Associations of leisure screen time with cardiometabolic biomarkers in college-aged adults
We examined whether screen time was associated with cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk factors in young adults. Ninety-five adults (19.9  ± 11.4 years) self-reported medical and health behavior history, screen time (television viewing, video games and computer games), and dietary intake. Waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid levels, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak), and body composition were measured. Total sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured by accelerometer. On average, leisure screen time (2.0  ± 1.6 h day−1) accounted for 24% of t...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Examining the effectiveness of pain rehabilitation on chronic pain and post-traumatic symptoms
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program (IPRP) in improving pain and PTSD outcomes, as well as reducing medication use. In addition, the mediating effect of pain catastrophizing, which is theorized to underlie the pain and PTSD comorbidity, was examined. Participants included 83 completers of an IPRP with chronic pain and a provisional PTSD diagnosis. Significant improvements were found for pain outcomes, PTSD symptomatology, depressive symptoms, physical performance, and medication use (i.e., opioids and benzodiazepines). At discharge, 86.7% of participants reliably impro...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Do treatment effects of a web-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia intervention differ for users with and without pain interference? A secondary data analysis
AbstractCognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) shows treatment benefits among individuals with pain interference; however, effects of Internet-delivered CBT-I for this population are unknown. This secondary analysis used randomized clinical trial data from adults assigned to Internet-delivered CBT-I to compare changes in sleep by pre-intervention pain interference. Participants (N  =  151) completed the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and sleep diaries [sleep onset latency (SOL); wake after sleep onset (WASO)] at baseline, post-assessment, 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Linear mixed-effects models showed no diffe...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The benefits of daily exercise on blood glucose levels and affect among adults with type 1 diabetes
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent and lagged effects of daily exercise on daily blood glucose level and affect among persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). 199 persons with T1D (Mage = 46.82) completed a 14-day diary in which they reported on their engagement in moderate to vigorous exercise for 30 min and positive and negative affect. Daily blood glucose (BG) was gathered through study-provided glucometers. Multilevel modeling examined the effects of daily variability in (within-person effects) and average levels of (between-person effects) daily exercise on BG and affect. On days when ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Are pre-pregnancy weight fluctuations and adherence to prenatal nutrition and exercise recommendations related to excessive gestational weight gain?
AbstractWomen who have an overweight or obese pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) may be recommended to lose weight before pregnancy, however the association of preconception weight fluctuations and prenatal adherence to nutrition and exercise recommendations with gestational weight gain (GWG) have not been assessed. One hundred women with a pre-pregnancy BMI  ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 who participated in the Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP) were included and stratified as gained weight excessively (n  = 47) or not (n = 53) using the 2009 Institute of Medicine GWG guidelines. Participants com...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Connecting the dots: a comparison of network analysis and exploratory factor analysis to examine psychosocial syndemic indicators among HIV-negative sexual minority men
This study examined the associations between nine self-reported syndemic indicators in 194 MSM at high risk of HIV acquisition. We compared exploratory factor analyses (EFA) to a network analysis. In the present study, network analysis consisted of edges representing bidirectional partial polychoric correlations between nodes, which represent psychosocial syndemic indicators. EFA yielded a 1-factor solution including suicidal ideation (SI), injection drug use (IDU), depression, social anxiety, intimate partner violence, substance use, and sexual compulsivity, and excluded heavy drinking and childhood sexual abuse. Network ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Social and behavioral health responses to COVID-19: lessons learned from four decades of an HIV pandemic
AbstractOur public health approaches to addressing COVID-19 are heavily dependent on social and behavioral change strategies to halt transmissions. To date, biomedical forms of curative and preventative treatments for COVID-19 are at best limited. Four decades into the HIV epidemic we have learned a considerable amount of information regarding social and behavioral approaches to addressing disease transmission. Here we outline broad, scoping lessons learned from the HIV literature tailored to the nature of what we currently know about COVID-19. We focus on multiple levels of intervention including intrapersonal, interperso...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Testing the cross-stressor hypothesis under real-world conditions: exercise as a moderator of the association between momentary anxiety and cardiovascular responses
AbstractThe cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis of exercise training has not been investigated under real-life conditions. Using ecological momentary assessment, we tested whether usual exercise level moderates the relationship of self-reported anxiety to concurrent ambulatory heart rate (HR) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP). Participants (N  = 832) completed 24-h ambulatory monitoring of HR/BP, using a brachial BP cuff that took readings at 28-min intervals. Anxiety levels were concurrently reported on a visual analog scale (VAS) using a Palm Pilot. Usual exercise behavior was assessed by a self-report...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychosocial factors and multiple health risk behaviors among early adolescents: a latent profile analysis
AbstractEarly adolescence is a pivotal developmental period when multiple health risk behaviors, such as obesity and substance use, are often established. Several psychosocial factors, often considered traits, have been independently associated with these increases, including executive function (EF), mindfulness disposition (MD), perceived stress, distress tolerance (DT), and anhedonia. However, these factors have not been evaluated for their conjoint relationships to determine whether different patterns may signal greater or lesser risk for obesity and substance use, and whether the same patterns relate to obesity and sub...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Daily physical activity and alcohol use among young adults
We examined relations between physical activity and alcohol use at both within- and between-individual levels and investigated moderators of the relation at both levels. 269 college students wore accelerometers to collect physical activity data over a 2-week period. At the end of each day, they indicated whether or not they drank alcohol. Multilevel logistic regression indicated neither within- nor between-subject relations were statistically significant. Positive affect, negative affect, and drinking motives moderated these relations at the between-subject level. Contrary to previous research, we did not observe a relatio...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Associations between naturalistically assessed physical activity patterns, affect, and eating in youth with overweight and obesity
AbstractInsufficient physical activity (PA) and excessive stationary behavior (SB) are contributors to pediatric obesity, though antecedents and consequences of these behaviors in this population are relatively unknown. This pilot study examined affect, loss of control eating (LOCE), overeating, and hunger surrounding PA and SB in 17 youth with overweight/obesity. Participants completed a 14-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) wearing accelerometers. At the momentary level, higher negative affect and lower positive affect predicted SB increases and PA decreases following EMA prompts; higher PA and lower SB also predi...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of quality of life therapy to improve positive emotions among patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators
AbstractImplantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) save lives, but often induce significant psychological distress among patients. Positive psychological constructs are associated with improved outcomes among cardiac patients. In this NHLBI-funded randomized controlled trial, one aim was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a positive psychology intervention (Quality of Life Therapy; QOLT, n  = 11), compared to a Heart Healthy Education (HHE) control (n = 10), among ICD patients. A majority of participants across groups attended all 12 sessions (71%) and completed homework assignments (80%). Agreeme...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Adherence to low-calorie and low-sugar diets is uniquely associated with distinct facets of appearance/weight-related smoking motivations
This study tested associations between five diet types and smoking motivation to control weight, shape, and appetite among adult daily cigarette smokers (N  =  550). A multivariate analysis was used to test the incremental association between diet types and Smoking-Related Weight and Eating Episodes Test (SWEET) subscales, adjusting for age, body mass index, sex, and cigarette dependence. Smokers who diet (n = 83, 15.1%) reported higher scores on al l SWEET subscales compared to smokers not on a diet. Low-calorie dieting was associated with greater smoking motivation to cope with body dissatisfaction, and low-sugar...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Physical discomfort intolerance as a predictor of weight loss and physical activity in a lifestyle modification program
This study examined physical discomfort intolerance (DI) as a baseline predictor of weight loss and physical activity outcomes, and assessed whether changes in DI during the initial phase of weight loss prospectively predicted long-term treatment outcomes among adults enrolled in a group-based lifestyle modification program for obesity. DI was measured at baseline and 6  months, and weight and accelerometer-measured physical activity were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Baseline DI was not related to weight loss or physical activity at either timepoint. Change in DI during the first 6 months of treatment...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

‘Having come to university my care was very much in my hands’: exploration of university students’ perceptions of health care needs and services using the common-sense model of self-regulation
This study adds depth to the understanding of the connections between students’ health-related experiences and their personal, academic, and post -graduation aspirations and the support needs of students, including international students. To optimise institutional support, innovations in partnerships with local care organisations and within the university, staff training about conditions, peer mentorship, and information outreach especially t o international students, should be considered. (Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - March 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research