Social-ecological considerations for the sleep health of rural mothers
AbstractUsing a social-ecological framework, we identify social determinants that interact to influence sleep health, identify gaps in the literature, and make recommendations for targeting sleep health in rural mothers. Rural mothers experience unique challenges and protective factors in maintaining adequate sleep health during the postpartum and early maternal years. Geographic isolation, barriers to comprehensive behavioral medicine services, and intra-rural ethno-racial disparities are discussed at the societal (e.g., public policy), social (e.g., community) and individual levels (e.g., stress) of the social-ecological...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity trajectories during adolescence and young adulthood predict adiposity in young adulthood: The Iowa Bone Development Study
This study examined the associations of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) trajectories in adolescence through young adulthood with adiposity in young adults. Participants from The Iowa Bone Development Study cohort were longitudinally assessed (N  = 297; 57% female). Accelerometry-measured MVPA (min/day) at ages 15 through 23 years, and fat mass and visceral adipose tissue mass indices (kg/m2, g/m2) derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans at age 23  years were analyzed. Latent trajectory analyses classified MVPA into two patterns. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treating postpartum depression in rural veterans using internet delivered CBT: program evaluation of MomMoodBooster
This study reports on a program evaluation of MomMoodBooster, a coach-supported internet-delive red CBT program for the treatment of maternal depression in veteran women. Repeated measures ANOVA, run with this sample of 326 women, demonstrated an overall positive effect size across outcome measures and engagement with no differences found between rural women and their urban counterparts. Some differences between urban and rural participants were found in total and average time spent with coaches as well as ratings of coach helpfulness, possibly indicating some cultural differences between coaches and rural women that need ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Age-varying associations between physical activity and psychological outcomes among rural cancer survivors
We examined the prevalence of psychological outcomes (i.e., symptoms of depression and anxiety) by age and age-varying associations between physical activity and psychological outcomes among rural cancer survivors. Participants (N  =  219; ages 22–93) completed sociodemographic, psychological, and physical activity questionnaires. Time-varying effect models estimated the prevalence of psychological outcomes and assessed associations between physical activity and psychological outcomes as a flexible function of age. Depressio n and anxiety symptoms decreased with age among cancer survivors aged 22–40 years and were...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Bleak present, bright future: II. Combined effects of episodic future thinking and scarcity on delay discounting in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes
AbstractThe present study sought to determine if episodic future thinking (EFT) can decrease delay discounting (DD) and demand for fast food under simulations of economic scarcity in adults at risk for diabetes (i.e., overweight/obese and with hemoglobin A1c values in, or approaching, the prediabetic range). Across two sessions, participants completed assessments of DD and food demand at baseline and while prompted to: (1) engage in either EFT or control episodic recent thinking, and (2) while reading a brief narrative describing either economic scarcity or neutral income conditions. Results showed that EFT significantly r...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of anxiety sensitivity on cannabis, alcohol, and nicotine use among adolescents: evaluating pathways through anxiety, withdrawal symptoms, and coping motives
AbstractAnxiety sensitivity (AS) is a promising intervention target due to its relevance to negative health behaviors broadly, and substance use specifically. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the direct and indirect pathways through which elevated AS could relate to recent substance use among a national adolescent sample recruited via social-media. As predicted, AS was indirectly associated with greater likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and electronic nicotine delivery systems in the past-month through anxiety symptoms. Regarding cannabis, AS was directly related to increased likelihood of past-month can...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial adding behavioral counseling to supervised physical activity in prostate cancer survivors: behavior change in prostate cancer survivors trial (BOOST)
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of delivering a supervised physical activity program plus standard exercise counseling (PA  + EC) versus a supervised physical activity plus motivationally-enhanced behavioral counseling (PA + BC) in prostate cancer survivors. Secondary outcomes included objectively assessed PA, quality of life, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, cognitive functioning, and physical funct ion. Twenty-six prostate cancer survivors were randomized to a 12-week supervised PA program plus standard exercise counseling or a 12-week supervised PA plus behavioral co...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Longitudinal predictors of male sexual partner risk among Black and Latina women in their late thirties: ethnic/racial identity commitment as a protective factor
This study aimed to investigate predictors of male sexual partner risk among Latinas and Black women in their late thirties. We used multiple regression analysis to examine factors associated with male sexual partner risk among 296 women who participated in two waves of the Harlem Longitudinal Development Study (New York, 2011 –2013 and 2014–2016). Women who experienced childhood sexual abuse had higher risk partners than those who did not [b  =  0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.06, 0.28]. Earlier marijuana use was a risk factor for partner risk in the late thirties (b  =  0.12, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.2...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cognitions and behaviors related to risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies among young adult women
This study assessed alcohol and sex-related cognitions and behaviors, including alcohol-related sexual expectancies, descriptive norms, and protective behavioral strategies, associated with women ’s risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy. A national sample of young adults ages 18–20 years was subset to women who were capable of pregnancy and sexually active (n = 422). The outcome was risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancy as determined by contraceptive status and heavy-episodic drinking. SAS version 9.4 was used to estimate logistic regression models. Alcohol-related sexual expectancies related to enhancement were signi...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Combination outreach and wellness intervention for distressed rural veterans: results of a multimethod pilot study
AbstractWe partnered with veteran-serving nonprofits in order to identify distressed rural veterans and provide them with a mental health workshop in community-based settings. Community organizations helped recruit veterans and provided space for 1-day (5-h) Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) group workshops conducted in rural locations. Qualitative interviews were conducted at 1- and 3-months post-intervention to assess acceptability. Quantitative measures were conducted at baseline, 1- and 3-months post-intervention to measure effectiveness. We successfully engaged community partners throughout every stage of the re...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A prospective study of cancer-related benefit finding in uveal melanoma patients
AbstractLittle is known about contributors to the psychosocial impact of uveal melanoma, a rare cancer. Predictors and outcomes of benefit finding, a potentially favorable outcome, were investigated.  Adults (n = 107) completed assessments prior to diagnosis of uveal melanoma and one week, three months and 12 months after diagnosis. Path analyses with the full information maximum likelihood estimation method were conducted. Objective disease impact on vision did not predict benefit finding (p >  .05). Approach-oriented coping prior to diagnosis and one week later significantly predicted greater benefit finding...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Varying levels of depressive symptoms and lifestyle health behaviors in a low income, urban population
This study examined  the relationships between varying levels of depressive symptoms and key dietary indicators of chronic disease risk, sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and fruit and vegetable (F + V) consumption, among a racially/ethnically diverse urban population in Los Angeles County (LAC). Analyses were carried out using data from a 2012 cross-sectional health survey of 1401 low-income public health center clients. Participants with a high level of depressive symptoms consumed 30% more SSBs (IRR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.55) than participants with a lower level of these symptoms. Other predictors of higher SS...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pain resilience, pain catastrophizing, and executive functioning: performance on a short-term memory task during simultaneous ischemic pain
AbstractAmong pain researchers there is a growing interest in the relationship between psychological resilience and pain experience. Whereas much of this work has focused on individual differences in pain perception or sensitivity, an equally important dimension of resilience is the capacity to persist with goal-directed activity despite experiencing pain. Consistent with this latter focus, the current study examined how pain resilience and pain catastrophizing combine to moderate the effects of ischemic pain on short-term memory task performance. Using a within-subjects design, 121 healthy participants completed four tria...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Perceived discrimination predicts elevated biological markers of inflammation among sexual minority adults
AbstractSexual minority (SM) adults (those who are lesbian, gay, or bisexual) consistently report more health problems compared to heterosexuals, and they tend to experience excess social stress. Although numerous studies have established links between social stress and clinical outcomes in SM adults, few studies have examined biological factors that may help explain how social stress leads to health disparities among SM adults. We used data from the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS) to examine whether two inflammatory markers that have been commonly associated with social stress —C-reactive protein (CRP) and in...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Recent trends in the rural –urban suicide disparity among veterans using VA health care
AbstractThere is an elevated risk of suicide among people living in rural areas, and the rural –urban disparity in death by suicide is growing in the general United States population. The department of Veterans Affairs (VA) implemented programs targeting rural health in 2007 and suicide prevention in 2008. Rural–urban differences in suicide rates among VA users have not been examined sinc e 2010. We sought to understand whether the rural–urban disparity in suicide risk among VA users decreased during a time of contemporaneous VA efforts to improve access to mental health care for rural Veterans and to improve the eff...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research