Alcohol-related beliefs and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Cape Town, South Africa
This study conducted a clinic-based survey with 100 men and 193 women (mean age  = 36) to examine the prevalence of alcohol-ART interactive toxicity beliefs and whether they contribute to treatment non-adherence in South Africa. One in three (36%, n = 106) participants reported no current alcohol use and 64% (n = 187) reported current alcohol use. The majority of pa rticipants, including current alcohol drinkers, endorsed beliefs that it is harmful to mix ART and alcohol, with 57% who currently drink reporting that they forgo taking ART when they are drinking. Participants reported being warned not to mix alcoh...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A multimethod approach examining the relative contributions of optimism and pessimism to cardiovascular disease risk markers
This study addressed these issues by using multiple indicators of optimism and pessimism and linking them to objective risk factors for CVD. A diverse sample of adults (N = 300) completed baseline assessments (including global reports of optimism and pessimism), a 2-day/1-night EMA protocol with ambulatory blood pressure (BP) at 45-min intervals, and had inflammatory markers and carotid intima media imaging collected. EMA reports of momentary positive and negati ve expectations were averaged to form intraindividual (person) means of optimism and pessimism, respectively. Optimism and pessimism were only modestly correla...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Cognitive behavioral therapy for primary care depression and anxiety: a secondary meta-analytic review using robust variance estimation in meta-regression
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a typo in the second author surname. The author surname was incorrectly listed as Borhneimer. The correct name should be Bornheimer. (Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Testing a model of fear of cancer recurrence or progression: the central role of intrusions, death anxiety and threat appraisal
This study tested predictions arising from the model to explain fear of cancer recurrence or progression (FCR). Patients with cancer were recruited from a research registry or outpatient hospital clinics (n  = 211). In bivariate analyses, FCR was associated with metacognitive beliefs, intolerance of uncertainty, core belief disruption, less meaning in life, social constraints, death anxiety, intrusions, threat appraisal, and coping. A hierarchical regression explained 65% of the variance in FCR. FC R was predicted by younger age, intrusions, death anxiety, threat appraisal and meta-cognitions. The findings highlight th...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A response to ‘Comment on “Urban building demolitions, firearm violence and drug crime”’
(Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Association of social network factors with weight status and weight loss intentions among hispanic adults
AbstractHispanic adults have the highest obesity prevalence in the United States, but little is known about weight-related social network influences. A community-based sample of 610 Hispanic participants completed height/weight and a survey. The proportion of overweight or obese (OW/OB) network members was higher for OW/OB respondents compared to normal weight respondents. Participants with high weight loss intentions reported more positive social norms for weight control, social support, and social cohesion. If most or all of OW/OB participant ’s social contacts were trying to lose weight, the odds that they were likely...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - December 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Comment on “Urban building demolitions, firearm violence and drug crime”
(Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - December 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Disgust propensity has a causal link to the stigmatization of people with cancer
This study had two parts: a survey (n = 272), assessing the association between disgust traits and cancer stigma; and an experiment, in which participants were exposed to a cancer surgery (n = 73) or neutral video (n = 68), in order to test a causal mechanism for the abovementioned association. Having a higher proneness to disgust was associated with an increased tendency to stigmatize people with cancer. Further, a significant causal pathway was observed between disgust propensity and awkwardness- and avoi dance-based cancer stigma via elevated disgust following cancer surgery exposure. In contrast, those expo...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - December 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychological and neighborhood factors associated with urban women ’s preventive care use
This study focuses on the largely understudied areas of psychological barriers (depression) and neighborhood factors (support and stressors) that may be associated w ith women’s preventive care use through secondary analysis of the Chicago Community Adult Health Study. Across models, 30–40% of the variance in preventive care adherence was explained by the neighborhood. Depressive symptoms were not associated with preventive care use when neighborhood factors were included. However, stratified models showed that associations varied by race/ethnicity. Previous research has tended to focus on individual determinants of ca...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - December 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The relationship between minority stress and biological outcomes: A systematic review
AbstractSexual minority (non-heterosexual) individuals experience higher rates of physical health problems. Minority stress has been the primary explanatory model to account for this disparity. The purpose of this study was to identify in published research empirically established relationships between minority stress processes and biological outcomes and identify avenues for future research. The PubMed database was queried with search terms relevant to minority stress and a comprehensive list of physical and biological outcomes. To be included in the analysis, studies had to examine the relationship between minority stres...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - December 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The benefits of expressive writing among newly diagnosed mainland Chinese breast cancer patients
AbstractThe study aimed to evaluate the effects of an expressive writing intervention on quality of life (QoL) among mainland Chinese breast cancer patients. A total of 118 Chinese breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups: a cancer-facts writing condition (CTL group), an emotional disclosure writing condition (EMO group), a self-regulation writing condition (SR group), or a neutral control condition with no writing tasks (CON group). QoL was assessed by FACT-B at baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-ups. A repeated measure analysis of variance revealed significant effects of time (F  = 13.9,P  ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - December 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Acquisition and generalization of cough trigger beliefs in allergic rhinitis
In this study, we investigated the acquisition and generalization of symptom trigger beliefs in individuals with allergic rhinitis (n  = 24) and control participants (n = 24). In a lab-based trigger acquisition task, unique exemplars of two trigger categories were either paired with saline inhalation (CS− category) or citric acid inhalation (CS+ category). The next day, we tested recognition and symptom expectancy for CS category exemplars and exemplars of novel trigger categories. Participants acquired differential symptom expectancies for CS+ compared to CS− exemplars, with faster acquisition in participants ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - December 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Caring for a spouse with advanced cancer: similarities and differences for male and female caregivers
AbstractMost caregiving literature has focused on women, who have traditionally taken on caregiving roles. However, more research is needed to clarify the mixed evidence regarding the impact of gender on caregiver/patient psychological outcomes, especially in an advanced cancer context. In this paper, we examine gender differences in caregiver stress, burden, anxiety, depression, and coping styles, as well as how caregiver gender impacts patient outcomes in the context of advanced cancer. Eighty-eight patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers completed psychosocial surveys. All couples were heterosexual and most c...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - December 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Race-related differences in acute pain complaints among inner-city women: the role of socioeconomic status
AbstractPrevious research has shown that African Americans (AA) report higher pain intensity and pain interference than other racial/ethnic groups as well as greater levels of other risk factors related to worse pain outcomes, including PTSD symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and sleep disturbance. Within a Conservation of Resources theory framework, we tested the hypothesis that socioeconomic status (SES) factors (i.e., income, education, employment, perception of income meeting basic needs) largely account for these racial/ethnic differences. Participants were 435 women [AA, 59.1%; Hispanic/Latina (HL), 25.3%; Non-Hispanic/...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - December 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The moderating role of pain catastrophizing on the relationship between partner support and pain intensity: a daily diary study in patients with knee osteoarthritis
The objective of this study was to examine the day-to-day associations between partner support, pain catastrophizing and pain intensity in individuals with end-stage knee osteoarthritis. In this microlongitudinal cohort study, participants (N  = 124) with end-stage knee osteoarthritis completed baseline measures of trait pain catastrophizing and negative affect. Participants also provided daily diary assessments of partner support, pain catastrophizing and pain intensity for a period of 7 days using a personal digital assistant. Mul tilevel analyses revealed that day-to-day fluctuations in pain catastrophizing were as...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - December 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research