A national study of gender and racial differences in colorectal cancer screening among foreign-born older adults living in the US
This study examined within group heterogeneity in colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) among foreign-born individuals. Data were from the 2010, 2013 and 2015 National Health Interview Survey data on older adults (N  = 5529). In 2018, multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine whether gender and race/ethnicity were associated with CRCS after controlling for sociodemographic, health access, and acculturation related factors. Overall, Asians were significantly less likely to report CRCS compared with Whites (aOR 0.63, CI 0.52–0.76). Hispanic race/ethnicity was negatively associated...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pain resilience moderates the influence of negative pain beliefs on movement-evoked pain in older adults
AbstractNegative pain beliefs are associated with adverse pain outcomes; however, less is known regarding how positive, adaptive factors influence pain and functioning. These relationships are especially important to examine in older adults with pain, given increased disability and functional limitations in this population. We investigated whether pain resilience moderated the relationships between negative pain beliefs (fear-avoidance, pain catastrophizing) and pain outcomes (functional performance, movement-evoked pain) in sixty older adults with low back pain. Higher pain resilience was associated with lower fear-avoidance (p 
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Exploring psychosocial mediators of remote physical activity counselling: a secondary analysis of data from a 1-year randomized control trial (Movingcall)
AbstractThe present study investigated whether psychosocial determinants mediate the effect of a telephone coaching intervention on physical activity levels. Two hundred eighty-eight adults were randomly assigned to a six-month telephone coaching intervention (n  = 12 calls) or a control group receiving a single written recommendation. Seven psychosocial determinants as defined in the MoVo model as well as objective and self-reported physical activity levels were measured after 6 and 12 months. Participants also reported which taught intervention strat egies (behavior change techniques) they perceived as...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Adherence to behavioral recommendations for weight loss and associated psychosocial factors among African American adults
ConclusionPsychological well-being should be addressed with African Americans in weight loss treatment to enhance behavior change and improve weight loss outcomes. (Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The influence of daily stress on glycemic control and mortality in adults with diabetes
In conclusion, while many ways of measuring daily stress were shown not to have a significant influence on glyc emic control, daily stress related to work and the perceived risk of stress influencing one’s physical health may influence outcomes for adults with diabetes. Interventions incorporating stress management, and in particular coping with the risk that stress has on health may help adults with diabet es better manage glycemic control over time. (Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Relationships between respiratory sinus arrhythmia and stress in college students
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between university students ’ respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) profiles and both retrospective and momentary ratings of stress. Participants were undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory health science course (N  =  64). Participants provided RSA data at rest (tonic) and following an orthostatic challenge (phasic), completed the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and completed 6 daily ecological momentary assessments (EMA) of stress for 1 week. Higher tonic RSA was associated with lower perceived stress assessed via P...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The interpersonal impact of partner emotion regulation on chronic cardiac patients ’ functioning through affect
AbstractIn this prospective study, we examined whether physical and psychological functioning of patients with a cardiovascular disease is related to their partners ’ emotion regulation strategies through both persons’ affect. The final sample consisted of 104 patients (25 women) and their partners. All couples were of the opposite sex and married. Two spouse emotion regulation strategies (i.e., cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) were assesse d at baseline; patient and spouse positive and negative affect was assessed 2 months later; patient functioning were assessed 4 months later. Spou...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - October 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Combining a UV photo intervention with self-affirmation or self-compassion exercises: implications for skin protection
AbstractThe current study tested whether self-affirmation or self-compassion exercises, shown to increase message acceptance, could maximize the benefit of a UV photo intervention on skin protection cognitions. College women (N  = 167) were randomly assigned to: (1) view a UV photo or Black and White (no-UV) photo of their face and (2) write a self-affirmation, self-compassion, or neutral essay. Participants who saw their UV photo reported healthier cognitions, including greater perceived vulnerability and intentions t o protect skin. Within the self-compassion condition, participants who saw their UV photo w...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Assessing gender identity differences in cardiovascular disease in US adults: an analysis of data from the 2014 –2017 BRFSS
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to assess gender identity differences in CVD risk and CVD conditions among adults in the U.S. Using data from the 2014 –2017 BRFSS we compared CVD risk and CVD conditions in gender minorities (transgender men, transgender women and gender nonconforming persons) to both cisgender men and women. The sample consisted of 662,903 participants. Transgender women (AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.05–1.72) and transgender men (AOR 1. 54, 95% CI 1.07–2.24) were more likely to be overweight than cisgender women. Compared to cisgender women, transgender women reported higher rates of diabetes...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Living with a smoker, health risk behaviors, and adiposity: an analysis with middle-aged and older women
This study investigated: (a) the association between living with a smoker and weight-related health risk behaviors, and (b) the role of these behaviors in indirectly linking living with a smoker to general and central adiposity. Participants were 83,492 women (ageM = 63.5,SD = 7.36) from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. In logistic regression analyses at baseline, living with a smoker was associated with increased odds of no exercise (29%), no walking (33%), high dietary fat (62%), and low fruit and vegetable consumption (43%). Using structural equation modeling, bootstra...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Efficacy of habit-based weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractHabit-based interventions are a novel and emerging strategy to help reduce excess weight in individuals with overweight or obesity. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine the efficacy of habit-based interventions on weight loss. We identified potential studies through electronic searches in February 2019. Included studies were randomized/quasi randomized controlled trials comparing weight loss interventions founded on habit-theory with a control (active or non-active) and enrolled adults with overweight or obesity (body mass index  ≥ 25 kg/m2). Five trials (630 participants...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Unique effects of religiousness/spirituality and social support on mental and physical well-being in people living with congestive heart failure
AbstractPeople living with congestive heart failure (CHF) often experience increasing levels of depressive symptoms and declining quality of life with disease progression. Religiousness/spirituality (R/S) may mitigate these declines, but whether it does so above and beyond provision of social support has not been tested. 191 patients with CHF (64% male;Mage = 68.6 years) completed surveys at baseline and 6 months later. Four mental and physical outcomes were examined: depressive symptoms, positive states of mind, mental health-related quality of life, and physical health-related quality of life. Con...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Patient expectations for recovery after elective surgery: a common-sense model approach
AbstractPatient perceptions of the causes of preoperative symptoms, expected impact of surgery on symptoms and anticipated timeline of recovery are likely to affect the risk of readmission following elective surgical procedures. However, these perceptions have not been studied. A qualitative study was designed to explore these perceptions, using the common-sense model of self-regulation (CSM) as the conceptual framework. CSM is grounded in illness representations, describing how patients make sense of changes in physical well-being (e.g. symptoms) and develop and assess management plans. It also establishes a broader frame...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Intra- and interindividual differences in the within-person coupling between daily pain and affect of older adults
This study demonstrated the importance of focusing on within-person couplings between daily pain and affect beyond patient samples in order to better understand the maintenance of emotional stability despite daily hassles in older adults’ everyday l ives. (Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - September 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Offering male endoscopists as decoy option to nudge disinclined women to have colorectal cancer screening
AbstractPrevious studies have shown that a large proportion of women invited for bowel cancer screening prefer endoscopists of the same gender. We tested whether women who are initially disinclined to undergo flexible sigmoidoscopy screening would be more willing to have the test with a female practitioner if they were also offered a decoy appointment with a male practitioner. We conducted two online experiments with women aged 35 –54, living in England, who did not intend to undergo flexible sigmoidoscopy screening. In both experiments, women were randomised to two conditions: (1)control (appointment with a female e...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dyadic coping mediates the effects of attachment on quality of life among couples facing ovarian cancer
AbstractCancer is an interpersonal stressor affecting both patient and spouse. To examine the pathways that insecure adult attachment can impact health outcomes by way of dyadic processes, this cross-sectional study used the actor –partner interdependence mediation model to examine whether common dyadic coping (CDC) mediated the associations between attachment and quality of life (QOL). Couples (N  =  106) facing ovarian cancer were recruited from a comprehensive cancer center and completed self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that worse social and functional QOL were associated with both one&r...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: The Firearm Safety Among Children and Teens (FACTS) Consortium: defining the current state of the science on pediatric firearm injury prevention
The original version of the article unfortunately contained a typo in the last author name. The author name was incorrectly listed as Mark Zimmerman. The correct name should be Marc A. Zimmerman. (Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sleep problems in advanced cancer patients and their caregivers: Who is disturbing whom?
Conclusion Patients diagnosed with cancer and their intimate partners have poor sleep quality and sleep patterns are related. (Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Exploring the interconnectedness of fatigue, depression, anxiety and potential risk and protective factors in cancer patients: a network approach
This study used the multivariate network approach to gain a better understanding of how patients ’ symptoms and risk and protective factors (i.e. physical symptoms, social withdrawal, illness cognitions, goal adjustment and partner support) are interconnected. We used cross-sectional data from a sample of cancer patients seeking psychological care (n = 342). Using network modelling, the r elationships among symptoms of fatigue, depression and anxiety, and potential risk and protective factors were explored. Additionally, centrality (i.e. the number and strength of connections of a construct) and stabili...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Working memory moderates the association between condom use intentions and behavior among moderate-to-heavy drinking men who have sex with men
This study examined whether individual differences in working memory moderated the association between intentions to use condoms and the frequency of CAI among MSM who engaged in anal intercourse over a subsequent 6-week period. Moderate- and heavy-drinking MSM (n  = 207) completed questionnaires regarding alcohol use and condom use intentions and an operation span task to assess working memory at baseline. Participants then completed 6 weeks of morning surveys via a mobile phone app to assess anal intercourse frequency with and without condoms. Negative binomial regression analyses showed that the assoc...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Emotional disclosure and cognitive processing in couples coping with head and neck cancer
Discussions were coded with the specific affect coding system. Actor –partner interdependence models showed that patient expression of negative emotions (i.e., disdain, contentiousness, distress) was not related to his/her own or the spouse’s cognitive processing (assessed as reaction times to cancer and noncancer words on a computerized cognitive task administer ed immediately following the discussion). When spouses expressed support (e.g., interest, validation), they had better cancer- (effect size r = − 0.21) and noncancer-related cognitive processing (r = −&thi...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Motivation to quit cigarettes and alternative tobacco products: prevalence and correlates among youth experiencing homelessness
AbstractUse of alternative tobacco products, as well as regular cigarettes, is widespread among unaccompanied youth experiencing homelessness. However, little is known about their level of motivation for quitting use of these products, factors associated with motivation to quit, or how these might vary by type of tobacco product. Unaccompanied homeless youth were sampled from 25 street and service sites in Los Angeles County (N  =  469). All participants were past month tobacco users who completed a survey on their tobacco-related behaviors and cognitions, including motivation to quit, as well as background c...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Consistent self-monitoring in a commercial app-based intervention for weight loss: results from a randomized trial
AbstractSelf-monitoring is the strongest predictor of success in lifestyle interventions for obesity. In this secondary analysis of the GoalTracker trial, we describe outcomes of consistently self-monitoring in a standalone weight loss intervention. The 12-week intervention focused on daily self-monitoring of diet and/or body weight in a commercial app (MyFitnessPal). Participants (N = 100; 21–65 years; BMI 25–45 kg/m2) were categorized as Consistent Trackers if they tracked ≥ 6 out of 7 days for at least 75% of the targeted weeks. One-fourth of participants were Consisten...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Necessity and concerns beliefs and HIV medication adherence: a systematic review
AbstractAccording to the Necessity-Concerns Framework, beliefs about medication necessity and concerns are two core themes from diverse patient medication beliefs across chronic illnesses that may directly influence adherence. Past work has supported associations of necessity and concerns to adherence in the chronic disease literature and in HIV research. However, there has not been a focused review of the literature on associations of necessity and concerns to HIV medication adherence, nor on what variables may influence these associations. This systematic review synthesized findings from 26 studies regarding associations...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mediators of physical activity adoption and maintenance among breast cancer survivors
AbstractThe purpose of this study is to explore the mediators associated with physical activity (PA) within the adoption and maintenance phase of a PA intervention trial among breast cancer survivors. Overall, 192 breast cancer survivors (average age  = 55.9 years) were randomized to an Intervention or Control group. Both groups received 8 calls in the first 3-months, 3 monthly calls, and then entered a no-contact maintenance phase for the remaining 6-months. Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-months, 6-months and 12-months. On avera ge, participants were 55.9 years of age (SD =&thinsp...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pain catastrophizing and distress intolerance: prediction of pain and emotional stress reactivity
AbstractExposure to stress is associated with poor outcomes in people with chronic pain. Dispositional variables, such as pain catastrophizing and distress intolerance, may impact reactivity to stressors. Importantly, these variables can be modified with treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pain catastrophizing and distress intolerance were associated with tolerance of a pain stressor or a psychosocial stressor, and heightened negative affect following these stressors. A sample of 50 adults with chronic pain completed self-report measures and pain and psychosocial stress inductions. Results indicated...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The role of neuropsychological mechanisms in implementation intentions to reduce alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers: a randomized trial
AbstractImplementation intention formation, which involves identifying triggers and linking them with coping strategies, has proven effective at reducing alcohol consumption in general populations. For the first time, the present study tested the ability of implementation intentions to reduce alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers and to explore potential neuropsychological mechanisms. At baseline, participants were randomized to form implementation intentions or to an active control group. There was a 5.7 unit (1 unit  = 10 ml or 8 g ethanol) per week reduction ([95%CI 0.15, 11.19],p =&thi...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Firearm suicide among youth in the United States, 2004 –2015
AbstractSuicide is a leading cause of death among children in the United States; firearms cause 37% of these deaths. Research is needed to better understand firearm accessibility among youth at risk for suicide. We reviewed data from the National Fatality Review Case Reporting System (NFR-CRS). Firearm suicide deaths of children ages 10 –18 occurring 2004 through 2015 with completed suicide-specific section were included. Children who had talked about, threatened or attempted suicide were identified as “Greater Risk” (GR). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. Of the 2106 ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Perspectives from firearm stakeholders on firearm safety promotion in pediatric primary care as a suicide prevention strategy: a qualitative study
AbstractThe primary objective of the current study was to examine the perspective of firearm stakeholders, including firearm safety course instructors, members of law enforcement, and firearm retailers, with regard to the implementation of an evidence-based approach to firearm safety promotion, the Firearm Safety Check, as a universal suicide prevention strategy in pediatric primary care. Twelve firearm stakeholders participated in semi-structured interviews. Using an integrated analytic approach, several themes emerged from the interviews. With regard to acceptability of the intervention, participants generally found coun...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Youth exposure to violence involving a gun: evidence for adverse childhood experience classification
AbstractAdverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have historically included child maltreatment, household dysfunction, and other critical issues known to impact children negatively. Although youth experiences with violence are broadly captured in some ACE measures, youth exposure to violence involving a gun has not been included specifically in the operationalizing, and therefore  scientific study, of ACEs. There are numerous implications of this omission, including limiting access to ACE interventions that are currently available and resources for individuals who have been exposed to gun violence. Thus, and given the per...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

An examination of the situated transactions of firearm homicides
This study employs a mixed methods approach, using quantitative analysis to discuss significant patterns, and qualitative analysis to provide descriptive accounts of homicide incidents. Seven hundred and five homicides that occurred in a northeastern city between January 1999 and December 2007 are examined to answer the following research question: Do the situated transactions of firearm homicides differ from those involving other weapons? The quantitative analyses found distinct patterns in offender intent, criminogenic tendencies, and situational attributes between firearm and other weapon homicides. The qualitative anal...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Urban building demolitions, firearm violence and drug crime
AbstractAlthough multiple interventions to remediate physical blight have been found to reduce urban firearm violence, there is limited evidence for demolishing vacant buildings as a violence reduction strategy. Starting in 2014, Detroit, MI launched a large-scale program that demolished over 10,000 buildings in its first 3  years. We analyzed the pre-post effects of this program on fatal and nonfatal firearm assaults and illegal drug violations at the U.S. Census block group level, using propensity score matching and negative binomial regression. Receiving over 5 demolitions was associated with a 11% reduction in fir...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A scoping review of patterns, motives, and risk and protective factors for adolescent firearm carriage
AbstractFirearm carriage is a key risk factor for interpersonal firearm violence, a leading cause of adolescent (age  
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Risk and protective factors related to youth firearm violence: a scoping review and directions for future research
AbstractTo conduct our scoping review of risk and protective factors for firearm violence among youth, we searched PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Criminal Justice Abstracts for English-language research articles published between January 1985 and May 2018. We included studies of modifiable risk or protective factors associated with intentional (including suicide) or unintentional firearm victimization or perpetration with samples that included youth  ≤ 17. Among the 28 included studies, 15 explored risk/protective factors for victimization, five focused on perpetration, five did not differentiate between vict...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

State of the science: a scoping review of primary prevention of firearm injuries among children and adolescents
This article describes the state of the science for prevention of firearm injuries among children and adolescents. We applied PRISMA guidelines to present results from a scoping review using PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and CJ Abstracts for original research articles published between January 1, 1985 and March 1, 2018 in the U.S. focusing on primary screening or interventions for primary prevention of pediatric firearm injuries. In total, 46 articles met inclusion criteria: safe storage (23), screening (2), firearm handling/carriage/use (21). Across school, healthcare, and community settings, few evidenced-based programs exist,...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Bolstering gun injury surveillance accuracy using capture –recapture methods
AbstractUsing a single source of data, such as police records, or combining data from multiple sources results in an undercount of gun-related injuries. To improve gun-related injury surveillance accuracy by using capture –recapture methods, data were culled from law enforcement, emergency departments, emergency medical services, media, and medical examiner records. The data overlap was operationalized using capture–recapture to generate estimates of uncounted gun incidents. Dependencies between data sources were controlled using log-linear modeling for accurate estimates. New Haven, Connecticut. The study popu...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Predictors of transitions in firearm assault behavior among drug-using youth presenting to an urban emergency department
AbstractRisk and protective factors for firearm assault (FA) have been established, but little is known about factor preceding transitions in FA behavior. We modeled covariate effects on individuals ’ transitions in FA behavior (Yes/No) using inhomogeneous, continuous-time, Markov Chains. 3287 assessments were made across five initial biannual follow-ups, and two additional biannual follow-ups (an average of 2.2 years later) from a follow-on study; 2687 pairs of transitions were observed (24 14 No-FA → No-FA; 89 No-FA → FA; 121 FA → No-FA; 63 FA &ra...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Factors contributing to homicide-suicide: differences between firearm and non-firearm deaths
AbstractThe primary aim of this study is to determine the relationship between situational factors, method of death, and homicide-suicide deaths, specifically comparing method of death (firearm vs. nonfirearm) across these factors. We used data from the national violence death reporting system, a reporting system for violent deaths that links data from multiple sources. We included incidents that involved at least one homicide death followed by perpetrator suicide in the 42 states from 2013 to 2016. In addition to univariate analyses, we compared proportions of incidents that included a firearm to non-firearm incidents by ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Firearm-related behaviors following firearm injury: changes in ownership, carrying and storage
This study highlights the need for further examination of firearm-related behavior change among GSW patients and development of interventions to promote firearm safety among this population. (Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Characteristics and behavioral risk factors of firearm-exposed youth in an urban emergency department
We describe self-reported firearm access and the associated behavioral risk factors and demographic characteristics in a cross-sectional study conducted in the emergency department of an urban pediatric hospital from June 2013 to June 2014. A total of 2258 adolescents received a behavioral health survey to assess access to firearms inside and outside the home, mental health symptoms, and risk behaviors. One of 6 patients in our sample (15%) endorsed access to a firearm. Male gender, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and lifetime other drug use were associated with access. Participants reporting access were more...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The association of firearm laws with firearm outcomes among children and adolescents: a scoping review
AbstractWe conducted a scoping review to determine the current state of knowledge and areas for advancements in research on the association of firearm laws with child and adolescent firearm-related outcomes. We queried Scopus, EMBASE, Pubmed, and CJ Abstracts for English language original empirical research articles on policies affecting child and adolescent firearm-related outcomes published between January 1, 1985 and July 1, 2018. Data were abstracted, and methodologic quality assessed. Twenty articles met inclusion criteria. Among the policies studied were child access prevention laws (12 studies) and minimum age restr...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

What are the long-term consequences of youth exposure to firearm injury, and how do we prevent them? A scoping review
AbstractThe long-term consequences of exposure to firearm injury —including suicide, assault, and mass shootings—on children’s mental and physical health is unknown. Using PRISMA-ScR guidelines, we conducted a scoping review of four databases (PubMed, Scopus, PsychINFO, and CJ abstract) between January 1, 1985 and April 2, 2018 for articles describing long- term outcomes of child or adolescent firearm injury exposure (n = 3582). Among included studies (n = 31), most used retrospective cohorts or cross-sectional studies to describe the correlation between firearm injury and post...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

After the gun: examining police visits and intimate partner violence following incidents involving a firearm
In this study, we examined one such effort —removal of a firearm at the scene of intimate partner violence (IPV)—to assess the subsequent occurrence and number of IPV incidents responded to by police and subsequent risk of injury to the victim. Using the 28,977 IPV calls in one large U.S. city to which officers responded during the 2013 calendar year, we identified 220 first-time incidents in which offenders used (i.e., brandished, pistol whipped, shot) a pistol, revolver, rifle, or shotgun. Officers reported removing a firearm from 52 (24%) of the offenders. After using full propensity score matching to contro...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Introduction to the special issue on Gun violence: addressing a critical public health challenge
(Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Firearm Safety Among Children and Teens (FACTS) Consortium: defining the current state of the science on pediatric firearm injury prevention
AbstractFive teams of FACTS researchers conducted a series of rigorous scoping reviews of the existing published scientific literature from the fields of medicine, public health, psychology, behavioral health, and criminology from January of 1985 through April of 2018 utilizing the Preferred Reporting Items for Scoping Reviews (Tricco et al., Ann Intern Med 169:467 –473,2018) framework to guide the search strategy, study selection, data abstraction, and analysis process. These scoping reviews characterize the existing scientific literature in five key areas related to Firearm Injury Prevention among children and adol...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Proactive outreach tobacco treatment for socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers with serious mental illness
AbstractSmokers with serious mental illness (SMI) face individual, interpersonal, and healthcare provider barriers to cessation treatment utilization and smoking abstinence. Proactive outreach strategies are designed to address these barriers by promoting heightened contact with smokers and facilitating access to evidence-based treatments. The present study examined the effect of proactive outreach among smokers with SMI (n  = 939) who were enrolled in the publicly subsidized Minnesota Health Care Programs (MHCP) and compared this effect to that observed among MHCP smokers without SMI (n = 1382)...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - July 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Association Between Family Social Network Size and Healthy Lifestyle Factors: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)
We examined associations of central family (i.e., children, parents, in-laws) social network size with healthy lifestyle factors (i.e., favorable body mass index, physical activity, diet, alcohol use, smoking). Using data on 15,511 Hispanics/Latinos 18 –74 years old from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, multivariable adjusted survey logistic regression was used to compute associations of social network size with healthy lifestyle factors. A one-unit higher total of central family size was associated with lower odds of heal thy body mass index (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.86–0.93) and having...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - July 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Defining picky eating and its relationship to feeding behaviors and weight status
AbstractWe assessed the individual constructs that comprise “picky eaters” and determined the relationship of each construct to parental perception of their child’s weight status, parental pressure-to-eat, and the child’s body mass index z-score (BMIz). We developed a questionnaire including 7 commonly used measures of picky eating, which was complet ed by parents of 2–8 year-olds in pediatric clinics. We performed exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and model fit. Regression models assessed the association of each picky eating factor to weight perception, pressure-...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - July 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Relationship between self-care adherence, time perspective, readiness to change and executive function in patients with heart failure
This study examined the relationship between self-care adherence, time perspective (TP), readiness to change (RTC) and executive function in heart failure (HF) self-care. 147 heart failure patients completed questionnaires on self-care, TP, RTC; and cognitive tasks that reflect working memory and inhibition. Positive correlation was found between self-care, future-oriented TP (r  =  0.362,P  =  0.01), RTC (r  =  0.184,P  =  0.05) and working memory (r = 0.174,P  =  0.01). Mediation analysis elucidated the indirect effect of RTC on self-care...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - July 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mediators and moderators of change in mindfulness-based stress reduction for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy
AbstractPainful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDPN) is a chronic pain condition with modest response to pharmacotherapy. Participation in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) leads to improvements in pain-related outcomes but the mechanisms of change are unknown. The present study examined the mediators and moderators of change in 62 patients with PDPN who participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing MBSR to waitlist. Changes in mindfulness and pain catastrophizing were tested simultaneously as mediators. Increased mindfulness mediated the association between participation in MBSR and improved pain severi...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - July 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research