Relationship between Vitamin D Levels and Bone Tissue in Adolescents with and without Down Syndrome
AbstractVitamin D (vitD) deficiency is a worldwide problem. Therefore, the main aims of this study were to compare 25-hydroxivitamin D levels (25(OH)D) in adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS) and to study the relationship between 25(OH)D and bone. Eleven adolescents with DS (6 females) aged 15.5  ± 2.8 years and sixteen healthy controls (non-DS) (6 females) aged 14.3 ± 2.2 years were evaluated by bone imaging techniques. Blood samples were collected to determine vitD levels. Independent t-tests and analyses of covariance controlling for age, height, sex, sexual maturat...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 11, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Tantrums are Not Associated with Speech or Language Deficits in Preschool Children with Autism
AbstractCommunication problems and tantrums are common in children with autism. It has long been postulated that lack of speech is a cause of these tantrums. The goal of our study is to determine if impaired speech is associated with tantrums in preschool children with autism. The relationship between language and tantrum frequency in 240 children with autism, 15 to 71  months of age was investigated. Children were administered standardized IQ and language tests, and mothers rated tantrum frequency and speech intelligibility on a 4-point scale on the Pediatric Behavior Scale. Verbal and nonverbal IQ, expressive and re...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 4, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Acquisition of Tacting Using a Speech-Generating Device in Group Learning Environments for Preschoolers with Autism
AbstractSkinner (1957) described the tact as the most important verbal operant; however, there remains a disproportionate amount of research evaluating mand training compared to tact training for young children with autism. The current study sought to alleviate some of this disparity by evaluating the effectiveness of the iPad ® and application Proloquo2Go™ as a speech-generating device, using a multiple baseline design, on the acquisition of a tact repertoire in three preschool aged children with autism. The procedures employed a time delay with full physical prompts, during a “circle time” routine. ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 4, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Stress among Parents of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Comparison Involving Physiological Indicators and Parent Self-Reports
AbstractParents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been reported as experiencing higher levels of stress and poorer physical health than parents of typically developing children. However, most of the relevant literature has been based on parental self-reports of stress and health. While research on physiological outcomes has grown in recent years, gaps still exist in our understanding of the physiological effects, if any, of stress related to parenting a child with ASD. The present study compared parent-reported stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as selected physiological measures of stress (i.e., c...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - March 31, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Learning by Doing and Learning by Observing: Training Parents in Saudi Arabia to Implement the Natural Language Paradigm
AbstractThe present study trained six parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder to implement the Natural Language Paradigm in Saudi Arabia. Three of the parents participated in direct training using a Behavioral Skills Training (BST) model involving instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. As each of the three parents were being trained directly an additional parent observed the training (i.e., there were three trainee-observer dyads). While all of the parents learned from observing other parents being trained directly, only one observer met the predetermined performance criteria after observation alone, wi...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - March 29, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Impact of Food Viscosity and Preference on Treating a Feeding Problem
AbstractMechanical or manual manipulation of food (i.e., texture manipulation) can influence food consumption for children with feeding difficulties. The processes (e.g., using a blender, mashing food items with a fork, adding water) used to modify texture do not always produce a consistent viscosity. The differences may be due to varying liquid added to modify the texture and the liquid content of the food. An individual ’s preference for food items has also been shown to influence acceptance of food. In the current study, we conducted a food viscosity assessment to determine the effect on bite acceptance with lip c...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - March 24, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Principal Component Analysis of the PEAK Generalization Module
AbstractThe current study sought to assess the content validity and internal consistency of the PEAK Generalization Module. Eighty-four children with autism were evaluated using the PEAK Generalization Assessment to ascertain the presence or absence of 184 language and learning skills within the child ’s repertoire. Following the assessment, a principal component analysis was run yielding a four-component model of the PEAK Generalization Module. Specifically, components possessing eigenvalues greater than 3 and that had at least one item which was most strongly correlated to them were retained. Items were then sorted...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - March 16, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Some Refinements of a Methodology for Examining the Influence of Overt and Covert Self-Rules on Task Completion
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of overt and covert self-rule statements on the execution of a chained task by participants with developmental disabilities. A multiple baseline design across participants with multi-element phases embedded was used to evaluate the effects of overt and covert self-rules, alternating with blocking and nonblocking phases, on skill acquisition, generalization, and maintenance, in the absence of explicit reinforcement contingencies for accurate performance. All three participants demonstrated acquisition of the chained task and generalization to novel stimuli. Performa...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 21, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Association between Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and their Mothers ’ Anxiety and Depression
AbstractTo assess the impact of their child ’s symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder upon parents’ anxiety and depression, 68 mothers of boys aged 10 to 15 years (M = 12.6 years, SD = 1.6 years) completed the ASD Behaviour Checklist, the GAD7 and the PHQ9 at a single setting. Results indicated that the boys’ restricted and repetitive behaviours had the strongest relationship with their mothers’ anxiety and depression, followed by communication diffic ulties, but the latter set of behaviours did not significantly add to the variance predicted by restricted and repeti...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 2, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Teachers ’ Perceptions of Individualized Education Program (IEP) Goals and Related Services
This study focused on investigating teachers ’ views of the most important IEP goals for their young deaf students, as well as to ask them which services students were receiving. Our purpose was to identify the most prevalent IEP goals guiding early childhood education (ECE) programs and to determine whether services provided were appropriat e for addressing the students’ most critical needs. The participants included 118 young deaf children, ages 3–5, participating in the VL2 Early Educational Longitudinal Study (EELS). Results found that the IEP goals focused on three main areas: 1) improving school rea...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 1, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

“What Didn’t I Do for this Child?”: Parents’ Retrospective Construction of their Child’s CP Diagnostic Process
AbstractIncreased life expectancy exposes ageing parents to a lifetime of living with a child with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The current study aims to highlight the ways in which ageing parents retrospectively construct child ’s CP diagnostic process. A phenomenological–narrative perspective was performed, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 15 ageing parents of children with CP, followed by a content analysis. Three major phases in coping with child’s CP emerged: (1) “What’s wrong with my child? Give me a name”: Searching for extrinsic recognition of the pathology, (2) “When you ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 31, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Editor's Note for Special Issue
(Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 27, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Deaf and Hard-Of-Hearing High School and College Students ’ Perceptions of Speech-To-Text and Interpreting/Note Taking Services and Motivation
AbstractIn this investigation, one study examined the perceptions and motivation of 55 deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH) high school students who used the C-Print speech-to-text service as an accommodation in one mainstream course and interpreting and note taking in a second mainstream course. A second study examined the perceptions and motivation of 88 DHH college students who used each service in a different course. Students in the two studies completed a survey that asked separate sets of questions for the speech-to-text and for the interpreting/note taking supported courses. Results indicated that students rated the printed o...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 26, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Using a Test for Multiply-Maintained Self Injury to Develop Function-Based Treatments
AbstractWhen interpreting results of a functional analysis, a clinician may conclude an automatic function either because problem behavior is elevated in the alone/ignore condition relative to other conditions or because problem behavior is elevated and undifferentiated across multiple conditions. In the latter, it is difficult to determine if problem behavior is maintained by automatic reinforcement alone or is multiply maintained. The current study tested for multiply-maintained self-injurious behavior exhibited by two participants by implementing functional analysis contingencies while controlling for automatic reinforc...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 20, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A “Visitor in the Class”: Marginalization of Students Using AAC in Mainstream Education Classes
This study explored the views of social life among students using AAC in the Norwegian mainstream, public school. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with 7 students using AAC in first to fourth grade, 10 fellow students, 6 parents, and 18 staff. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, three organizational and structural premises for friendship between students using AAC and fellow students were identified. Students using AAC had different and weaker extrinsic premises for developing friendship compared with fellow students in class, and results revealed that they had a visiting role towards students in the m...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 18, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Issues in Infants and Children with Autism and Developmental Delays
AbstractControversy exists regarding whether gastrointestinal (GI) issues play a role in the symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While some studies have found GI problems to be more prevalent in individuals with ASD, others have reported no such difference. Studies looking at the relationship between GI issues and ASD symptom severity have also had mixed results. The current study examined 112 participants between the age of 17 to 37  months. Participants comprised four groups of 28 children: an ASD and no GI issues group, an ASD with GI problems group, an atypical development and no GI issues group, and...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 13, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Literature on Parenting of Young Children with Visual Impairments and the Adaptions for Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting (VIPP)
This study aimed to identify the themes that should be addressed in adapting VIPP and similar interventions. A Delphi-consultation was conducted with 13 professionals in the field of visual impairment to select the themes for relationship-focused intervention. These themes informed a systematic literature search. Interaction, intersubjectivity, joint attention, exploration, play and specific behavior were the themes mentioned in the Delphi-group. Paired with visual impairment or vision disorders, infants or young children (and their parents) the search yielded 74 articles, making the six themes for intervention adaptation ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 7, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Childhood Motor Function, Health Related Quality of Life and Social Functioning among Emerging Adults Born at Term or Extremely Low Birth Weight
AbstractPoor motor coordination is associated with reduced academic performance, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and social functioning in general population samples of children. Even though childhood motor problems are often chronic, little is known about how they affect educational, health, and social domains beyond adolescence. Further, the status of these associations in individuals known to be at high risk for poor motor coordination (e.g., those born preterm) is not known. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between childhood motor coordination and socioeconomic outcomes, HRQoL, and social f...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 29, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Evaluating the Relationships between the PEAK Relational Training System – Direct Training Module, Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills – Revised, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales – II
AbstractThe present study sought to examine the relationships between two language assessments and a psychometrically validated adaptive behavior scale. The assessments evaluated included thePromoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Relational Training System - Direct Training Module (PEAK-DT), theAssessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills – Revised (ABLLS-R), and theVineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (VABS-II). The assessments were completed for 21 children diagnosed with autism. Results indicate a significant correlation between scores on the PEAK-DT and ABLLS-R (r = 0.951,p 
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 25, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

“I’m not being rude, I’d want somebody normal ”: Adolescents’ Perception of their Peers with Tourette’s Syndrome: an Exploratory Study
AbstractTourette ’s syndrome (TS) is a highly stigmatised condition, and typically developing adolescents’ motives and reasons for excluding individuals with TS have not been examined. The aim of the study was to understand how TS is conceptualised by adolescents and explore how individuals with TS are perceived by their typically developing peers. Free text writing and focus groups were used to elicit the views of twenty-two year ten students from a secondary school in South East England. Grounded theory was used to develop an analytical framework. Participants’ understanding about the condition was con ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 18, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Age-Related Variations in Comparative Testosterone Concentrations Between Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their typically-Developing Peers: A Challenge to the ‘Extreme Male Brain’ Hypothesis of ASD
AbstractThere is some disagreement in the literature regarding the presence of elevated testosterone concentrations in boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). To explore that disagreement, the presence of significant differences in testosterone concentrations in young males with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and normally developing controls aged 6  yr. to 17 yr. was investigated. A total of 136 young males with ASD and 48 age-matched non-ASD males contributed samples of saliva at a set time and these were assayed for testosterone concentrations. There was no significant difference in testosterone concentration...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 15, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Effects of Contingent Pairing on Establishing Praise as a Reinforcer with Children with Autism
AbstractSocial stimuli often do not function as reinforcers for the behavior of children with autism. Reinforcement by social stimuli, such as praise, is required for the maintenance and generalization of a multitude of social behaviors, most notably verbal behaviors maintained by generalized conditioned reinforcement. The purpose of this study was to extend the literature on conditioning praise as a reinforcer. We identified primary reinforcers for two nonverbal participants with autism (ages 5 and 9): tickles and potato chips. A preliminary reinforcer analysis demonstrated that button-pressing was consistently more frequ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 14, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Extending Microswitch-Cluster Programs to Promote Occupation Activities and Reduce Mouthing by six Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities
AbstractWe extended the use of microswitch-cluster technology to six children with severe to profound developmental disabilities and autism spectrum disorders. The primary aim of the intervention was to improve the adaptive behavior (ie, insert three objects in three different containers within 3  s) and simultaneously decrease the challenging behavior of hand/objects mouthing. The second aim was to assess the effects of the intervention on the indices of happiness. An ABCAC experimental sequence was adopted for each participant. Thus, subsequent to a baseline condition, a first interventio n phase was implemented for...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 11, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Overweight in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
AbstractPrevious literature suggests children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a higher prevalence of excess weight than typically developing (TD) children, but information addressing risk factor concordance between those with ASD and TD children is lacking. We used a retrospective analysis of children (N = 2610) who visited an Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network (AS-ATN) center in the United States or Canada. This analysis occurred concurrently with two other research teams within AS-ATN. We found substantial agreement between predictors of weight in children with ASD and known correlates of o besity ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 5, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Bullying as a Source of Posttraumatic Growth in Individuals with Visual Impairments
AbstractBullying has been recognized as a major public health concern and may be conceptualized as a potentially traumatic experience. A growing body of literature has documented posttraumatic growth (PTG), or positive psychological changes following traumatic experiences, yet no studies have examined bullying as a potential precursor to PTG. This work examined spontaneous expressions of PTG in response to bullying experiences in a sample of 51 adults with visual impairments (Study 1) as well as quantitative relationships between self-reported bullying severity and PTG in 33 children with visual impairments (Study 2). Adul...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 3, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Social-Communication Intervention for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effects on Initiating Joint Attention and Interactions with Mother
We examined a brief social-communication intervention teaching eye gaze in select social-communication contexts while examining generalization to initiating joint attention and interactions with participants ’ mothers. Three toddlers with ASD participated in intervention involving prompting, prompt fading, and reinforcement. Two toddlers showed generalization from requesting to joint attention with the interventionist; all three showed generalization to interactions with their mothers in a semi-struct ured play interaction. Findings are discussed in terms of generalization and efficiency of intervention. (Source: Jou...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 29, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Predictors of English Reading Comprehension for Children Who Are d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing
This study examined the interrelationships of two code-related factors (i.e., phoneme detection and silent word reading fluency), one language-related factor (i.e., morphological awareness), and reading comprehension with 45 d/Deaf or hard of hearing (d/Dhh) students in Grades 3 –8, taking into account any effects of demographic information. A correlational research design was utilized entailing simple Pearson correlations, multiple regressions, and at-test. Results indicated that morphological awareness was significantly related to English reading comprehension over and beyond the other predictors (i.e., phoneme det...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 28, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Mothers and Fathers of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Differences in Future Expectations
AbstractParents ’ expectations are known to be a central component in children’s development through multiple pathways; however, limited information exists regarding expectations of parents of children with developmental disabilities. The purpose of the current study was to examine future expectations of parent s of children with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the differences in expectations between mothers and fathers. Forty-nine mothers and fathers of children with CP (6–12 years) participated in this study. Parents completed a Parental Future Expectations Questionnaire for Children with Disabilit...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 27, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Outdoor Play Decisions by Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: a Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies
AbtsractOutdoor play offers children vast benefits for development and well-being. However, children with developmental disabilities participate less in outdoor play than their typical peers. Typically, adults make decisions about children ’s play routines, especially for children with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the results from qualitative studies on decision making processes of caregivers around outdoor play in children with developmental disabilities using ecocultural theor y. Studies addressing decision making of parents, teachers, and other caregivers of p...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 13, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Further Demonstrations of Individual Preference among Mand Modalities during Functional Communication Training
AbstractPrevious research related to functional communication training has demonstrated its effectiveness across various communication modalities. Additionally, at least one study has demonstrated that, while the intervention can be effective across various communication modalities, individual participants demonstrate a preference among available communication modalities (indicated by response allocation under a concurrent schedules arrangement). The current study evaluated preference among concurrently available communication modalities for 18 individuals with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 12, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Caregiver Demand and Distress in Parents of Youth with Juvenile Rheumatic Diseases: Examining Illness Intrusiveness and Parenting Stress as Mediators
AbstractTo examine illness intrusiveness and parenting stress as potential serial mediators in the relationship between parents ’ illness-specific caregiver demand and psychological distress in parents of youth with juvenile rheumatic diseases (JRDs). Sixty-eight caregivers of youth diagnosed with a JRD completed measures of illness-specific caregiver demand (CD), illness intrusiveness (IIS-P), general parenting stress (PSI-SF), and psychological distress (BSI). Bootstrap regression analyses revealed a significantCD  → IIS-P → PSI-SF → BSI complex serial mediation path. Re...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 7, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence Rates in the United States: Methodologies, Challenges, and Implications for Individual States
AbstractMany different studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence rates of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the United States. The methodologies of these studies have varied, resulting in a multitude of publications with differing prevalence rates. Because there is such a wide range in the results of prevalence studies, it may be difficult for individual states to determine their rates. Accurate prevalence rates are important to obtain for many different reasons including increasing advocacy and awareness, increasing funding, and proper allocation of services for individuals with ASD and their families. Addit...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 1, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Understanding the Relationship between Quality of Life, Adaptive Behavior and Support Needs
AbstractPsychometric tools providing quantitative measures of the constructs of adaptive behavior, support needs, and quality of life (QOL) have received considerable attention within the field of intellectual disability (ID). The relationship between the three constructs was investigated by examining scores on the Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS), Supports Intensity Scale (SIS), and Personal Outcomes Scale (POS; a QOL scale). Data from 146 Portuguese adults with ID revealed that: (a) the ABS domains showed a moderate negative relationship with the SIS subscales; (b) the absolute value of correlations between SIS/ABS domains ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 29, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Foot –Ground Interaction during Standing in Individuals with Down Syndrome: a Longitudinal Retrospective Study
AbstractIn individuals with Down syndrome (DS) hypotonia and ligament laxity are characteristic features, which contribute to a number of orthopaedic issues, such as flat foot. The aim of this study was to quantify foot abnormalities in individuals with DS while standing, in terms of foot-ground interaction parameters (i.e. contact areas and plantar pressure distribution), from childhood to adulthood. Thirteen participants with DS were assessed using pedobarography in a time range of 17  years, from childhood to adulthood, and compared with healthy participants. Individuals with DS exhibited increases in all the sub-r...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 24, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Impact of Demographic Characteristics and the Positive Perceptions of Parents on Quality of Life in Families with a Member with Intellectual Disability
AbstractFamilies with children and adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) have positive perceptions that may raise levels of FQoL. However, little is known about what happens to these positive perceptions and FQoL when the family members with ID reach adulthood. Our main objective was to analyze the predictors of FQoL, incorporating demographic variables and parents ’ positive perceptions before and after the family member with ID turns 18. A sample of 861 families who had a family member with ID between 1 and 70 years old completed both the Positive Contributions Scale (PCS) in order to measure their pos...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 21, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing, and Hearing Students in an Introductory Biology Course: College Readiness, Social Learning Styles, and Success
AbstractThe maturity and development of students in baccalaureate degree programs has long been of interest to education research, but a focus on their ability to adapt to and transition between programs of study has only recently emerged. As more students with disabilities arrive in postsecondary classrooms, an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to their academic performance is warranted. For this study, the Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Style Scales (GRSLSS) survey was administered to deaf, hard-of-hearing (DHH) and hearing students in an introductory baccalaureate biology course. This survey measu...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 20, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Heart Rate Assessment and Use of a Multiple Schedule Treatment for an Individual with Obsessive Compulsive-like Behavior
AbstractRepetitive behavior is displayed by individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and those with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (American Psychiatric Association2013). Clinicians assessing individuals with autism who display stereotypic behavior face the challenge of determining whether or not these repetitive behaviors are more reflective of topographies observed in individuals with developmental delays, or are more representative of those observed in OCD. The distinction is important because traditional treatments for OCD have addressed the discomfort associated with repetitive acts, which has been described as a buil...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 17, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Development of a tool to guide clinical decision making in the management of physical function in ambulant adults with cerebral palsy
This study aimed to design a clinical decision making tool to enhance person-centred care in the primary care sector for adults with CP. Using participatory action research methodology, fifteen practitioners from a range of health disciplines were interviewed regarding the management of ambulant adults with CP. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts enabled generation of a flow chart and assessment/intervention table to guide management. Recommendations were supported with available evidence. Stakeholder review (three adults with CP) of the pilot version was sought. Issues, prompting questions, suggested options for ma...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 1, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

ABAS-II Adaptive Profiles and Correlates in Samples of Children with HFASD or LFASD
This study was conducted to extend the research on the adaptive skills of 55 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) and 55 children with ASD and co-occurring intellectual disability (LFASD), ages 6 –12, using the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II). This study examined each group’s adaptive profile, compared adaptive functioning and cognitive ability, and assessed correlates (i.e., age, IQ) of adaptive skills. Results indicated children with HFASD demonstrated cog nitive strengths and adaptive deficits, while children with LFASD demonstrated adaptive strengths ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 30, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Comparing Teacher and Student Use and Preference of Two Methods of Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Picture Exchange and a Speech-Generating Device
AbstractHandheld computing technologies such as the iPad ®, which can be adapted to function as a speech-generating device, has led to an influx of evolutions comparing modalities of Augmentative and Alternative Communication systems (AAC) in the acquisition of a mand (i.e., request) repertoire in children with autism and related developmental disabiliti es. While these studies have consistently yielded results indicating equal acquisition across picture-based systems (PE) and the SGD, they have demonstrated a primary preference for the SGD. The purpose of this study was to extend such research by comparing not only st...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 26, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Behavioral Indicators of Satiation: a Systematic Review
AbstractThe use of behavioral indicators as a measure of satiation was a procedure developed by O'Reilly et al. (Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,32, 371 –374,2009) to systematically manipulate presession access to a tangible reinforcer. In order to gain a better understanding of the utility of behavioral indicators of satiation in applied settings, a systematic literature review was conducted identifying nine additional studies that implemented this procedure. This review synthesized the research in terms of participant characteristics, use of behavioral indicators, dependent variables, and study outcomes. Resul...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 26, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Correlates of Sibling Relationship Quality and Caregiving Reception of Adults with Disabilities
In this study, we sought to determine the correlates of close sibling relationships and the likelihood of caregiving as reported by individuals with disabilities. To this end, 106 individuals with disabilities responded to a web-based survey. With respect to the sibling relationship, participants who contacted their siblings more frequently and did not have mental health diagnoses were more likely to report closer sibling relationships. Regarding caregiving, participants who were in greater contact with their siblings, had fathers in excellent or good health, were male, and had more siblings were more likely to receive car...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 19, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Loneliness and Social Anxiety Mediate the Relationship between Autism Quotient and Quality of Life in University Students
AbstractTraits associated with autism, along with depression, anxiety, loneliness, quality of life, and social anxiety were investigated by self-report questionnaires in a university student population (N = 413). In the sample, which was recruited online, 8 % had scores above cut-off on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) self-report questionnaire. There were significant differences in AQ between students studying physical sciences and both social sciences and arts/humanities. Higher AQ scores were associated with higher scores of loneliness, social anxiety, depression, and anxiety, as well as with lower score...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 12, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Effects of Reading Mastery as a Small Group Intervention for Young Children with ASD
Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare direct instruction using the Reading Mastery curriculum in small groups with peers and typical reading instruction on the beginning literacy skills of moderate to high functioning young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Thirty-two children were in the Reading Mastery intervention group and 30 were in a comparison condition. All participants met criteria as beginning readers, based on assessments at the beginning and middle of Kindergarten. Results indicated that school-based implementers were able to use the curriculum with fidelity and that there were...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - July 11, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Structure of Executive Functioning in Children with Cerebral Palsy: an Investigation of Anderson ’s Developmental Model
Abstract To investigate the factor structure of executive functioning (EF) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and whether this can be described by the four-component model of EF described by Anderson ( 2002 , 2008 ). Participants were 73 children with CP with various degrees of speech and motor impairment. Mean age was 9;10  years (range 5;1 to 17;7 years) and 39 were girls. EF was investigated with neuropsychological assessment, parent evaluation, and structured tasks. The neuropsychological tests used were Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Forward and Backward Memory tasks from Leiter-R. Parents evaluated the ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - July 5, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Structure of Executive Functioning in Children with Cerebral Palsy: an Investigation of Anderson’s Developmental Model
Abstract To investigate the factor structure of executive functioning (EF) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and whether this can be described by the four-component model of EF described by Anderson (2002, 2008). Participants were 73 children with CP with various degrees of speech and motor impairment. Mean age was 9;10 years (range 5;1 to 17;7 years) and 39 were girls. EF was investigated with neuropsychological assessment, parent evaluation, and structured tasks. The neuropsychological tests used were Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Forward and Backward Memory tasks from Leiter-R. Parents evaluated ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - July 5, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Retrospective Basic Parent-Child Communication Difficulties and Risk of Depression in Deaf Adults
Abstract This paper describes the relationship between retrospective communication difficulties and current depressive symptomatology. A total of 143 deaf/hard-of-hearing late adolescents and adults (64 % White; 55 % female) completed questionnaires related to parent communication, language history and current psychological functioning. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of having depression that is associated with understanding parents’ communication after controlling for gender, hearing level, and language history. Significant odds ratio indicated that the difficultie...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - July 2, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

“You’re Playing Because it’s Fun”? Mothers’ and Teachers’ Perspectives Regarding Play Interactions with Children with ASD
Abstract Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) differ from typically developing (TD) children in their play and social abilities. Consequently, play-interactions, commonly shared enjoyable experiences that create positive connections between caregivers and children, can be complex and challenging for children with ASD. Little is known, however, about the subjective experiences of caregivers (mothers and teachers) who play with young children with ASD. The current study investigates their subjective perspectives and related beliefs through qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 mothers of children wi...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - June 24, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Which Aspects of Challenging Behaviour Are Associated with Anxiety across two Age Groups of Young Males with an Autism Spectrum Disorder?
Abstract Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) also often exhibit elevated anxiety and Challenging Behaviour (CB) but relatively little is known about the detailed association between CB and anxiety. To investigate this issue, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory subscale for Generalised Anxiety Disorder (CASI-GAD) were completed by 150 parents about their sons with ASD to determine the overall association between CB and GAD. Correlational and regression models were used to describe the links with the total scores, subscales, and the specific items of the ABC ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - June 23, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Comparing the Efficacy of Peer versus Staff Models on Observational Learning in Adults with Developmental Disorders
Abstract We compared the effectiveness of a peer and staff model on observational learning by four adults with developmental disabilities. An alternating treatment design was used to evaluate the effects of a staff-as-model and peer-as-model condition. Results indicated that all four participants acquired the skill at a faster rate in the peer-as-model condition. Generalization and maintenance of the skills acquired with both models was also evaluated. Implications of programming for observational learning in education and habilitation settings are discussed. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - June 22, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research