Effects of a Behavior Intervention Package on Augmented and Vocal Mands by Children with Developmental Disabilities
AbstractVarious types of augmentative and alternative communication systems have been successfully used to enable functional communication in children with developmental disabilities. The effects of such systems on natural speech production have also been investigated, but few studies have explored the effects of specific procedures aim at inducing natural speech within interventions focused on teaching functional use of augmentative and alternative communication systems. The current study investigated the effectiveness of a behavior intervention package for teaching functional use (manding) of an augmentative and alternat...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 21, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Towards a More Family Oriented and Interdisciplinary Screening of Language Development in Young Children: Perceptions, Opinions and Desires of Caregivers of Children with and without Atypical Language Development
AbstractOnly a small number of children with atypical language development who can benefit from early intervention are actually identified before reaching school age. Our aim was to explore perceptions of caregivers of monolingual and multilingual children with and without atypical language development in order to provide relevant themes for improving language screening and referral in Well Child Care (WCC). We interviewed 38 Dutch caregivers of monolingual and multilingual children with and without atypical language development. They were recruited via kindergarten, nurseries, and speech and language pathologists. First, ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 19, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Psychological Benefits of Inclusive Soccer Program in Young Adults with and without Intellectual Disabilities
This study was aimed at investigating the effects of the inclusive soccer program on psychological benefits in young adults with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). In the current study, sport motivation, measured as the relative autonomy index, visuo-spatial working memory and selective attention aspects of executive function, measured as the computerized Corsi Block Tapping Test and Eriksen Flanker Test were assessed. Ten participants with ID and ten typical partners practiced soccer activities together for 50-min each session, twice a week for fifteen-week long. The whole practice sessions were monitored at mode...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 17, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

“Tourette’s Is a Lonely Place”: an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Personal Experience and Identity of Adults with Tourette’s Syndrome
This study, which we believe to be the first of its kind, aimed to expand the litera ture by ‘giving voice’ to this population, and to evaluate the social and personal cost of living with TS during adulthood. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen adults with Tourette’s that focused on how they negotiated their identity and experiences. Transcripts of recorded interviews were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three superordinate themes emerged: a) “Incorporating Tourette’s syndrome into self” revealed two divergent ways in which TS was merged into the...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 13, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Maternal Acceptance –Rejection and Mother–Child Interaction in Turkish Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities
AbstractThe study evaluates the relationship between mothers ’ perceptions of being accepted or rejected by their mothers as children and the quality of mother–child interaction in mothers with developmental disabilities. The mothers’ and children’s ages ranged from 25 to 56 (x = 35.05) and 12 to 72 months (x = 52), respectively. A total of 1 03 children were involved in the study (80 boys and 23 girls); 57 children were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and 46 with other developmental disabilities. Parental Acceptance–Rejection Scale / Mother Assessment ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 8, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Establishing Peer Manding in Young Children with Autism Using a Speech-Generating Device
This study evaluated the use of theinterrupted chain procedure in the establishment of peer manding for three young children with a diagnosis of autism. The procedures involved the presentation of a task related activity (i.e., puzzle) and the neuro-typical peer interrupted the behavioral chain of task completing by withholding the final piece needed to complete the task. An iPad ® based SGD was used as an AAC for the participants to mand for the missing item needed to complete the task related activity from the peer. Additionally, a five-second-time delay with full physical prompts was used for instructional purposes....
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 8, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Youth and Parent Illness Appraisals and Adjustment in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease
AbstractYouth with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and their parents are at increased risk for psychological adjustment difficulties, potentially due to the uncertain and intrusive nature of IBD. However, empirical investigations have yet to assess the contribution of these unique disease features to adjustment outcomes. Our aim was to examine: 1) the influence of youth and parent perceptions of illness uncertainty and illness intrusiveness on youth adjustment; and 2) examine the influence of youth and parent perceived uncertainty and intrusiveness on parent adjustment. Youth with IBD (N = 107) and their pri...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - May 6, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Self-Reported Anxiety, Depression and Coping in Parents of Children with Phenylketonuria
AbstractLimited published research has evaluated mental health in parents of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) and their coping strategies. We aimed to assess anxiety, depression and coping in parents of Tunisian children treated for PKU. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the reference center for the management of inherited metabolic diseases in Tunisia. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale and the Brief-COPE. Dependent variables were anxiety, depression, HAD Depression (HADD) and Anxiety (HADA) scores, and coping scores. Linear regression and logistic binary regression were used for multivariate...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 23, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Training Change Agents how to Implement Formal Preference Assessments: a Review of the Literature
AbstractFormal preference assessments are commonly implemented as a way to evaluate potential reinforcers for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, developmental disabilities, and intellectual disabilities. Today there are numerous formal preference assessments that can be used clinically, and which have been evaluated empirically. Therefore, formal preference assessments are a procedure that behavior analysts, professionals (e.g., teachers or paraprofessionals), and students are trained to implement accurately. This review of the literature included 19 articles, with 21 experiments, that evaluated different...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 11, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Systematic Evaluation of Variables Associated with Emesis: A Case Study
AbstractRecurrent emesis (i.e., vomiting) during mealtime is often a great concern of caregivers of children with pediatric feeding disorders. Identifying the cause and treating the emesis may be difficult due to the multiple factors that may contribute to the occurrence overtime. Emesis may result from various factors, some of which include volume sensitivity, inadequate oral motor skills, and environmental factors related to food novelty and texture. This case study describes a 6-year-old boy with spina bifida who was dependent upon gastrointestinal-tube feedings due to frequent emesis when fed orally. Upon admission to ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 10, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Effect of Video Embedded with Hotspots with Dynamic Text on Single-Word Recognition by Children with Multiple Disabilities
AbstractThe purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of an intervention on single-word recognition. The intervention used an AAC app programmed with video visual scene displays (VSDs) embedded with hotspots with the Transition to Literacy (T2L) feature. Three school-aged children with multiple disabilities who had limited speech and limited literacy skills participated in a multiple baseline across participants design. Four names of characters in favorite movies and shows served as target words for each participant. All three children demonstrated an increase in accurate identification of target words from baseline...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 9, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Impact of Inclusive Soccer Program on Psychosocial Development of Children with and without Intellectual Disabilities
AbstractErroneous perception of “disability” in typically developing children leads to the exclusion of children with intellectual disabilities in sport. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of inclusive soccer (INS) program on ameliorating adverse behavior in children with and without intellectu al disabilities (ID). Participants were 40 children, with half having intellectual disabilities (n = 20). Both the experimental and comparison groups consisted of 10 children with and without ID, respectively. The experimental group participated in an INS whereas the compari...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - April 3, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Reading Failure in a Completely Transparent Orthography Representing a Morphologically Highly Complex Agglutinative Language: the Case of Turkish
This study investigates differences in the word processing skills of students with and without reading difficulties who read Turkish, an entirely transparent orthography. Thirty-five students diagnosed as poor readers and 51 typically developing controls were tested across two experiments, one that assessed their ability to process identicalness of isolated real words as opposed to pseudowords and another that assessed their ability to judge semantic relatedness of two real words. Participants were from two education levels; half of them were 3rd-4th graders and half were 6th –7th graders. An integrative view of the ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - March 28, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Effect of Task Modifications on the Fundamental Motor Skills of Boys on the Autism Spectrum: A Pilot Study
This study demonstrates the potential impact that an intervention designed around task modifications can have; however, it also shows that interventions may need to be designed at an individual level and contain the flexibility to adjust to the needs of the child. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - March 24, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Reconsidering Empathy Deficits in Children and Adolescents with Autism
AbstractHumans need empathy to promote social interactions and to display prosocial behavior. Therefore, it is not surprising that low empathy skills are commonly seen as diagnostic features in several mental disorders. Empathy is an interesting topic in autism, since low empathy skills are responsible for the social difficulties that individuals with autism experience. The lack of agreement among researchers on empathy and autism, however, indicates that we need to redefine the characteristics of empathy in autism, which is the aim of our study. We hypothesize that children and adolescents with autism are impaired in thre...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - March 20, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Cognitive and Behavioral Functioning Among Fraternal Twins with an Unbalanced Translocation of Chromosomes 10q and 12p: A Case Report
We describe the children’s cognitive and behavioral phenotype (including autism spectrum disorder, moderate intellectual disability, and language disorder), discuss a possible genetic mechanism contributing to their comorbidities (i.e., 12p13 microdeletions), and revi ew other potential contributing factors to their presentation. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - March 12, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

History of Maltreatment is not Associated with Symptom Profiles of Children with Autism
AbstractSome authors hypothesize that autism in children from orphanages results from neglect, which has been referred to as “quasi-autistic pattern” and “post-institutional autistic syndrome.” However, studies of children who have been neglected show even higher rates of ADHD, oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, anxiety, and depression than rates of autism. Our study determined if autism symptoms differed between children with autism who were and were not maltreated and if duration of and number of years since removal from neglect were related to symptoms in 789 children with autism, 2&ndas...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 22, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Functional Gait Measures Prediction by Spatiotemporal and Gait Symmetry in Individuals Post Stroke
AbstractHemiplegic individuals often exhibit gait impairments. Current technologies allow for simple and fast acquisition of spatiotemporal gait parameters and gait Symmetry Indices (SI). Gait SI have been associated with instability and fall risk. These data may therefore prove an important addition to the already common conventional clinical measures, e.g. the 10 Meter Walk Test (10MWT), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the Motor Functional Independence Measure (MFIM). However, the prediction of these conventional clinical measures using spatiotemporal gait parameters ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 21, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Delivering Quality Allied Health Services to Children with Complex Disability via Telepractice: Lessons Learned from Four Case Studies
AbstractPeople with disabilities living in rural and remote areas often have insufficient access to the allied health services that they require. Telepractice has emerged as a promising solution, yet little is known about whether it is possible to deliver quality disability therapy services via technology or of the considerations required to achieve positive outcomes. Multiple case studies using mixed methods were conducted to achieve in-depth examination of the telepractice services received by four children with disabilities and their families living in rural and remote Australia. Data analysis indicated that telepractic...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 16, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Assessing Pain in Adults with Intellectual Disability: a Descriptive and Qualitative Evaluation of Ratings and Impressions Among Care-Providers
We report findings, summarize common themes, and suggest future directions for clinical practice and research. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 15, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Parental Perception of Quality of Life for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
AbstractOur purpose for this study was to investigate how parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) rate their child ’s quality of life (QOL). We began by developing a parent proxy-report QOL assessment instrument with subscales and then distributed it statewide to parents of children with ASD. The scale demonstrated strong internal consistency with a full-scale Cronbach’s alpha of .835. Our results indicated that 0% of the parents rated their child as having a poor QOL, 66% rated their child as having a good QOL, and 16% rated their child as having an excellent QOL. Our results support the notion...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 11, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue
(Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - February 1, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Conceptions of Learning and Thinking Styles Among Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing, and Hearing Students
This study explores how students ’ conceptions of learning relate to their thinking styles by administering the Conceptions of Learning Inventory III and the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised II to 350 deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) and 463 hearing university students in mainland China. The reliabilities for the two inventories we re first estimated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. Then, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the validity of the COL-III. Finally, to predict thinking styles from conceptions of learning, hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted. Results showed that, a...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 29, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Preference for Food and Non-food Items of Known Reinforcing Values in People with Developmental Disabilities
This study compared preference for food and non-food items with similar and dissimilar reinforcing values in three people with developmental disabilities. The study first evaluated the reinforcing value of food and non-food items in an ABAB design. Selected food and non-food items with similar and dissimilar reinforcing values were presented in a subsequent paired-stimulus preference assessment. Results showed that when food and non-food items were of approximately equal reinforcing value, or when food was more reinforcing than the non-food items, food tended to be preferred. However, when non-food items were much more rei...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 26, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Snakes and Ladders: Barriers and Facilitators Experienced by Immigrant Families when Accessing an Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis
AbstractThere presently exists limited information or studies on means to support immigrant families as they attempt to access quality services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An ASD diagnosis is the gateway to support services and adapted interventions. Yet, studies show that immigrant families typically experience longer delays in obtaining a diagnosis and more challenges in gaining access to services. Twenty-four families who immigrated to Qu ébec (Canada) participated in semi-structured interviews in which they listed the obstacles and facilitators encountered in their service trajectory to obt...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 22, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

An Exploratory Study of the Utility of the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
AbstractParent-child interactions are critically important for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as a number of the core symptoms of ASD are specifically impacted by parental behaviors and many efficacious treatment options for children with ASD rely on altering parental behaviors. Research has reported on the use and effectiveness of Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in addressing behavioral difficulties in children with ASD. A core feature of PCIT is observations of parent-child interactions using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System (DPICS) for assessment, treatment planning, and outcome mo...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 12, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Effects of Inclusive Soccer Program on Motor Performance and Sport Skill in Young Adults with and without Intellectual Disabilities
This study aimed at investigating the effect of inclusive soccer program on motor performance and sport skill in young adults with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Twelve participants with ID and twelve typical partners practiced 50-min each session, twice a week for 15-week long. All participants were encouraged to perform the practice at moderate exercise intensity. Measures of manual dexterity, mobility and soccer skills were tested pre- and post- program. This study showed participants with ID were able to perceive and report a number of exertion level in response to the intensity of exercise. In addition, p...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 10, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Review of Strategies to Increase Comfort and Compliance with Medical/Dental Routines in Persons with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
AbstractNoncompliance with basic health care can have profound effects on long term health and well-being for everyone, but especially for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Perhaps the factor most responsible for noncompliance is the fear associated with medical and dental procedures. We reviewed the research literature to identify the empirical support for interventions designed to address noncompliance with medical routines in the IDD population. Across 32 studies that were reviewed, the most common components used in treatment of fear avoidance and noncompliance with medical/dental rout...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 10, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Role of Parent Characteristics in Parent-Mediated Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
AbstractParent-mediated interventions (PMI) are increasingly being used to target skill deficits in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Evidence documenting the benefits of PMI is accumulating, however, little is known about whether parent characteristics impact children ’s treatment outcomes. We reviewed the PMI literature using PRISMA guidelines to address this gap. We identified 115 PMI studies published between 1987 and September 2018; of these, only 11 examined the contributions of baseline parent/caregiver characteristics on children’s outcomes. These stud ies vary widely in regard to the interv...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 7, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Developing and Implementing a Telehealth Enhanced Interdisciplinary Pediatric Feeding Disorders Clinic: a Program Description and Evaluation
This study described a model for outpatient feeding services serving clients with intellectual and developmental disabilities within a coordinated health care model through a telehealth enhanced clinic. Further a cost savings analysis demonstrated a savings in travel time and travel costs relevant to receiving services. Practical recommendations for practitioners who are interested in using telehealth enhanced services for pediatric feeding problems were discussed. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 3, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Social Validity of Strategies to Assist Females with ASD during Gynecological Examinations
This study aimed to identify strategies that stakeholders would deem appropriate for use during a gynecological exam for a female with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who also has limited language (LL). Females with ASD are not receiving the same gynecological care as their non-ASD peers yet may have a greater need for such care due to increased health risks. Twenty-three parents and six caregivers of a female with ASD and LL, three females with ASD/Asperger ’s, and two nurses responded to an online survey about possible strategies to use with a female with ASD and LL during a routine gynecological exam. With the use ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 3, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Depression and Life Satisfaction among Parents Caring for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities in South Korea
This study examined the mediating effect of depression in the relationship between caregiving-related stressors (caregiving time and behavior problems) and life satisfaction among parents caring for individuals with developmental disabilities. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the 2011 Survey on the Actual Conditions of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities, conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. Caregiving time, behavior problems, parental depression, and life satisfaction were measured. The proposed path model showed a good fit to the data: caregiving time and severity of behavior prob...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - January 3, 2019 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Psychological, Health, and Demographic Correlates of Atypical Eating Behaviors in Children with Autism
AbstractPotential psychological, health, and demographic correlates of atypical eating behaviors in children with autism were analyzed in the largest sample with the broadest range of independent variables to date. Eating behaviors were assessed in 1112 children with autism 1 –17 years of age using the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder (CASD), a standardized parent interview conducted by licensed psychologists. Independent variables were demographics (age, IQ, sex, race, and parent occupation), 29 CASD autism symptom scores (e.g., distress with change and sensory hypersensitivity), psychotropic medication u...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 19, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Robotic Intervention Program for Enhancement of Social Engagement among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
This study investigated the effectiveness of a robotic intervention in enhancing the social engagement of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The clinical use of social or interactive robots is promising for enhancing the social skills of children with ASD. Teaching and intervention programs using humanoid robots for children with ASD are developing rapidly. In this study, a repeated-measures design was adopted to test the treatment effectiveness of a robotic intervention program; 14 students with ASD were recruited in this study. An individual-based social skills training program using the NAO robot was administ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 19, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

The Perceptions and Goals of Special Education Advocacy Trainees
In this study, we evaluated the perceptions of 142 participants who completed the Volunteer Advocacy Project (VAP), a special education advocacy training. Using participants ’ responses to open-ended questions on the VAP application, we examined the perceptions of caregivers and professionals to understand their motivations for becoming advocates, their plans for using their newfound knowledge and skills, and their perceptions of the attributes of special education ad vocates. Findings indicated some key differences between caregivers and professionals in their reasons for becoming advocates and plans for using their...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 19, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Acquiring the Skill of Identifying Fractions through the Virtual-Abstract Framework
This study investigated the effects of using the Virtual-Abstract framework to teach sixth-grade students with developmental disabilities to identify fractions. Through a multiple probe across participants design, researchers examined if a functional relation existed between students ’ acquisition of the mathematical behavior of identifying fractions and the Virtual-Abstract (VA) framework. For each student, the study involved three-to-five baseline sessions, six-to-nine intervention sessions, and two maintenance sessions. Two of the students also completed three abstract boos t sessions and two additional maintenanc...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 19, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Reliability and Validity Studies of the Adapted Autism Behaviour Checklist in Turkey
AbstractThe present study aims to develop an assessment instrument for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Turkey based on the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). Validity and reliability studies of Adapted ABC (AABC) were conducted on 969 children with ASD and 164 children with intellectual disability from 21 cities in Turkey. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a two-factor structure. The correlation of the AABC with the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2-Turkish Version supported criterion-referenced validity. Reliability analyses demonstrated that test –retest, internal consistency, and ite...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - December 4, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the Early Clinical Assessment of Balance (ECAB) for Young Children with Cerebral Palsy
AbstractThe Early Clinical Assessment of Balance (ECAB) is a clinical tool that measures the postural stability of young children with cerebral palsy (CP) between the ages of one and a half to five years. The aim of this study was to test the reliability and the validity of the Turkish version of the ECAB in children with CP. Fifty children with spastic CP with the median age of 4.25 (IQR: 3 –5) years were included in the study. The children were between the levels I-V according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Test-retest reliability of the ECAB was evaluated by using the Intraclass Correla...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 28, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Homeschool Decision-Making and Evidence-Based Practice for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
AbstractHomeschooling children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased in popularity and is an educational option considered by parents. Interviews were conducted with 9 parents homeschooling children with ASD to systematically characterize reasons parents provide for their decision to homeschool and the educational experiences parents are providing. Five distinct themes emerged regarding reasons parents decided to homeschool children with ASD. Parents began homeschooling at a mean grade of 4.33 and their decision to homeschool was characterized by a long-term process for 55.56% and following one catalyst event f...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 27, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Psychosocial Correlates of Physical Activity Participation and Screen-Time in Typically Developing Children and Children on the Autism Spectrum
This study compared psychosocial factors associated with physical activity and screen-time between nine-year old children with ASD (n = 55) and TD children (n = 55). Variables of interest included self-concept, peer relationship problems, prosocial behaviors, and number of, and time spent, with friends. It was hypothesized that psychosocial correlates of health behaviors differ between children with and without ASD. Parents completed questionnaires assessing the child ’s physical activity, screen-time, and psychosocial characteristics. Regression analyses indicated that for measures of phy...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 16, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Dose-Response Association between Exercise Intensity and Manual Motor Performance in Individuals with Down Syndrome: a Preliminary Study
This study was aimed at investigating the dose-response relationship between acute exercise and its effects on manual motor control mediated by the intensity of exercise in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Participants were randomized into vigorous-intensity exercise (i.e., 75 –85% of predicted MaxHR), moderate-intensity exercise (i.e., 50–75% of predicted MaxHR) or control groups. The exercise groups performed an incremental walking protocol on the treadmill and the control group watched a video for 20-min. Measures of grip strength and manual dexterity were tested p re- and post- intervention. A quadric t...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 10, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Well-Being in a Sample of Deaf Adults
This study examines the correlates of happiness among 377 deaf adults using an anonymous online questionnaire. Results indicate that there are several correlates of happiness, including satisfaction with family and friends ’ relationships and communication, membership in the deaf and hearing communities, education, income, body image, education, and resilience. All except education were predictors of happiness scores. These findings are supported by other studies of the general population. They support the idea that deaf individuals are happy when they have satisfying employment, living conditions, family and friends...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - November 6, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Parenting Style among Indonesian Parents of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Associations with Socio-Economic Status and Social Supports
This study supports existing evidence for associations among parenting style and social supports, but raises questions about the cultural meanings of these parenting styles for parents with a child with ASD in Indonesia. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 31, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Using the Young Children ’s Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM) to Describe Young Children’s Participation and Relationship to Disability and Complexity
AbstractMinimal research exists on the participation of young children who are five years and younger. The purpose of this study is to describe the participation of young children who use a large children ’s treatment centre in Ontario, Canada in relation to primary diagnosis and complexity (cumulative number of functional concerns). One hundred and seventy parent responses described environmental supports and barriers, participation frequency and level of involvement in home, daycare/preschool, an d community settings as well as parent’s desired change in activities using the Young Children’s Participati...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 22, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Dental Desensitization for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Graduated Exposure, Reinforcement, and Reinforcement-Fading
AbstractMany persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities resist basic dental care leading to poor oral health. The present study evaluated the effects of a dental desensitization intervention for two students who had autism spectrum disorder and would not tolerate tooth cleaning and examination. Intervention consisted of gradually exposing the students to steps within a desensitization hierarchy, reinforcing compliance, and progressively fading-eliminating reinforcement. Familiar care-providers implemented intervention within a simulated dental setting at their school. Both students completed intervention succ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 16, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Non-ambulatory People with Intellectual Disabilities Practice Functional Arm, Leg or Head Responses Via a Smartphone-Based Program
This study extended the research on technology-aided programs for promoting the independent performance (practice) of functional motor responses (e.g., arm or leg-foot movements) in people with intellectual disabilities and extensive motor impairments. Specifically, the study assessed (a) the suitability of simple commercial technology (i.e., a smartphone) to monitor the responses targeted and provide stimulation contingent on them, and (b) the impact of response performance on the participants ’ level of physical exertion (heart rates) and mood. The results showed that the simple commercial technology was effective ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 8, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Microswitch-Cluster Technology for Promoting Occupation and Reducing Hand Biting of Six Adolescents with Fragile X Syndrome: New Evidence and Social Rating
AbstractWe further extended the use of microswitch-cluster technology for promoting occupational activities and reducing hand biting of six adolescents with fragile X syndrome and severe to profound developmental disabilities. The primary rehabilitative goal was to enhance the adaptive response (i.e., inserting three different objects in the three containers within a 4  s time interval). The secondary objective was to evaluate the effects of the intervention on indices of positive participation as outcome measure of the participants ‘quality of life. Finally, a social validation assessment involving sixty-six ex...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 3, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Self-Injurious Behavior in People with Intellectual Disabilities and Co-Occurring Psychopathology using the Self-Harm Scale: A Pilot Study
This study was one of the few that used an incident-based record form to report SIB by direct observation. It is hoped that the SHS helps to gain more information about SIB, to improve individualized interventions. Further research is necessary to determine the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the scale. (Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities)
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 1, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research

Exploring Perceptions of Blame for Autism Spectrum Disorder
AbstractScience has made strides in describing the neurobiological and genetic bases for autism, but its etiology remains poorly understood. Literature reveals that when families face an autism diagnosis they speculate reasons for its cause, many of which are consistent – and others not consistent – with current scientific understanding. Beliefs affect families’ emotional responses and behaviors related to helping their children. This pilot study involved the development of a survey instrument based on a sample of fifteen “causal” beliefs for autism repor ted in a review of the literature, and...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - October 1, 2018 Category: Disability Source Type: research