Sleep and neighborhood socioeconomic status: a micro longitudinal study of chronic low-back pain and pain-free individuals
This study compared associations between neighborhood-level SES, pain-status (cLBP vs. pain-free), and daily sleep metrics in 117 adults (cLBP  = 82, pain-free = 35). Neighborhood-level SES was gathered from Neighborhood Atlas, which provides a composite measurement of overall neighborhood deprivation (e.g. area deprivation index). Individuals completed home sleep monitoring for 7-consecutive days/nights. Neighborhood SES and pain-stat us were tested as predictors of actigraphic sleep variables (e.g., sleep efficiency). Analyses revealed neighborhood-level SES and neighborhood-level SES*pain-status interaction signific...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - June 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Non-fatal gun violence and community health behaviors: A neighborhood analysis in Philadelphia
AbstractResearch shows that community violence is associated with an array of negative health outcomes, yet no study has examined the specific association between different types of gun violence and collective health behaviors in local neighborhoods. Using data from neighborhoods in the city of Philadelphia, this study examines the association between total, fatal, and non-fatal gun violence and measures of physical inactivity, obesity, sleep, and smoking. We find the rate of non-fatal shootings is associated with a composite measure of health behaviors, net of all neighborhood-level covariates and general community violen...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - June 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychological and behavioral pathways between perceived stress and weight change in a behavioral weight loss intervention
This study sought to assess whether baseline stress was directly or indirectly associated with 6-month weight change among Black women participating in a behavioral weight loss study. Indirect pathways of interest included depressive symptoms and dietary intake. A secondary analysis of data (n  = 409) collected from a cluster, randomized behavioral weight loss trial was conducted. Demographics, anthropometry, surveys, and dietary data were collected at baseline and 6 months. Path analysis was used to test for direct and indirect effects of baseline stress on 6-month weight change whi le controlling for sociodemographi...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Factors associated with barriers to engagement in HIV-prevention care among sexual minority men
AbstractEngagement with HIV-prevention services varies among sexual minority men (SMM). 183 HIV-negative SMM completed a baseline assessment including sociodemographic, psychosocial, identity and stigma, and sexuality measures, as well as HIV-prevention behaviors: (1) date of most recent HIV test, (2) whether they discussed HIV or (3) sexual behavior with their provider, and (4) disclosure to provider about engaging in condomless anal sex (CAS). Factor analysis of these four items yielded an HIV-prevention engagement factor score. Stochastic search variable selection (SSVS) followed by multiple linear regression identified...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dyadic concordance and associations of beliefs with intentions to learn carrier results from genomic sequencing
This study examined the extent to which cohabitating romantic dyads ’ attitudes and beliefs coincide (i.e., dyadic concordance) in addition to how well they predict intentions to learn genomic sequencing results. The actor-partner interdependence model was applied to cross-sectional data from 81 dyads in an exome sequencing study who were surveyed about their risk perceptions, worry, information avoidance, attitudes, and intentions toward learning carrier results. Information avoidance tendencies were positively correlated between partners, but there was low concordance on other beliefs. Individuals’ attitudes and info...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Relations between social comparisons and physical activity among women in midlife with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease: an ecological momentary assessment study
AbstractWomen in midlife (ages 40 –60) show decreases in physical activity (PA) that exacerbate risk for cardiovascular disease. Social comparisons (i.e., self-evaluations relative to others) are known to influence PA in other groups, but their association in this population is unknown. The present study used ecological momentary assessment to examine this relation among women in midlife with hypertension or another CVD risk condition (N = 75,MBMI = 34.0 kg/m2). Participants completed 5 surveys per day and wore tri-axial accelerometers for 10 days. PA engagement was lower after women reported more comparisons tha...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Profiles of partner health linked to a partner-focused intervention following patient initial implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)
This study examined differential responses among partners who participated in a RCT designed to compare two social cognitive theory interventions, one designed for patients only (P-only) and one for patientsand their intimate partners (P  + P). The interventions were delivered following the patient receiving an initial ICD implant.Partner health outcomes were examined longitudinally from baseline at hospital discharge to 3, 6, and 12  months. Outcomes included 6 measures: partner physical and mental health status (Short-Form-36 PCS and MCS), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inv...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer survivors (MBSR(BC)): evaluating mediators of psychological and physical outcomes in a large randomized controlled trial
AbstractMBSR(BC) is known to have a positive impact on psychological and physical symptoms among breast cancer survivors (BCS). The cognitive mechanisms of “how” MBSR(BC) works was addressed in a recent study that found that there was strong consistent evidence that reduced emotional reactivity is a mediator and moderate consistent evidence that mindfulness, rumination, and worry were mediators. The purpose of this study, as part of a larger R01 tr ial, was to test whether positive effects achieved from the MBSR(BC) program were mediated through changes in increased mindfulness, decreased fear of breast cancer recurren...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Adaptive, behavioral intervention impact on weight gain, physical activity, energy intake, and motivational determinants: results of a feasibility trial in pregnant women with overweight/obesity
AbstractInterventions have modest impact on reducing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) in pregnant women with overweight/obesity. This two-arm feasibility randomized control trial tested delivery of and compliance with an intervention using adapted dosages to regulate GWG, and examined pre-post change in GWG and secondary outcomes (physical activity: PA, energy intake: EI, theories of planned behavior/self-regulation constructs) compared to a usual care group. Pregnant women with overweight/obesity (N = 31) were randomized to a usual care control group or usual care + intervention group from 8 to 2 weeks ges...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 5, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

When belongingness backfires: experienced discrimination predicts increased cardiometabolic risk among college students high in social belonging
AbstractResearch implicates experiences of discrimination in exacerbating cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk. Belongingness has been suggested as a buffer against the adverse effects of discrimination. However, when discrimination occurs in an environment to which one feels they belong, then the potential benefits of belongingness may dissipate or even exacerbate the effects of discrimination. In the present study, we examined these competing hypotheses on how campus belonging might moderate the relationship between discrimination experienced on campus and CMD risk. College students (n = 160, 60.9% Latino/a/x) reported...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The bidirectional relationship between sense of purpose in life and physical activity: a longitudinal study
AbstractPeople with a greater sense of purpose in life may be more likely to engage in physical activity. At the same time, physical activity can contribute to a sense of purpose in life. The present research tests these hypotheses using a cross-lagged panel model in a nationally representative, longitudinal panel of American adults (N = 14,159,Mage = 68). An increase in sense of purpose in life was associated with higher physical activity four years later, above and beyond past activity levels. Physical activity was positively associated with future levels of sense of purpose in life, controlling for prior levels ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Gender differences in the relationship between social support and strain and mortality among a national sample of adults
AbstractWe assessed gender differences in the relationship between mortality and social support, strain, and affectual solidarity received from family, friends and spouses. Data of 6259 adults from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) survey were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards were used to assess relationships between mortality and support, strain, and affectual solidarity and whether the associations varied by gender. Support from family, friends, and spouses/partners and friend affectual solidarity were associated with lower mortality in the total sample. Friend strain was associated with higher morta...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The role of mindfulness in associations among depression symptoms, sleep duration, and insulin resistance in adolescents
Abstract Sleep difficulties may be one explanatory factor in the association between depression and insulin resistance; yet, explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We determined if there was an indirect effect of depression symptoms on insulin resistance through sleep duration in adolescents at risk for excess weight gain. We also investigated whether dispositional mindfulness moderated the interconnections among depression, sleep, and insulin resistance. Ninety adolescents (14.2  ± 1.6y; 50% female) at risk for excess weight gain (body mass index [BMI, kg/m2]  z score 1.6 ± 0.6) participated in the cro...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Beyond political affiliation: an examination of the relationships between social factors and perceptions of and responses to COVID-19
In this study, data were collected from a national sample of 1141 participants from th e United States to examine how beliefs and behavioral responses to COVID-19 have been shaped by sociopolitical characteristics. The relationships between social predictors; perceived severity, knowledge, and fear of the virus; and health behaviors were tested using path analysis. Social characterist ics significantly predicted perceived severity, knowledge, and fear, as well as health behaviors, even after controlling for an objective indicator of the risk of contracting the virus. Our findings suggest that perceptions and knowledge of t...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Influence of patient immigrant status on physician trainee diabetes treatment decisions: a virtual patient experimental study
AbstractTo determine the effect of patient immigrant status on physician trainees ’ diabetes treatment decisions. Participants were 140 physician trainees (‘providers’). Providers viewed videos and vignettes of virtual patients differing in immigrant status (born in Mexico or U.S.; other characteristics held constant). Analyses were completed at the group and individual lev els. Providers were less likely to refer foreign-born (vs. U.S.-born) patients to endocrinology. Individual-level results showed an almost even split between treatment ratings for foreign-born vs. U.S.-born patients for three decisions (take no ac...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research