Abnormalities of Vital Signs in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Relationship to Physical Disabilities
AbstractThe autonomic functions of children with cerebral palsy (CP) have not been sufficiently explored, and corresponding abnormalities are underdiagnosed. In addition, studies evaluating the associations between autonomic dysfunctions and the different aspects of motor performance among these children are scarce. We aimed to investigate vital signs in children with CP and compare them to those of children with typical motor development (TMD) and to determine the associations of autonomic dysfunction with the demographic and clinical data and motor characteristics of these children. A convenience sample of 118 children w...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 7, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Friendship, Quality of Life, and People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
AbstractPeople with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often have fewer opportunities to create and maintain friendships. In fact, it is not uncommon for people with IDD to consider their paid staff friends, which is problematic given high staff turnover and a lack of reciprocity, a key element of friendship. The aim of this study is to explore the relationships between friendship and quality of life of people with IDD. We had two main research questions: 1) what factors predict people with IDD having friends (outcomes present)?; and, 2) how does having friends (outcomes present) impact the quality of life o...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 6, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Review of Prompt-Fading Procedures: Implications for Effective and Efficient Skill Acquisition
AbstractThis paper reports a systematic review of prompt-fading research, with a focus on experiments comparing two or more prompt-fading procedures. Forty-five articles with 46 experiments met the operationally-defined inclusion criteria. For the selected articles, data on several variables were extracted and analyzed. Research demonstrated that all prompt-fading procedures were generally effective in promoting acquisition of behavior. Stimulus prompting was more effective and efficient when compared to response-prompting procedures. Comparisons of response-prompting procedures yielded variable efficiency results. These o...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 23, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Generalization of Skills Acquired in Language for Learning by Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
AbstractLanguage deficits are a characteristic of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Language for Learning is a promising curriculum for this population; it directly addresses language skills and contains several effective instructional strategies for learners with ASD. However, research on this curriculum for learners with ASD is limited, and to date research has not examined whether skills acquired inLanguage for Learning generalize to novel stimuli. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects ofLanguage for Learning for producing generalization of expressive labeling skills to untrained visual sti...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 18, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Autism Symptoms and Problem Behaviors in Children with and without Developmental Regression
AbstractAlthough frequently observed in individuals with ASD, little is known about the nature of developmental regression amongst this population. Previous studies have found varying results in differences in ASD symptoms, cognitive functioning, and comorbid problems between individuals who have and have not regressed in skills. The purpose of the present study was to examine potential differences in ASD symptom domains (i.e., nonverbal communication/socialization, verbal communication, social relationships, insistence on sameness/restricted interests) and challenging behaviors across groups. Participants included 160 tot...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 14, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior in Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review
AbstractThe current review summarized 54 peer-reviewed articles concerning the assessment treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Results indicated that functional analysis was most commonly used to identify the operant function of SIB. Noncontingent reinforcement, differential reinforcement, functional communication training and response blocking were found to be the most frequently implemented interventions across studies. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated using the Council for Exceptional Children quality indicator standards. None of the...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 13, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Comparison of High and Low-Proficiency Mands During Functional Communication Training  Across Multiple Functions of Problem Behavior
AbstractProficiency is a mand-specific variable that has been shown to affect treatment outcomes during functional communication training (FCT; i.e., Ringdahl et al. inResearch in Developmental Disabilities,30, 330 –341,2009). Although Ringdahl et al.Research in Developmental Disabilities,30, 330 –341 (2009) showed mand proficiency was predictive of FCT effectiveness, the study targeted a single function of problem behavior. Thus, questions remain about the extent to which mand proficiency is consistent across mands related to multiple functions of problem behavior during both pre-treatment mand topography asse...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 3, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Adverse Side Effects of Psychotropic Medication and Challenging Behavior: Pilot Work Assessing Impact
AbstractPsychotropic medications are often prescribed to reduce challenging behavior in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Functional analyses (FAs) have demonstrated utility in assessing medication impact on behavior; however, the impact of adverse side effects (ASE) on challenging behavior is under-assessed. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology, similar to FAs, to explore potential medication ASE impact on challenging behavior in seven individuals with IDD. Results revealed response rate differences in designed ASE conditions for most participants. Outcomes support furth...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 2, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Health Education by Peers with Spinal Cord Injury: a Scoping Review
AbstractPeople with spinal cord injury (SCI) have greater health challenges than the general population. Health implications can arise from direct spinal nerve damage, secondary conditions, and the increased likelihood of a sedentary lifestyle. Health education is an important aspect of SCI rehabilitation. Peer education is used in both general health education campaigns and those aimed at people with defined illnesses and disabilities. Peers have a unique understanding of the target population, and are a valued contributor to SCI rehabilitation. This scoping review explored the existing evidence about the various types an...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 21, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Stability of Autism Symptoms in Young Children
AbstractThe study of early diagnosis and intervention has been a central theme in recent autism research. In support of the validity of early autism diagnoses, researchers have found discriminating variables that are identifiable within the first three years of life. In addition, autism diagnoses made within this time period are typically stable over time. Separate symptoms, however, seem to exhibit differential patterns across development. The current study examined the stability of autism screening outcomes and symptomology in 637 toddlers between the age of 17 and 36  months. Confirmatory of previous findings, resu...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - September 5, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Early Intervention for Repetitive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Conceptual Model
AbstractThis paper presents a conceptual model to improve the early intervention of repetitive behavior in infants and young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We include (a) a description of the trajectory of repetitive behavior in typical and atypical development and an explanation of its relation to screening and assessment and (b) a selective review of the intervention literature for rigid and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests (RRBIs) in infants and young children with ASD. These two sets of literature are used to build the rationale for a conceptual model to improve early developmentally appropr...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 26, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Universally Designed Motor Skill Intervention for Children with and without Disabilities
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a six-week Universal Design for Learning motor skill intervention (SKIP-UDL) on the fundamental motor skills (FMS) of young children with and without disabilities. Participants ages 3-5, (N = 69; females = 43%; Mage = 4.6, SD = .51, disability = 42%) completed the study. An ANOVA with repeated measures showed a significant main effect for time, F(1, 19) = 164.89, p
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 22, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Picture Exchange Communication System and Delay to Reinforcement
AbstractPicture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS) is a form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) frequently used by individuals with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability when speech development is delayed or does not develop (Bondy and Frost1994 inFocus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 9, 1 –19; Sunberg and Partington1998). Researchers have previously evaluated variations of PECS as a means for vocalization development (Ganz and Simpson2004 inJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 395 –409; Tincani et al.2006 inEducation and Training in Developmental...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - August 1, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Review of the Research
AbstractAutism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are highly comorbid, precipitating an urgent need to identify evidence-based practices that might be used to address this comorbidity exclusively. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of intervention research and clinical reports to examine the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with individuals who have comorbid ASD and OCD. Based on the pre-determined review inclusion criteria, 11 studies were included in the review: three randomized control trials (RCT), one case controlled study, two single subject experimental designs, and ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - July 29, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Erratum to: An Assessment of the Necessary Strength of Behavioral Treatments for Severe Behavior Problems
(Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - July 26, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Systematic Review of Vocational Preferences on Behavioral Outcomes of Individuals with Disabilities
AbstractAssessing performance of individuals with disabilities in relation to their preferences is a method of determining the social validity of practices. The benefits of using vocational preferences on related behavioral outcomes of individuals with disabilities such as task completion, challenging behavior, and indices of happiness, have been explored through several studies. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effects of preference for certain vocational activities on performance outcomes for individuals with disabilities. A comprehensive search resulted in a total of 16 included studies. Studies w...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - July 22, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Social Cognitive Theory Determinants of Physical Activity in Adults with Visual Impairments
This study provides the first empirical evidence explaining social cognitive theory constructs as predictors of physical activity and sedentary behavior among adults with visual impairments. These results provid e a basis for researchers and practitioners to utilize when conceptualizing, implementing, and evaluating future physical activity interventions focusing on this population. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - July 22, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Multi-Level Investigation of the Association between Sensory Features in Boys and Adolescents with ASD and Their Mothers ’ Anxiety and Depression
AbstractThe association between boys ’ Sensory Features (SF) and their mothers’ anxiety and depression was investigated in two groups of boys with ASD (M age Gp 1  = 7.5 yr.;M age Gp 2  = 14.3 yr). Mothers completed the Sensory Profile (SP) on their sons, and the GAD7 and PHQ9 on themselves. Results indicated significant associations between mothers’ GAD7 scores and the boys’ SP quadrant scores (global level), between GAD7 scores and Auditory, Visual and Touch Processing Do mains (subscale level), and between boys’ specific SF-related Visual and Touch behaviours a...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - July 17, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Perceptions of Teachers ’ Preparedness to Teach Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students with Additional Disabilities: A Qualitative Case Study.
This study sought to explore the perceptions of forty teachers of DSWD in various education settings. Content analysis was used to examine teachers ’ self- reported perceptions of their preparedness in teaching DSWD, after graduating. Eight major themes emerged including, information on various disabilities, communication, teaching strategies, classroom behavior management, Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD), curriculum and standards, Indiv idualized educational plans (IEPs), and collaboration with parents. Additional research should be conducted related to the impact of teacher preparedness on students’ outc...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - June 27, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Pilot Study Examining the Effectiveness of the PEERS Program on Social Skills and Anxiety in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder
AbstractThe Program for the Evaluation of the Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS), a social skills intervention for high functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has been proven efficacious in randomized control trials. However, the effectiveness of the PEERS program in community settings has not been studied. The present small-scale pilot study examined the effectiveness of the PEERS program in a community setting. Five adolescents and their caregivers participated in the PEERS intervention. Results indicated that the adolescents showed significant improvement in their social engagement, social cog...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - June 15, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Postsecondary Education and Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Experiences of Parents and University Personnel
AbstractPostsecondary education has become a viable post-school outcome for many students with disabilities, including students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Increasingly, students with ASD are pursuing two and four year degree programs, yet few investigations have examined the extent to which these students are receiving the types of supports and services needed to be successful. In this exploratory study, the experiences of individuals who provide support to students with ASD enrolled in postsecondary degree programs were examined. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 parents and 6 university personne...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - June 14, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Teaching Joint Attention and Peer to Peer Communication Using the Cool Versus Not Cool Procedure in a Large Group Setting
This study evaluated the use of the cool versus not cool procedure to teach sixteen children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder how to initiate or respond to bids for joint attention and how to increase peer to peer communication with their peers. The cool versus not cool procedure consisted of the teacher modeling the targeted social behaviors both the cool (i.e., appropriate) and not cool (i.e., inappropriate) way, having the participants discriminate if the model was cool or not cool, having the participants state reasons why the model was cool or not cool, and having the participants role-play the targeted social ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - June 7, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Observation System for Analyzing Individual Boccia BC3
AbstractBoccia is a Paralympic sport for athletes with locomotor dysfunction. The aim of this observational methodology study was to describe the design of anad hoc observation instrument for analyzing individual boccia in the BC3 category (for athletes with severe functional impairment) and to show how it can be used in a practical setting to analyze technical and tactical aspects of the game. The observation instrument was designed based on the internal logic and rules of boccia and was then loaded into the Lince software program to create a simple coding tool. The content of the instrument was validated by a panel of ex...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - June 1, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Outpatient Treatment Based on Self-Management Strategies for Chronic Drooling in Two Children
AbstractDrooling is a distressing condition, which is often caused by reduced oral motor control associated with a neurological disorder. It has significant medical, practical and psychosocial impact on children or youth and their families. Therefore, treatment is necessary. Although behavioural therapy for drooling shows promising results, it is generally time- and cost-intensive. For this reason, alternative ways to provide behavioural treatment for chronic drooling need to be explored. In a pair of case studies, the feasibility and potential of an outpatient variant of a behavioural treatment programme for drooling base...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 31, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Effects of Videomodeling on Fundamental Motor Skill Performance of Middle School Children with Intellectual Disabilities
AbstractProficiency in fundamental motor skills (FMS) is important for the health and overall development of children. Using a multiple-baseline-across-participants single-subject design, this study provided preliminary data on the effectiveness of videomodeling (VM) displayed via an iPad on the acquisition and maintenance of the standing long jump (SLJ) by six middle school children with moderate intellectual disabilities (ID). The study also explored whether the participant ’s initial gross-motor development and off-task behaviors while watching instructional videos affected the acquisition of SLJ. Results demonstr...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 26, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Better Story Recall by Deaf Children with Unimodal Communication
AbstractThe present study compared sign-only to simultaneous sign and speech (SIMCOM) on recall of stories by deaf children. Thirty-six 11 to 14-year-old deaf students were presented with a series of short stories “bimodally” (using simultaneous sign and speech/SIMCOM) and “unimodally” (using sign-only) and then asked to recall whatever they could remember. A within-subject analysis was used to examine the differences in recall scores as a function of communication mode. Participants scored significan tly higher in the sign-only condition than in the SIMCOM condition. There were no differences due t...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 19, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Fidelity Outcomes for Autism-Focused Interventionists Coached via Telepractice: a Systematic Literature Review
AbstractThe purpose of this review was to synthesize fidelity features in telepractice studies focused on parent-, educator-, and therapist-directed treatments for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A systematic search identified 19 studies for inclusion. Studies were summarized according to participant characteristics, dependent variables, training procedures, implementation fidelity of the intervention, intervention fidelity for the participants, outcomes for the individuals with ASD, generalization and maintenance of fidelity outcomes, study design, and social validity. Results indicate a variety of assess...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 8, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Decreasing Pica Attempts by Manipulating the Environment to Support Prosocial Behavior
AbstractIt is well established in the literature that pica displayed by individuals with developmental disabilities is most likely to be maintained by automatic reinforcement. However, there is a need for additional research regarding interventions that emphasize skill acquisition by teaching individuals with automatically maintained pica, multiple alternative behaviors to reduce the occurrence of this behavior. For the current study, pica emitted by three participants with developmental disabilities was targeted for assessment and treatment. Results of a functional behavioral assessment, which included a functional analys...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 4, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Executive Functioning in Children Aged 6 –18 Years with Cerebral Palsy
AbstractExecutive functioning (EF) is necessary for purposeful and goal-directed activity. Deficits in EF have been related to prematurity, low birth weight and early acquired brain lesions. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a condition where all these factors might be present and therefore suited to explore the relative contribution of each. The aim is to investigate factors that may contribute to variability in EF in children with CP. Participants were 68 children with CP, with various degrees of speech and motor impairment. Mean age 10;2  years (range 6;0 to 17;7 years), 38 were girls. EF was investigated with tests, Bac...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 2, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

An Initial Investigation of the Kit for Kids Peer Educational Program
AbstractA large number of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) receive instruction in general education classrooms; therefore, students with ASD and typically-developing peers are likely to interact throughout the school day. Although research indicates that typically-developing peers play a critical role in supporting successful inclusive experiences for students with ASD, research suggests that elementary and middle school students report limited knowledge and awareness of ASD. Peer education programs have been used to promote and support acceptance of students with ASD in general education settings; however, res...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 27, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Spanish Adaptation of the Autism Spectrum Disorders - Diagnosis for Adults (ASD-DA) in Adults with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability
AbstractThe Autism Spectrum Disorders - Diagnosis for Adults (ASD-DA) with intellectual disability was designed to quickly provide relevant information to establish a diagnosis of the most common Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) (autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified and Asperger ’s syndrome) (Matson et al.2007a). The ASD-DA was adapted and translated into Spanish and administered to a sample of 156 adults with severe (n = 67, 42.9%) and profound (n = 89, 57.1%) intellectual disability. Seventy-one (45.5%) participants had a diagnosis of intellectual disability and autism...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 13, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Relationship between Vitamin D Levels and Bone Tissue in Adolescents with and without Down Syndrome
AbstractVitamin D (vitD) deficiency is a worldwide problem. Therefore, the main aims of this study were to compare 25-hydroxivitamin D levels (25(OH)D) in adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS) and to study the relationship between 25(OH)D and bone. Eleven adolescents with DS (6 females) aged 15.5  ± 2.8 years and sixteen healthy controls (non-DS) (6 females) aged 14.3 ± 2.2 years were evaluated by bone imaging techniques. Blood samples were collected to determine vitD levels. Independent t-tests and analyses of covariance controlling for age, height, sex, sexual maturat...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 11, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Tantrums are Not Associated with Speech or Language Deficits in Preschool Children with Autism
AbstractCommunication problems and tantrums are common in children with autism. It has long been postulated that lack of speech is a cause of these tantrums. The goal of our study is to determine if impaired speech is associated with tantrums in preschool children with autism. The relationship between language and tantrum frequency in 240 children with autism, 15 to 71  months of age was investigated. Children were administered standardized IQ and language tests, and mothers rated tantrum frequency and speech intelligibility on a 4-point scale on the Pediatric Behavior Scale. Verbal and nonverbal IQ, expressive and re...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 4, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Acquisition of Tacting Using a Speech-Generating Device in Group Learning Environments for Preschoolers with Autism
AbstractSkinner (1957) described the tact as the most important verbal operant; however, there remains a disproportionate amount of research evaluating mand training compared to tact training for young children with autism. The current study sought to alleviate some of this disparity by evaluating the effectiveness of the iPad ® and application Proloquo2Go™ as a speech-generating device, using a multiple baseline design, on the acquisition of a tact repertoire in three preschool aged children with autism. The procedures employed a time delay with full physical prompts, during a “circle time” routine. ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 4, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Stress among Parents of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Comparison Involving Physiological Indicators and Parent Self-Reports
AbstractParents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been reported as experiencing higher levels of stress and poorer physical health than parents of typically developing children. However, most of the relevant literature has been based on parental self-reports of stress and health. While research on physiological outcomes has grown in recent years, gaps still exist in our understanding of the physiological effects, if any, of stress related to parenting a child with ASD. The present study compared parent-reported stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as selected physiological measures of stress (i.e., c...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - March 31, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Learning by Doing and Learning by Observing: Training Parents in Saudi Arabia to Implement the Natural Language Paradigm
AbstractThe present study trained six parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder to implement the Natural Language Paradigm in Saudi Arabia. Three of the parents participated in direct training using a Behavioral Skills Training (BST) model involving instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. As each of the three parents were being trained directly an additional parent observed the training (i.e., there were three trainee-observer dyads). While all of the parents learned from observing other parents being trained directly, only one observer met the predetermined performance criteria after observation alone, wi...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - March 29, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Impact of Food Viscosity and Preference on Treating a Feeding Problem
AbstractMechanical or manual manipulation of food (i.e., texture manipulation) can influence food consumption for children with feeding difficulties. The processes (e.g., using a blender, mashing food items with a fork, adding water) used to modify texture do not always produce a consistent viscosity. The differences may be due to varying liquid added to modify the texture and the liquid content of the food. An individual ’s preference for food items has also been shown to influence acceptance of food. In the current study, we conducted a food viscosity assessment to determine the effect on bite acceptance with lip c...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - March 24, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Principal Component Analysis of the PEAK Generalization Module
AbstractThe current study sought to assess the content validity and internal consistency of the PEAK Generalization Module. Eighty-four children with autism were evaluated using the PEAK Generalization Assessment to ascertain the presence or absence of 184 language and learning skills within the child ’s repertoire. Following the assessment, a principal component analysis was run yielding a four-component model of the PEAK Generalization Module. Specifically, components possessing eigenvalues greater than 3 and that had at least one item which was most strongly correlated to them were retained. Items were then sorted...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - March 16, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Some Refinements of a Methodology for Examining the Influence of Overt and Covert Self-Rules on Task Completion
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of overt and covert self-rule statements on the execution of a chained task by participants with developmental disabilities. A multiple baseline design across participants with multi-element phases embedded was used to evaluate the effects of overt and covert self-rules, alternating with blocking and nonblocking phases, on skill acquisition, generalization, and maintenance, in the absence of explicit reinforcement contingencies for accurate performance. All three participants demonstrated acquisition of the chained task and generalization to novel stimuli. Performa...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 21, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Association between Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and their Mothers ’ Anxiety and Depression
AbstractTo assess the impact of their child ’s symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder upon parents’ anxiety and depression, 68 mothers of boys aged 10 to 15 years (M = 12.6 years, SD = 1.6 years) completed the ASD Behaviour Checklist, the GAD7 and the PHQ9 at a single setting. Results indicated that the boys’ restricted and repetitive behaviours had the strongest relationship with their mothers’ anxiety and depression, followed by communication diffic ulties, but the latter set of behaviours did not significantly add to the variance predicted by restricted and repeti...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 2, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Teachers ’ Perceptions of Individualized Education Program (IEP) Goals and Related Services
This study focused on investigating teachers ’ views of the most important IEP goals for their young deaf students, as well as to ask them which services students were receiving. Our purpose was to identify the most prevalent IEP goals guiding early childhood education (ECE) programs and to determine whether services provided were appropriat e for addressing the students’ most critical needs. The participants included 118 young deaf children, ages 3–5, participating in the VL2 Early Educational Longitudinal Study (EELS). Results found that the IEP goals focused on three main areas: 1) improving school rea...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 1, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

“What Didn’t I Do for this Child?”: Parents’ Retrospective Construction of their Child’s CP Diagnostic Process
AbstractIncreased life expectancy exposes ageing parents to a lifetime of living with a child with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The current study aims to highlight the ways in which ageing parents retrospectively construct child ’s CP diagnostic process. A phenomenological–narrative perspective was performed, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 15 ageing parents of children with CP, followed by a content analysis. Three major phases in coping with child’s CP emerged: (1) “What’s wrong with my child? Give me a name”: Searching for extrinsic recognition of the pathology, (2) “When you ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 31, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Editor's Note for Special Issue
(Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 27, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Deaf and Hard-Of-Hearing High School and College Students ’ Perceptions of Speech-To-Text and Interpreting/Note Taking Services and Motivation
AbstractIn this investigation, one study examined the perceptions and motivation of 55 deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH) high school students who used the C-Print speech-to-text service as an accommodation in one mainstream course and interpreting and note taking in a second mainstream course. A second study examined the perceptions and motivation of 88 DHH college students who used each service in a different course. Students in the two studies completed a survey that asked separate sets of questions for the speech-to-text and for the interpreting/note taking supported courses. Results indicated that students rated the printed o...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 26, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Using a Test for Multiply-Maintained Self Injury to Develop Function-Based Treatments
AbstractWhen interpreting results of a functional analysis, a clinician may conclude an automatic function either because problem behavior is elevated in the alone/ignore condition relative to other conditions or because problem behavior is elevated and undifferentiated across multiple conditions. In the latter, it is difficult to determine if problem behavior is maintained by automatic reinforcement alone or is multiply maintained. The current study tested for multiply-maintained self-injurious behavior exhibited by two participants by implementing functional analysis contingencies while controlling for automatic reinforc...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 20, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A “Visitor in the Class”: Marginalization of Students Using AAC in Mainstream Education Classes
This study explored the views of social life among students using AAC in the Norwegian mainstream, public school. Semi-structure interviews were conducted with 7 students using AAC in first to fourth grade, 10 fellow students, 6 parents, and 18 staff. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, three organizational and structural premises for friendship between students using AAC and fellow students were identified. Students using AAC had different and weaker extrinsic premises for developing friendship compared with fellow students in class, and results revealed that they had a visiting role towards students in the m...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 18, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Issues in Infants and Children with Autism and Developmental Delays
AbstractControversy exists regarding whether gastrointestinal (GI) issues play a role in the symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While some studies have found GI problems to be more prevalent in individuals with ASD, others have reported no such difference. Studies looking at the relationship between GI issues and ASD symptom severity have also had mixed results. The current study examined 112 participants between the age of 17 to 37  months. Participants comprised four groups of 28 children: an ASD and no GI issues group, an ASD with GI problems group, an atypical development and no GI issues group, and...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 13, 2017 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Literature on Parenting of Young Children with Visual Impairments and the Adaptions for Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting (VIPP)
This study aimed to identify the themes that should be addressed in adapting VIPP and similar interventions. A Delphi-consultation was conducted with 13 professionals in the field of visual impairment to select the themes for relationship-focused intervention. These themes informed a systematic literature search. Interaction, intersubjectivity, joint attention, exploration, play and specific behavior were the themes mentioned in the Delphi-group. Paired with visual impairment or vision disorders, infants or young children (and their parents) the search yielded 74 articles, making the six themes for intervention adaptation ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 7, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Childhood Motor Function, Health Related Quality of Life and Social Functioning among Emerging Adults Born at Term or Extremely Low Birth Weight
AbstractPoor motor coordination is associated with reduced academic performance, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and social functioning in general population samples of children. Even though childhood motor problems are often chronic, little is known about how they affect educational, health, and social domains beyond adolescence. Further, the status of these associations in individuals known to be at high risk for poor motor coordination (e.g., those born preterm) is not known. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between childhood motor coordination and socioeconomic outcomes, HRQoL, and social f...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 29, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Evaluating the Relationships between the PEAK Relational Training System – Direct Training Module, Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills – Revised, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales – II
AbstractThe present study sought to examine the relationships between two language assessments and a psychometrically validated adaptive behavior scale. The assessments evaluated included thePromoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Relational Training System - Direct Training Module (PEAK-DT), theAssessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills – Revised (ABLLS-R), and theVineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (VABS-II). The assessments were completed for 21 children diagnosed with autism. Results indicate a significant correlation between scores on the PEAK-DT and ABLLS-R (r = 0.951,p 
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 25, 2016 Category: Disability Source Type: research