Autonomy support from informal health supporters: links with self-care activities, healthcare engagement, metabolic outcomes, and cardiac risk among Veterans with type 2 diabetes
This study examined the role of autonomy support from adults ’ informal health supporters (family or friends) in diabetes-specific health behaviors and health outcomes. Using baseline data from 239 Veterans with type 2 diabetes at risk of complications enrolled in behavioral trial, we examined associations between autonomy support from a support person and that support person’s co-residence with the participant’s diabetes self-care activities, patient activation, cardiometabolic measures, and predicted risk of a cardiac event. Autonomy support from supporters was associated with significantly increased ad...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - November 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A comparison of total and domain-specific sedentary time in breast cancer survivors and age-matched healthy controls
AbstractBreast cancer survivors (BCS) engage in more sedentary behavior (SED) than those without cancer. However, the context in which SED is accrued is unknown. The purpose of this study is  to examine differences in total and domain-specific SED of BCS and healthy controls. 20 BCS and 20 age-matched, healthy controls wore ActiGraph GT3X + accelerometers to measure SED and activity. Participants self-reported SED for transportation, occupational, screen time and leisure purposes. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate differences in SED between BCS and controls. BCS spent significantly more t...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - November 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Examining stigma, social support, and gender differences in unsuppressed HIV viral load among participants in HPTN 065
AbstractSuccessful navigation of the HIV care continuum is necessary to maintain viral suppression. We explored gender-stratified correlates of being virally unsuppressed in the Prevention for Positives  (P4P) component of HPTN 065. The outcome of interest was unsuppressed viral load (>  40 copies/mL) among individuals already living with HIV. Correlates included medication adherence factors, social support and stigma. Logistic regression models were stratified by gender (N = 673). Men-specific correlates of being virally unsuppressed included opposite-sex partners, older age and HIV discl...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - November 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Worry and rumination in breast cancer patients: perseveration worsens self-rated health
This study assessed the impact of perseveration on self-rated health, physical functioning, and physical symptoms (pain, fatigue, breast cancer symptoms) among breast cancer patients. We hypothesized that cancer-related distress would serve as an intervening variable between both worry and rumination and self-rated health, physical functioning, and physical symptoms. Women (N = 124) who were approximately 7 weeks post-surgery but pre adjuvant treatment completed the Impact of Events Scale, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, and the Rumination Scale. They also rated their pain, fatigue, physical functioning, ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - November 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Trauma exposure, PTSD, and suboptimal HIV medication adherence among marginalized individuals connected to public HIV care in Miami
This study aimed to examine the association of trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms, and relevant additional key factors with adherence to ART among a sample of majority Black and Hispanic/Latinx individuals who are economically marginalized receiving public HIV care in Miami, FL (N  =  1237) via a cross-sectional survey. Sequential linear regression was used to examine the study aim in four blocks: (1) trauma, (2) PTSD symptoms, and key covariates of ART adherence including (3) depression and substance use (potential psychological covariates), and (4) indicators of socioeconomi c status (potential structural covar...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Social-ecological considerations for the sleep health of rural mothers
AbstractUsing a social-ecological framework, we identify social determinants that interact to influence sleep health, identify gaps in the literature, and make recommendations for targeting sleep health in rural mothers. Rural mothers experience unique challenges and protective factors in maintaining adequate sleep health during the postpartum and early maternal years. Geographic isolation, barriers to comprehensive behavioral medicine services, and intra-rural ethno-racial disparities are discussed at the societal (e.g., public policy), social (e.g., community) and individual levels (e.g., stress) of the social-ecological...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity trajectories during adolescence and young adulthood predict adiposity in young adulthood: The Iowa Bone Development Study
This study examined the associations of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) trajectories in adolescence through young adulthood with adiposity in young adults. Participants from The Iowa Bone Development Study cohort were longitudinally assessed (N  = 297; 57% female). Accelerometry-measured MVPA (min/day) at ages 15 through 23 years, and fat mass and visceral adipose tissue mass indices (kg/m2, g/m2) derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans at age 23  years were analyzed. Latent trajectory analyses classified MVPA into two patterns. Multivariable linear regression ana...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treating postpartum depression in rural veterans using internet delivered CBT: program evaluation of MomMoodBooster
This study reports on a program evaluation of MomMoodBooster, a coach-supported internet-delive red CBT program for the treatment of maternal depression in veteran women. Repeated measures ANOVA, run with this sample of 326 women, demonstrated an overall positive effect size across outcome measures and engagement with no differences found between rural women and their urban counterparts. Some differences between urban and rural participants were found in total and average time spent with coaches as well as ratings of coach helpfulness, possibly indicating some cultural differences between coaches and rural women that need ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Age-varying associations between physical activity and psychological outcomes among rural cancer survivors
We examined the prevalence of psychological outcomes (i.e., symptoms of depression and anxiety) by age and age-varying associations between physical activity and psychological outcomes among rural cancer survivors. Participants (N  =  219; ages 22–93) completed sociodemographic, psychological, and physical activity questionnaires. Time-varying effect models estimated the prevalence of psychological outcomes and assessed associations between physical activity and psychological outcomes as a flexible function of age. Depressio n and anxiety symptoms decreased with age among cancer survivors aged 22–...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Bleak present, bright future: II. Combined effects of episodic future thinking and scarcity on delay discounting in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes
AbstractThe present study sought to determine if episodic future thinking (EFT) can decrease delay discounting (DD) and demand for fast food under simulations of economic scarcity in adults at risk for diabetes (i.e., overweight/obese and with hemoglobin A1c values in, or approaching, the prediabetic range). Across two sessions, participants completed assessments of DD and food demand at baseline and while prompted to: (1) engage in either EFT or control episodic recent thinking, and (2) while reading a brief narrative describing either economic scarcity or neutral income conditions. Results showed that EFT significantly r...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of anxiety sensitivity on cannabis, alcohol, and nicotine use among adolescents: evaluating pathways through anxiety, withdrawal symptoms, and coping motives
AbstractAnxiety sensitivity (AS) is a promising intervention target due to its relevance to negative health behaviors broadly, and substance use specifically. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the direct and indirect pathways through which elevated AS could relate to recent substance use among a national adolescent sample recruited via social-media. As predicted, AS was indirectly associated with greater likelihood of using alcohol, cigarettes, and electronic nicotine delivery systems in the past-month through anxiety symptoms. Regarding cannabis, AS was directly related to increased likelihood of past-month can...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial adding behavioral counseling to supervised physical activity in prostate cancer survivors: behavior change in prostate cancer survivors trial (BOOST)
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of delivering a supervised physical activity program plus standard exercise counseling (PA  + EC) versus a supervised physical activity plus motivationally-enhanced behavioral counseling (PA + BC) in prostate cancer survivors. Secondary outcomes included objectively assessed PA, quality of life, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, cognitive functioning, and physical funct ion. Twenty-six prostate cancer survivors were randomized to a 12-week supervised PA program plus standard exercise counseling or a 12-week supervised P...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Longitudinal predictors of male sexual partner risk among Black and Latina women in their late thirties: ethnic/racial identity commitment as a protective factor
This study aimed to investigate predictors of male sexual partner risk among Latinas and Black women in their late thirties. We used multiple regression analysis to examine factors associated with male sexual partner risk among 296 women who participated in two waves of the Harlem Longitudinal Development Study (New York, 2011 –2013 and 2014–2016). Women who experienced childhood sexual abuse had higher risk partners than those who did not [b  =  0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.06, 0.28]. Earlier marijuana use was a risk factor for partner risk in the late thirties (b  ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cognitions and behaviors related to risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies among young adult women
This study assessed alcohol and sex-related cognitions and behaviors, including alcohol-related sexual expectancies, descriptive norms, and protective behavioral strategies, associated with women ’s risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy. A national sample of young adults ages 18–20 years was subset to women who were capable of pregnancy and sexually active (n = 422). The outcome was risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancy as determined by contraceptive status and heavy-episodic drinking. SAS version 9.4 was used to estimate logistic regression models. Alcohol-related sexual expectancies related to ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Combination outreach and wellness intervention for distressed rural veterans: results of a multimethod pilot study
AbstractWe partnered with veteran-serving nonprofits in order to identify distressed rural veterans and provide them with a mental health workshop in community-based settings. Community organizations helped recruit veterans and provided space for 1-day (5-h) Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) group workshops conducted in rural locations. Qualitative interviews were conducted at 1- and 3-months post-intervention to assess acceptability. Quantitative measures were conducted at baseline, 1- and 3-months post-intervention to measure effectiveness. We successfully engaged community partners throughout every stage of the re...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A prospective study of cancer-related benefit finding in uveal melanoma patients
AbstractLittle is known about contributors to the psychosocial impact of uveal melanoma, a rare cancer. Predictors and outcomes of benefit finding, a potentially favorable outcome, were investigated.  Adults (n = 107) completed assessments prior to diagnosis of uveal melanoma and one week, three months and 12 months after diagnosis. Path analyses with the full information maximum likelihood estimation method were conducted. Objective disease impact on vision did not predict benefit finding (p >  .05). Approach-oriented coping prior to diagnosis and one week later significantly predi...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Varying levels of depressive symptoms and lifestyle health behaviors in a low income, urban population
This study examined  the relationships between varying levels of depressive symptoms and key dietary indicators of chronic disease risk, sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and fruit and vegetable (F + V) consumption, among a racially/ethnically diverse urban population in Los Angeles County (LAC). Analyses were carried out using data from a 2012 cross-sectional health survey of 1401 low-income public health center clients. Participants with a high level of depressive symptoms consumed 30% more SSBs (IRR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.55) than participants with a lower level of these symptom...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pain resilience, pain catastrophizing, and executive functioning: performance on a short-term memory task during simultaneous ischemic pain
AbstractAmong pain researchers there is a growing interest in the relationship between psychological resilience and pain experience. Whereas much of this work has focused on individual differences in pain perception or sensitivity, an equally important dimension of resilience is the capacity to persist with goal-directed activity despite experiencing pain. Consistent with this latter focus, the current study examined how pain resilience and pain catastrophizing combine to moderate the effects of ischemic pain on short-term memory task performance. Using a within-subjects design, 121 healthy participants completed four tria...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Perceived discrimination predicts elevated biological markers of inflammation among sexual minority adults
AbstractSexual minority (SM) adults (those who are lesbian, gay, or bisexual) consistently report more health problems compared to heterosexuals, and they tend to experience excess social stress. Although numerous studies have established links between social stress and clinical outcomes in SM adults, few studies have examined biological factors that may help explain how social stress leads to health disparities among SM adults. We used data from the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS) to examine whether two inflammatory markers that have been commonly associated with social stress —C-reactive protein (CRP) an...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Recent trends in the rural –urban suicide disparity among veterans using VA health care
AbstractThere is an elevated risk of suicide among people living in rural areas, and the rural –urban disparity in death by suicide is growing in the general United States population. The department of Veterans Affairs (VA) implemented programs targeting rural health in 2007 and suicide prevention in 2008. Rural–urban differences in suicide rates among VA users have not been examined sinc e 2010. We sought to understand whether the rural–urban disparity in suicide risk among VA users decreased during a time of contemporaneous VA efforts to improve access to mental health care for rural Veterans and to imp...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A systematic review of behavioral interventions for rural breast cancer survivors
AbstractRural breast cancer survivors (RBCS) are at greater risk for poorer health outcomes and face greater treatment barriers compared to their urban counterparts, necessitating behavioral interventions tailored for the unique needs of RBCS. A systematic review of studies examining behavioral interventions delivered to RBCS living in the United States from 2000 to 2020 was conducted following PRIMSA guidelines. Nineteen unique studies were included: eight randomized controlled trials, two matched-control studies, six pre-post intervention feasibility studies, and three post-intervention satisfaction studies. Thirteen int...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Transitions in coping profiles after breast cancer diagnosis: implications for depressive and physical symptoms
Due to publisher processing error, brackets and asterisks noting statistically significant differences in Fig.  3 were omitted. (Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

No effect of mindfulness-based cancer recovery on cardiovascular or cortisol reactivity in female cancer survivors
AbstractPsychosocial stress in cancer survivors may contribute to compromised quality of life and negative cancer outcomes, which can be exacerbated by poor coping skills and emotional reactivity. Mindfulness based interventions (MBIs) have shown effectiveness in reducing stress, improving quality of life and coping skills in cancer survivors. We tested whether an MBI would also improve reactivity to an acute laboratory stress task. A total of 77 women with a cancer diagnosis were recruited for a waitlist-controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR). Participants completed a laboratory-based psychosocial st...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Temporal changes in psychobehavioural responses during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia
In conclusion, the psychological and behavioural responses were found to increase with the progression of the outbreak. High anxiety levels found in this study warrant provision of mental health intervention during the early phase of COVID-19 outbreak. (Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Gain –loss framing and patients’ decisions: a linguistic examination of information framing in physician–patient conversations
AbstractWhen discussing risks and benefits with cancer patients, physicians could focus on losses such as mortality rates and cancer recurrence or, alternatively, gains such as survival rates and curing cancer. Previous research has shown that the way health information is framed influences individuals ’ preferences and choices. We operationalized gain–loss framing as physicians’ choice of words related to gains (cancer survival), or losses (cancer mortality). In an exploratory analysis, we investigated (a) whether physicians used gain or loss words as a function of their recommendation, (b) whether physi...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

(No) escape from reality? Cigarette craving in virtual smoking environments
AbstractCue-Exposure Therapy (CET) is considered an effective strategy to combat cigarette cravings and smoking relapses, but evidence is mixed. In this lab-based experimental study, we manipulated levels of realism for smoking scenarios in Virtual Environments (VE) and randomly exposed smokers and recent-quitters to one of two versions (low versus high realism) of these scenarios. Prior and after scenario exposure, valid measures of cigarette craving were obtained. Prior to exposure, we assessed nicotine dependence and smoking status (current smokers versus recent-quitter). Within-subject repeated measures analysis of cov...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - July 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Revising the bariatric psychological evaluation to improve clinical and research utility
AbstractAlthough psychological evaluations are a routine component of the bariatric surgery process, the goals commonly identified for bariatric psychological evaluations have not been realized. This brief report describes a revised bariatric psychological evaluation designed to repurpose the evaluation towards more achievable and equally valuable goals. Changes include revisions to the evaluation contents and administration methods. The revised evaluation: (1) includes pre- and post-bariatric psychological assessments to capture important surgery-related changes in psychosocial status, physical functioning, and quality of...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Implicit theories of smoking and association with interest in quitting among current smokers
AbstractMany cigarette smokers make multiple attempts to quit before they are successful. Implicit theories of smoking (ITS) –beliefs about whether smoking behavior is something that is changeable (incremental belief) or fixed (entity belief)–may play a role in quitting. Four iterations of the cross-sectional, nationally-representative Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were used in logistic regression analyses to examine how smokers’ ITS relates to (1) attempts to quit in the past 12 months; (2) considering quitting in the next 6 months; and (3) the interaction between ITS and pa...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Predictors and mediators of outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic pain: the contributions of psychological flexibility
AbstractThere is now a consensus in the literature that future improvements in outcomes obtained from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for chronic pain will require research to identify patient and treatment variables that help explain outcomes. The first aim of this study was to assess whether pre-treatment scores on measures of psychological (in)flexibility, acceptance, committed action, cognitive (de)fusion, and values-based action predict outcomes in a multidisciplinary, multicomponent, group-based CBT program for adults with chronic pain. The second aim was to assess whether change scores on these same measures medi...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - July 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Anxiety, depression, and opioid misuse among adults with chronic pain: the role of emotion dysregulation
AbstractThe opioid epidemic is a significant public health concern in the United States, particularly among adults with chronic pain. Considerable research suggests that people with mental health problems, including anxiety and depression, may experience more opioid-related problems in the context of chronic pain. Yet, little work has examined potential mechanisms underyling these relations. Emotion dysregulation is one mechanistic factor that may link anxiety and depression and opioid-related problems among persons with chronic pain. Therefore, the current study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in th...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - June 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Transitions in coping profiles after breast cancer diagnosis: implications for depressive and physical symptoms
The objective of this study was to determine whether: (a) cancer-related coping profiles change across time; (b) coping profile transition types predict changes in depressive and physical symptoms. Latent transition analysis was conducted with repeated measures of seven cancer-related coping processes from 460 women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. In multilevel models, coping profile transition groups were entered as predictors of symptoms across 12  months. Three coping profiles emerged at study entry, with two profiles at later assessments. Forty-eight percent of women maintained high-moderate approach-orient...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - June 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Incremental criterion validity of message perceptions and effects perceptions in the context of anti-smoking messages
AbstractTo select promising health messages, formative research has often relied on perceived message effectiveness (PME) scales assessing either of two related constructs,message perceptions (persuasive potential) andeffects perceptions (potential for behavioral impact). We sought to examine their incremental criterion validity within a comparative framework. Participants were 703 U.S. adult smokers (ages\(\ge\) 21) who received anti-smoking or comparable control (littering) messages on their cigarette packs for 3 weeks. Structural equation models examined both PME constructs as simultaneous correlates of outc...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - June 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Social Constraints and PTSD among Chinese American breast cancer survivors: not all kinds of social support provide relief
AbstractResearch has demonstrated the association between social constraints and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among breast cancer survivors. Although perceived social support can buffer stress and improve emotional well-being, little is known about which type of social support is most effective in buffering the negative effects of social constraints among cancer survivors. We investigated the moderation of four types of social support (i.e., positive interaction, tangible support, emotional/informational support and affectionate support) on the association between social constraints and PTSD symptoms among...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - June 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A daily study of stressors, continuously measured glucose, and diabetes symptoms in latinos with type 2 diabetes
This study examined whether daily stressors and continuously monitored glucose levels and glucose variability predict daily diabetes symptoms. Fifty Latinos with type 2 diabetes were randomized to either diabetes  education (DE-only; N = 23) or DE plus stress management and relaxation training (DE + SMR; N = 32). After treatment, for 7 days they wore ‘blinded’ continuous glucose monitors and reported common stressors and diabetes symptoms twice daily. Between individuals, participants wit h more numerous overall stressors and more time in hyperglycem...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - June 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mindfulness moderates daily stress and comfort food snacking linkages: a multilevel examination
AbstractStress is often associated with poor diet in young adulthood. However, very few studies have examined whether snacking on non-nutritious sweet or salty “comfort food” is directly linked with daily stress, a common intervention target. Further, trait mindfulness, a psychological resource that may be enhanced by psychological training and regular practice, has yet to be tested as a moderator of daily stress-eating linkages. This 11-day daily diar y study examined multilevel linkages between daily stress appraisals and comfort food eating in undergraduates. Daily stress appraisals positively predicted comf...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Associations of leisure screen time with cardiometabolic biomarkers in college-aged adults
We examined whether screen time was associated with cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk factors in young adults. Ninety-five adults (19.9  ± 11.4 years) self-reported medical and health behavior history, screen time (television viewing, video games and computer games), and dietary intake. Waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid levels, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak), and body composition were measured. Total sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured by accelerometer. On average, leisure screen time (2.0  ± 1.6...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Examining the effectiveness of pain rehabilitation on chronic pain and post-traumatic symptoms
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program (IPRP) in improving pain and PTSD outcomes, as well as reducing medication use. In addition, the mediating effect of pain catastrophizing, which is theorized to underlie the pain and PTSD comorbidity, was examined. Participants included 83 completers of an IPRP with chronic pain and a provisional PTSD diagnosis. Significant improvements were found for pain outcomes, PTSD symptomatology, depressive symptoms, physical performance, and medication use (i.e., opioids and benzodiazepines). At discharge, 86.7% of participants reliably impro...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Do treatment effects of a web-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia intervention differ for users with and without pain interference? A secondary data analysis
AbstractCognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) shows treatment benefits among individuals with pain interference; however, effects of Internet-delivered CBT-I for this population are unknown. This secondary analysis used randomized clinical trial data from adults assigned to Internet-delivered CBT-I to compare changes in sleep by pre-intervention pain interference. Participants (N  =  151) completed the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and sleep diaries [sleep onset latency (SOL); wake after sleep onset (WASO)] at baseline, post-assessment, 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Linear mixed-effects models showe...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The benefits of daily exercise on blood glucose levels and affect among adults with type 1 diabetes
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent and lagged effects of daily exercise on daily blood glucose level and affect among persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). 199 persons with T1D (Mage = 46.82) completed a 14-day diary in which they reported on their engagement in moderate to vigorous exercise for 30 min and positive and negative affect. Daily blood glucose (BG) was gathered through study-provided glucometers. Multilevel modeling examined the effects of daily variability in (within-person effects) and average levels of (between-person effects) daily exercise on BG and affect....
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Are pre-pregnancy weight fluctuations and adherence to prenatal nutrition and exercise recommendations related to excessive gestational weight gain?
AbstractWomen who have an overweight or obese pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) may be recommended to lose weight before pregnancy, however the association of preconception weight fluctuations and prenatal adherence to nutrition and exercise recommendations with gestational weight gain (GWG) have not been assessed. One hundred women with a pre-pregnancy BMI  ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 who participated in the Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP) were included and stratified as gained weight excessively (n  = 47) or not (n = 53) using the 2009 Institute of Medici...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Connecting the dots: a comparison of network analysis and exploratory factor analysis to examine psychosocial syndemic indicators among HIV-negative sexual minority men
This study examined the associations between nine self-reported syndemic indicators in 194 MSM at high risk of HIV acquisition. We compared exploratory factor analyses (EFA) to a network analysis. In the present study, network analysis consisted of edges representing bidirectional partial polychoric correlations between nodes, which represent psychosocial syndemic indicators. EFA yielded a 1-factor solution including suicidal ideation (SI), injection drug use (IDU), depression, social anxiety, intimate partner violence, substance use, and sexual compulsivity, and excluded heavy drinking and childhood sexual abuse. Network ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Social and behavioral health responses to COVID-19: lessons learned from four decades of an HIV pandemic
AbstractOur public health approaches to addressing COVID-19 are heavily dependent on social and behavioral change strategies to halt transmissions. To date, biomedical forms of curative and preventative treatments for COVID-19 are at best limited. Four decades into the HIV epidemic we have learned a considerable amount of information regarding social and behavioral approaches to addressing disease transmission. Here we outline broad, scoping lessons learned from the HIV literature tailored to the nature of what we currently know about COVID-19. We focus on multiple levels of intervention including intrapersonal, interperso...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Testing the cross-stressor hypothesis under real-world conditions: exercise as a moderator of the association between momentary anxiety and cardiovascular responses
AbstractThe cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis of exercise training has not been investigated under real-life conditions. Using ecological momentary assessment, we tested whether usual exercise level moderates the relationship of self-reported anxiety to concurrent ambulatory heart rate (HR) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP). Participants (N  = 832) completed 24-h ambulatory monitoring of HR/BP, using a brachial BP cuff that took readings at 28-min intervals. Anxiety levels were concurrently reported on a visual analog scale (VAS) using a Palm Pilot. Usual exercise behavior was assessed by a s...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychosocial factors and multiple health risk behaviors among early adolescents: a latent profile analysis
AbstractEarly adolescence is a pivotal developmental period when multiple health risk behaviors, such as obesity and substance use, are often established. Several psychosocial factors, often considered traits, have been independently associated with these increases, including executive function (EF), mindfulness disposition (MD), perceived stress, distress tolerance (DT), and anhedonia. However, these factors have not been evaluated for their conjoint relationships to determine whether different patterns may signal greater or lesser risk for obesity and substance use, and whether the same patterns relate to obesity and sub...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Daily physical activity and alcohol use among young adults
We examined relations between physical activity and alcohol use at both within- and between-individual levels and investigated moderators of the relation at both levels. 269 college students wore accelerometers to collect physical activity data over a 2-week period. At the end of each day, they indicated whether or not they drank alcohol. Multilevel logistic regression indicated neither within- nor between-subject relations were statistically significant. Positive affect, negative affect, and drinking motives moderated these relations at the between-subject level. Contrary to previous research, we did not observe a relatio...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Associations between naturalistically assessed physical activity patterns, affect, and eating in youth with overweight and obesity
AbstractInsufficient physical activity (PA) and excessive stationary behavior (SB) are contributors to pediatric obesity, though antecedents and consequences of these behaviors in this population are relatively unknown. This pilot study examined affect, loss of control eating (LOCE), overeating, and hunger surrounding PA and SB in 17 youth with overweight/obesity. Participants completed a 14-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) wearing accelerometers. At the momentary level, higher negative affect and lower positive affect predicted SB increases and PA decreases following EMA prompts; higher PA and lower SB also predi...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of quality of life therapy to improve positive emotions among patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators
AbstractImplantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) save lives, but often induce significant psychological distress among patients. Positive psychological constructs are associated with improved outcomes among cardiac patients. In this NHLBI-funded randomized controlled trial, one aim was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a positive psychology intervention (Quality of Life Therapy; QOLT, n  = 11), compared to a Heart Healthy Education (HHE) control (n = 10), among ICD patients. A majority of participants across groups attended all 12 sessions (71%) and completed homework assign...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Adherence to low-calorie and low-sugar diets is uniquely associated with distinct facets of appearance/weight-related smoking motivations
This study tested associations between five diet types and smoking motivation to control weight, shape, and appetite among adult daily cigarette smokers (N  =  550). A multivariate analysis was used to test the incremental association between diet types and Smoking-Related Weight and Eating Episodes Test (SWEET) subscales, adjusting for age, body mass index, sex, and cigarette dependence. Smokers who diet (n = 83, 15.1%) reported higher scores on al l SWEET subscales compared to smokers not on a diet. Low-calorie dieting was associated with greater smoking motivation to cope with body dissatisfa...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Physical discomfort intolerance as a predictor of weight loss and physical activity in a lifestyle modification program
This study examined physical discomfort intolerance (DI) as a baseline predictor of weight loss and physical activity outcomes, and assessed whether changes in DI during the initial phase of weight loss prospectively predicted long-term treatment outcomes among adults enrolled in a group-based lifestyle modification program for obesity. DI was measured at baseline and 6  months, and weight and accelerometer-measured physical activity were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Baseline DI was not related to weight loss or physical activity at either timepoint. Change in DI during the first 6 mon...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

‘Having come to university my care was very much in my hands’: exploration of university students’ perceptions of health care needs and services using the common-sense model of self-regulation
This study adds depth to the understanding of the connections between students’ health-related experiences and their personal, academic, and post -graduation aspirations and the support needs of students, including international students. To optimise institutional support, innovations in partnerships with local care organisations and within the university, staff training about conditions, peer mentorship, and information outreach especially t o international students, should be considered. (Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - March 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research