple baseline across matching tasks design was used to evaluate the effects of a graduated guidance prompting procedure and differential reinforcement on correct matching across four matching tasks (i.e., picture to picture, word to ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 15, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Effects of a Modified Power Card Strategy on Turn Taking and Social Commenting of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Playing Board Games
In this study, a modified Power Card strategy was used to teach two boys with ASD appropriate turn taking and social commenting while playing board games. Participants’ appropriate initiating a turn and relinquishing a turn increased with intervention; however, consistent increases in participants’ appropriate commenting were not observed. Students and parents favorably rated the Power Card Strategy following intervention. Results are discussed in relation to limitations and future research. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 9, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A case study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in a child with 15q13.3 deletion and Williams syndrome
We present a case study of a young child with both WS and 15q13.3 deletion syndrome and significant ASD-related symptomatology. The results of a developmental evaluation, specifically the rationale for ruling out a comorbid ASD, are the focus of the present report. Implications for careful diagnostic consideration in cases of patients with known genetic conditions are also discussed. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 9, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Using Video Modeling Incorporating Animation to Teach Toileting to Two Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract A multiple-baseline across behaviors design was employed to investigate the effects of a video modeling intervention incorporating real and animated models and a chaining procedure, on increasing independent toileting skills in two young boys diagnosed with ASD. Results showed this intervention was effective in reducing the number of prompts required for the boys to walk to the toilet, undress, sit on and urinate in the toilet, redress and flush. Gains were maintained over a 4 week period and generalized to other settings. Both participants could independently complete the toileting sequence post-int...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 2, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Conservative Interventions on the Gait of Ambulant Adults with Cerebral Palsy
Abstract To identify, appraise and synthesize evidence regarding efficacy of conservative interventions (physiotherapeutic, pharmacological) to improve walking in ambulant adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Standard search and extraction methods were utilised. A descriptive synthesis was performed with additional limited meta-analysis where the same outcome measurements were used and clinical heterogeneity was low. Interventions were considered according to target domain (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health). From 1571 papers identified, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study exclusion was ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Teaching Persistence in Social Initiation Bids to Children with Autism Through a Portable Video Modeling Intervention (PVMI)
Abstract Children with autism make and accept fewer social initiations and spend more time playing alone than with typical peers. Interventions that capitalize on technology have proven to be particularly successful in improving social initiation skills because they increase motivation, maintenance, and generalization of new social behaviors (Nikopoulos and Keenan 2004). In the present study, a portable video modeling intervention (PVMI) was used to teach persistence in social initiations to four children with autism. Two hypotheses were tested: 1) that children with autism would effectively learn persistence in ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

An Individualized Numeracy Curriculum for Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Single Blind Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Abstract Research investigating structured, comprehensive numeracy curricula appropriate for children with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) is limited. We conducted a pilot study focused on an adaptation of the Maths Recovery program. Twenty four elementary school children with severe ID or autism were randomly allocated into the intervention and control groups. For 12 weeks, children in the intervention group received individualized numeracy teaching based on the adapted Maths Recovery curriculum, whereas children in the control group received “mathematics as usual” teaching. Pre- and post- interv...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Acquisition, Preference, and Follow-up Data on the Use of Three AAC Options by Four Boys with Developmental Disability/Delay
Abstract We compared how quickly four boys with developmental disability/delay learned to use manual signing (MS), picture exchange (PE), and a speech-generating device (SGD) to request the continuation of toy play. Opportunities to choose to use MS, PE, and SGD were included to determine if the boys showed a preference for using one of these options. Follow-up sessions occurred at 12, 15, and 18 months post-intervention. With intervention, three of the four participants learned to use each option, but one child only learned to use PE. Trials to criterion across children ranged from 22 to 28 for the SGD, fro...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Effects of Skill Training on Preference for Children with Severe Intellectual and Physical Disabilities
Abstract Some researchers have reported difficulties in identifying preferred items for individuals with severe intellectual and physical disabilities (SIPD), in part because these individuals often do not possess the motor skills needed to select and manipulate the items included within the assessments. The purpose of the current study was to address three research questions: a). Would differences in preference patterns occur between assessments that required an individual with SIPD to perform a motor response that was difficult for them to emit versus assessments that used an augmentative device (i.e., press a ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Emotional Lexicon Understanding and Emotion Recognition: A Longitudinal Study in Children with Down Syndrome
This study addressed this issue by investigating the abilities of children with DS to recognize emotion from emotional terms, using the same visual material as in a previous nonverbal study with which they had no difficulty. Their performance was compared to that of typically developing children (TD) and children with nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID) of the same developmental age, during a 3-year longitudinal follow-up. Results showed that the abilities of children with DS were significantly poorer and developed slower than those of TD children, but not children with NSID. These cross-sectional and longitudinal d...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Clinical Report: A Replication of the Analysis of the Reinforcing Properties of Hand Mouthing
Abstract A reinforcing properties assessment was conducted with five participants with severe to profound intellectual disability to determine whether automatically maintained hand mouthing (as identified through an analogue functional analysis) was more specifically maintained by sensory stimulation to the mouth, hands, or both. Participants were provided free-access to one or two high preference items, and hand mouthing, hand-toy contact, and toy-mouth contact were measured. Results indicated that stimulation to the hand was the predominant reinforcer for all five participants, replicating the findings of Goh e...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Effects of Peer Assisted Communication Application Training on the Communicative and Social Behaviors of Children with Autism
This study sought to evaluate an iPod-based SGD and a peer mediated intervention to teach children with autism more sophisticated communication skills. Using a multiple baseline design, four children with autism were taught through peer assisted communication application (PACA) training how to mand using a two-step sequence and respond to the questions, “What do you want?” and “What is your name?” using a two-step sequence. Data were taken on the number of independent mands and independent responses. Results indicated that three of the four participants were able to acquire communicative skills. The...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

PEAK Relational Training System for Children with Autism and Developmental Disabilities: Correlations with Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Assessment Reliability
Abstract The present investigation sought to explore initial psychometric properties of the PEAK Relational Training System—Module 1: Direct Training for children with autism. Thirteen children diagnosed with autism or related disorders were exposed to an initial assessment designed to evaluate skill deficits within their repertoire, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the Illinois Early Learning Standards Test. Additionally, staff performances were evaluated on reliability of delivery of the PEAK assessment. Results yielded significant positive correlations among the obtained PEAK assessment scores, t...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Cup Distance Fading to Decrease Inappropriate Behavior in a Child with Autism
Abstract The present study involves a replication and extension of previous research examining distance fading to decrease inappropriate mealtime behavior and increase liquid consumption from a cup. The presentation of a cup of water was associated with high levels of inappropriate behavior and low levels of consumption. A cup distance fading procedure was used to systematically expose the participant to a cup of water that initially resulted in high levels of inappropriate mealtime behavior and no consumption. Inappropriate mealtime behavior decreased and consumption increased during the distance fading interven...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Ethnic Disparities in Early Autism Assessment: A Large Scale Screening Study of Infants and Toddlers
This study investigates the impact of ethnicity and referral for autism assessment in 7,464 toddlers ages 17–37 months who were assessed by a government supported, state-wide program. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 30, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Principal Component Analysis of the PEAK Relational Training System
Abstract The purpose of the present study was to examine the underlying constructs within the Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge (PEAK) Relational Training System Direct Training Module. Ninety-eight children with Autism or other developmental and intellectual disabilities were evaluated using the PEAK Direct Training Assessment, which endorsed the presence or absence of 184 possible skills within their repertoire. Following this evaluation, a Principal Component Analysis was run which yielded a four-factor model of the PEAK Direct Training Module. Specifically, factors that possessed Eigenvalues greate...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 27, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Computer-aided Program Regulating the Presentation of Visual Instructions to Support Activity Performance in Persons with Multiple Disabilities
This study assessed whether a computer-aided program presenting static pictorial instructions or video prompts according to prearranged time intervals would be suitable for teaching six persons with multiple (i.e., intellectual, sensory, and social) disabilities to perform simple daily activities. The program was applied with each participant according to a multiple probe across activities design. The results showed that all participants (i.e., the five using pictorial instructions and the one using video prompts) had a fairly rapid performance improvement with the introduction of the program. A post-intervention probe car...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 24, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Requesting and Verbal Imitation Intervention for Infants with Down syndrome: Generalization, Intelligibility, and Problem Solving
Abstract Part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype is significant impairment in expressive communication. This begins early with impairments in verbal imitation and requesting observed in infants with Down syndrome. In contrast, social interaction is a relative strength. We replicated intervention procedures using social reinforcement and prompting (Feeley et al. 2011) to teach infants with Down syndrome to imitate sounds and engage in increasingly sophisticated forms of social and instrumental requests and examined generalization and collateral changes in intelligibility and problem solving. Infants learned ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 2, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Peer-Video Modeling: Teaching Chained Social Game Behaviors to Children with ASD
Abstract There is considerable research focusing on remediating social deficits in children with autism. Learning to engage in childhood games such as Duck Duck Goose with peers fosters a multitude of other positive social outcomes. The present study examined peer-video modeling as an intervention to teach two common childhood social games with two participants on the autism spectrum. The games involved chained gross motor behaviors that were performed in an interactive small group setting. Performance was measured by total percentage of correct responding as outlined in a task analysis of the games. Children&prim...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 2, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Review of the Differences in Developmental, Psychiatric, and Medical Endophenotypes Between Males and Females with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is over four times more prevalent in males compared to females. Increased understanding of sex differences in ASD endophenotypes could add insight into possible etiologies and the assessment and management of the disorder. Consequently, the purpose of this review is to describe current literature regarding sex differences in the developmental, psychiatric, and medical endophenotypes of ASD in order to illustrate current knowledge and areas in need of further research. Our review found that repetitive behaviors and restricted interests are more common in males than females wi...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 26, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

How Physical Disabilities Influence Social Security Receipt among Vulnerable People in their Late Twenties
The objective of this article is to investigate how physical disabilities – adjusted for psychosocial difficulties and selected school variables – influence social security receipt among 373 former students with special needs. These individuals have been followed from their late teens and into their late twenties. Theoretically, the study draws on life course perspectives, with emphases on transitions, linked lives, geographical and historical location, human agency and cumulative processes. The logistic regression analyses show how each of eight independent variables – while simultaneously controlling fo...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 23, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Enhancing Attitudes of College Students Towards People with Intellectual Disabilities Through a Coursework Intervention
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 10-week course on university students’ (N = 42) attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities. The effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated through quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative results showed significant improvements in the participants’ attitudes (i.e., Empowerment and Similarity) after the intervention. Qualitative findings provided some support for the quantitative results and provided reasons for the attitudinal improvements. Overall, the results suggested that the course-based intervention program im...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 3, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Communication Profiles of Two Children with Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome
Abstract This research provides detailed summaries of the diverse communication skills of two children with Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome. One participant had level III Communication Matrix skills (unconventional communication), and was pre-symbolic, pre-intentional, non-imitative, and reliant upon others to interpret her proximal actions. The other participant had level IV (conventional communication) and V (concrete symbols) Communication Matrix skills, with emerging symbolic forms, some imitation, and directedness to his proximal and distal actions. Results are discussed in comparison to other children with severe dis...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 1, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Effects of Behavior Problems, Family Functioning, and Family Coping on Parent Stress in Families with a Child with Smith-Magenis Syndrome
Abstract Smith Magenis Syndrome (SMS) is a rare genetic syndrome most commonly caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 17 p11.2. It is associated with a pattern of physical, developmental, and behavioral characteristics including intellectual disability, sleep disturbance, and a variety of behavior problems. The purpose was to examine the relationship between maladaptive behaviors in children with SMS and parent stress, and to determine whether family functioning and effective parent coping strategies may alleviate the impact of child maladaptive behaviors on parent stress. Data were collected on 25 individuals w...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 1, 2014 Category: Disability Source Type: research