(No) escape from reality? Cigarette craving in virtual smoking environments
AbstractCue-Exposure Therapy (CET) is considered an effective strategy to combat cigarette cravings and smoking relapses, but evidence is mixed. In this lab-based experimental study, we manipulated levels of realism for smoking scenarios in Virtual Environments (VE) and randomly exposed smokers and recent-quitters to one of two versions (low versus high realism) of these scenarios. Prior and after scenario exposure, valid measures of cigarette craving were obtained. Prior to exposure, we assessed nicotine dependence and smoking status (current smokers versus recent-quitter). Within-subject repeated measures analysis of cov...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - July 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Revising the bariatric psychological evaluation to improve clinical and research utility
AbstractAlthough psychological evaluations are a routine component of the bariatric surgery process, the goals commonly identified for bariatric psychological evaluations have not been realized. This brief report describes a revised bariatric psychological evaluation designed to repurpose the evaluation towards more achievable and equally valuable goals. Changes include revisions to the evaluation contents and administration methods. The revised evaluation: (1) includes pre- and post-bariatric psychological assessments to capture important surgery-related changes in psychosocial status, physical functioning, and quality of...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Implicit theories of smoking and association with interest in quitting among current smokers
AbstractMany cigarette smokers make multiple attempts to quit before they are successful. Implicit theories of smoking (ITS) –beliefs about whether smoking behavior is something that is changeable (incremental belief) or fixed (entity belief)–may play a role in quitting. Four iterations of the cross-sectional, nationally-representative Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were used in logistic regression analyses to examine how smokers’ ITS relates to (1) attempts to quit in the past 12 months; (2) considering quitting in the next 6 months; and (3) the interaction between ITS and pa...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Predictors and mediators of outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic pain: the contributions of psychological flexibility
AbstractThere is now a consensus in the literature that future improvements in outcomes obtained from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for chronic pain will require research to identify patient and treatment variables that help explain outcomes. The first aim of this study was to assess whether pre-treatment scores on measures of psychological (in)flexibility, acceptance, committed action, cognitive (de)fusion, and values-based action predict outcomes in a multidisciplinary, multicomponent, group-based CBT program for adults with chronic pain. The second aim was to assess whether change scores on these same measures medi...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - July 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Anxiety, depression, and opioid misuse among adults with chronic pain: the role of emotion dysregulation
AbstractThe opioid epidemic is a significant public health concern in the United States, particularly among adults with chronic pain. Considerable research suggests that people with mental health problems, including anxiety and depression, may experience more opioid-related problems in the context of chronic pain. Yet, little work has examined potential mechanisms underyling these relations. Emotion dysregulation is one mechanistic factor that may link anxiety and depression and opioid-related problems among persons with chronic pain. Therefore, the current study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in th...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - June 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Transitions in coping profiles after breast cancer diagnosis: implications for depressive and physical symptoms
The objective of this study was to determine whether: (a) cancer-related coping profiles change across time; (b) coping profile transition types predict changes in depressive and physical symptoms. Latent transition analysis was conducted with repeated measures of seven cancer-related coping processes from 460 women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. In multilevel models, coping profile transition groups were entered as predictors of symptoms across 12  months. Three coping profiles emerged at study entry, with two profiles at later assessments. Forty-eight percent of women maintained high-moderate approach-orient...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - June 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Incremental criterion validity of message perceptions and effects perceptions in the context of anti-smoking messages
AbstractTo select promising health messages, formative research has often relied on perceived message effectiveness (PME) scales assessing either of two related constructs,message perceptions (persuasive potential) andeffects perceptions (potential for behavioral impact). We sought to examine their incremental criterion validity within a comparative framework. Participants were 703 U.S. adult smokers (ages\(\ge\) 21) who received anti-smoking or comparable control (littering) messages on their cigarette packs for 3 weeks. Structural equation models examined both PME constructs as simultaneous correlates of outc...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - June 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Social Constraints and PTSD among Chinese American breast cancer survivors: not all kinds of social support provide relief
AbstractResearch has demonstrated the association between social constraints and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among breast cancer survivors. Although perceived social support can buffer stress and improve emotional well-being, little is known about which type of social support is most effective in buffering the negative effects of social constraints among cancer survivors. We investigated the moderation of four types of social support (i.e., positive interaction, tangible support, emotional/informational support and affectionate support) on the association between social constraints and PTSD symptoms among...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - June 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A daily study of stressors, continuously measured glucose, and diabetes symptoms in latinos with type 2 diabetes
This study examined whether daily stressors and continuously monitored glucose levels and glucose variability predict daily diabetes symptoms. Fifty Latinos with type 2 diabetes were randomized to either diabetes  education (DE-only; N = 23) or DE plus stress management and relaxation training (DE + SMR; N = 32). After treatment, for 7 days they wore ‘blinded’ continuous glucose monitors and reported common stressors and diabetes symptoms twice daily. Between individuals, participants wit h more numerous overall stressors and more time in hyperglycem...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - June 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mindfulness moderates daily stress and comfort food snacking linkages: a multilevel examination
AbstractStress is often associated with poor diet in young adulthood. However, very few studies have examined whether snacking on non-nutritious sweet or salty “comfort food” is directly linked with daily stress, a common intervention target. Further, trait mindfulness, a psychological resource that may be enhanced by psychological training and regular practice, has yet to be tested as a moderator of daily stress-eating linkages. This 11-day daily diar y study examined multilevel linkages between daily stress appraisals and comfort food eating in undergraduates. Daily stress appraisals positively predicted comf...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Associations of leisure screen time with cardiometabolic biomarkers in college-aged adults
We examined whether screen time was associated with cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk factors in young adults. Ninety-five adults (19.9  ± 11.4 years) self-reported medical and health behavior history, screen time (television viewing, video games and computer games), and dietary intake. Waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid levels, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak), and body composition were measured. Total sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured by accelerometer. On average, leisure screen time (2.0  ± 1.6...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Examining the effectiveness of pain rehabilitation on chronic pain and post-traumatic symptoms
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program (IPRP) in improving pain and PTSD outcomes, as well as reducing medication use. In addition, the mediating effect of pain catastrophizing, which is theorized to underlie the pain and PTSD comorbidity, was examined. Participants included 83 completers of an IPRP with chronic pain and a provisional PTSD diagnosis. Significant improvements were found for pain outcomes, PTSD symptomatology, depressive symptoms, physical performance, and medication use (i.e., opioids and benzodiazepines). At discharge, 86.7% of participants reliably impro...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Do treatment effects of a web-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia intervention differ for users with and without pain interference? A secondary data analysis
AbstractCognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) shows treatment benefits among individuals with pain interference; however, effects of Internet-delivered CBT-I for this population are unknown. This secondary analysis used randomized clinical trial data from adults assigned to Internet-delivered CBT-I to compare changes in sleep by pre-intervention pain interference. Participants (N  =  151) completed the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and sleep diaries [sleep onset latency (SOL); wake after sleep onset (WASO)] at baseline, post-assessment, 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Linear mixed-effects models showe...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The benefits of daily exercise on blood glucose levels and affect among adults with type 1 diabetes
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent and lagged effects of daily exercise on daily blood glucose level and affect among persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). 199 persons with T1D (Mage = 46.82) completed a 14-day diary in which they reported on their engagement in moderate to vigorous exercise for 30 min and positive and negative affect. Daily blood glucose (BG) was gathered through study-provided glucometers. Multilevel modeling examined the effects of daily variability in (within-person effects) and average levels of (between-person effects) daily exercise on BG and affect....
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Are pre-pregnancy weight fluctuations and adherence to prenatal nutrition and exercise recommendations related to excessive gestational weight gain?
AbstractWomen who have an overweight or obese pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) may be recommended to lose weight before pregnancy, however the association of preconception weight fluctuations and prenatal adherence to nutrition and exercise recommendations with gestational weight gain (GWG) have not been assessed. One hundred women with a pre-pregnancy BMI  ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 who participated in the Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP) were included and stratified as gained weight excessively (n  = 47) or not (n = 53) using the 2009 Institute of Medici...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Connecting the dots: a comparison of network analysis and exploratory factor analysis to examine psychosocial syndemic indicators among HIV-negative sexual minority men
This study examined the associations between nine self-reported syndemic indicators in 194 MSM at high risk of HIV acquisition. We compared exploratory factor analyses (EFA) to a network analysis. In the present study, network analysis consisted of edges representing bidirectional partial polychoric correlations between nodes, which represent psychosocial syndemic indicators. EFA yielded a 1-factor solution including suicidal ideation (SI), injection drug use (IDU), depression, social anxiety, intimate partner violence, substance use, and sexual compulsivity, and excluded heavy drinking and childhood sexual abuse. Network ...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - May 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Social and behavioral health responses to COVID-19: lessons learned from four decades of an HIV pandemic
AbstractOur public health approaches to addressing COVID-19 are heavily dependent on social and behavioral change strategies to halt transmissions. To date, biomedical forms of curative and preventative treatments for COVID-19 are at best limited. Four decades into the HIV epidemic we have learned a considerable amount of information regarding social and behavioral approaches to addressing disease transmission. Here we outline broad, scoping lessons learned from the HIV literature tailored to the nature of what we currently know about COVID-19. We focus on multiple levels of intervention including intrapersonal, interperso...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Testing the cross-stressor hypothesis under real-world conditions: exercise as a moderator of the association between momentary anxiety and cardiovascular responses
AbstractThe cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis of exercise training has not been investigated under real-life conditions. Using ecological momentary assessment, we tested whether usual exercise level moderates the relationship of self-reported anxiety to concurrent ambulatory heart rate (HR) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP). Participants (N  = 832) completed 24-h ambulatory monitoring of HR/BP, using a brachial BP cuff that took readings at 28-min intervals. Anxiety levels were concurrently reported on a visual analog scale (VAS) using a Palm Pilot. Usual exercise behavior was assessed by a s...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychosocial factors and multiple health risk behaviors among early adolescents: a latent profile analysis
AbstractEarly adolescence is a pivotal developmental period when multiple health risk behaviors, such as obesity and substance use, are often established. Several psychosocial factors, often considered traits, have been independently associated with these increases, including executive function (EF), mindfulness disposition (MD), perceived stress, distress tolerance (DT), and anhedonia. However, these factors have not been evaluated for their conjoint relationships to determine whether different patterns may signal greater or lesser risk for obesity and substance use, and whether the same patterns relate to obesity and sub...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Daily physical activity and alcohol use among young adults
We examined relations between physical activity and alcohol use at both within- and between-individual levels and investigated moderators of the relation at both levels. 269 college students wore accelerometers to collect physical activity data over a 2-week period. At the end of each day, they indicated whether or not they drank alcohol. Multilevel logistic regression indicated neither within- nor between-subject relations were statistically significant. Positive affect, negative affect, and drinking motives moderated these relations at the between-subject level. Contrary to previous research, we did not observe a relatio...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Associations between naturalistically assessed physical activity patterns, affect, and eating in youth with overweight and obesity
AbstractInsufficient physical activity (PA) and excessive stationary behavior (SB) are contributors to pediatric obesity, though antecedents and consequences of these behaviors in this population are relatively unknown. This pilot study examined affect, loss of control eating (LOCE), overeating, and hunger surrounding PA and SB in 17 youth with overweight/obesity. Participants completed a 14-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) wearing accelerometers. At the momentary level, higher negative affect and lower positive affect predicted SB increases and PA decreases following EMA prompts; higher PA and lower SB also predi...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of quality of life therapy to improve positive emotions among patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators
AbstractImplantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) save lives, but often induce significant psychological distress among patients. Positive psychological constructs are associated with improved outcomes among cardiac patients. In this NHLBI-funded randomized controlled trial, one aim was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a positive psychology intervention (Quality of Life Therapy; QOLT, n  = 11), compared to a Heart Healthy Education (HHE) control (n = 10), among ICD patients. A majority of participants across groups attended all 12 sessions (71%) and completed homework assign...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Adherence to low-calorie and low-sugar diets is uniquely associated with distinct facets of appearance/weight-related smoking motivations
This study tested associations between five diet types and smoking motivation to control weight, shape, and appetite among adult daily cigarette smokers (N  =  550). A multivariate analysis was used to test the incremental association between diet types and Smoking-Related Weight and Eating Episodes Test (SWEET) subscales, adjusting for age, body mass index, sex, and cigarette dependence. Smokers who diet (n = 83, 15.1%) reported higher scores on al l SWEET subscales compared to smokers not on a diet. Low-calorie dieting was associated with greater smoking motivation to cope with body dissatisfa...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Physical discomfort intolerance as a predictor of weight loss and physical activity in a lifestyle modification program
This study examined physical discomfort intolerance (DI) as a baseline predictor of weight loss and physical activity outcomes, and assessed whether changes in DI during the initial phase of weight loss prospectively predicted long-term treatment outcomes among adults enrolled in a group-based lifestyle modification program for obesity. DI was measured at baseline and 6  months, and weight and accelerometer-measured physical activity were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Baseline DI was not related to weight loss or physical activity at either timepoint. Change in DI during the first 6 mon...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - April 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

‘Having come to university my care was very much in my hands’: exploration of university students’ perceptions of health care needs and services using the common-sense model of self-regulation
This study adds depth to the understanding of the connections between students’ health-related experiences and their personal, academic, and post -graduation aspirations and the support needs of students, including international students. To optimise institutional support, innovations in partnerships with local care organisations and within the university, staff training about conditions, peer mentorship, and information outreach especially t o international students, should be considered. (Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - March 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Perceived racism, affectivity, and C-reactive protein in healthy African Americans: Do religiosity and racial identity provide complementary protection?
AbstractPerceived racism contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD) disparities among African Americans. Psychosocial factors that protect against the effects of perceived racism therefore may be reflected by indicators of CVD risk, including C-reactive protein (CRP). The current cross-sectional study examined whether CRP is linked to religiosity and racial identity —two culturally-enshrined individual differences that can protect against the harmful effects of racism. Healthy African Americans completed self-report measures of everyday racism, religious intensity (a measure of the importance of religion/spiritualit...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - March 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Bidirectional association between stress and physical activity in adults with overweight and obesity
AbstractResearch has suggested that there may be a bidirectional association between stress and physical activity; however, much of this work has been conducted in athletes or adults with normal weight. The current study investigated the bidirectional association between stress and physical activity in adults with overweight and obesity. For a full year, during and after a 12-week, Internet-based weight loss program, 74 participants (BMI  = 31.2 kg/m2) were asked to report stress and minutes of physical activity each week. An increase in stress was associated with less physical activity during the same w...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - March 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Parental stress, anxiety and trait mindfulness: associations with parent –child mealtime interactions in children with type 1 diabetes
This study examined how maternal and paternal stress, anxiety, and trait mindfulness, and child glycemic control are related to real-life parent –child interactions in families confronted with type 1 diabetes (T1D).Methods Parents reported on trait mindfulness, illness-related parenting stress, general stress, and state anxiety. Parent –child mealtime interactions were videotaped and scored in 33 families (31 mothers and 20 fathers) of children with T1D (5–12y., mean HbA1c = 7.22%).Results Parental stress and anxiety were related to more maladaptive and less adaptive parent –child inte...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - March 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pain and emotional eating: further investigation of the Yale Emotional Overeating Questionnaire in weight loss seeking patients
AbstractProviders frequently report pain as a barrier to weight loss yet the relationship between the pain experience and eating behavior is poorly understood. The current study examines overeating in response to physical pain (Pain Overeating). Weight-loss seeking Veterans (N  = 126) completed the Yale Emotional Overeating Questionnaire, a measure used to assess the frequency of overeating in response to a range of emotions that was adapted to include a Pain Overeating item, and validated measures of pain, eating pathology, and mental health. Fifty-one participants ( 42.5%) engaged in at least one Pain Overe...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - February 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Anxiety sensitivity and opioid misuse and dependence among trauma-exposed adults with chronic pain
AbstractIt is unclear if anxiety sensitivity may serve as mechanism underlying the relation between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and opioid misuse and dependence among trauma-exposed persons with chronic pain. Therefore, the current study evaluated the explanatory role of anxiety sensitivity in the relations between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and opioid misuse and dependence. Participants included 294 trauma-exposed adults with chronic pain (71.4% female,Mage = 37.79 years,SD = 10.85,Mpain rating = 7.32/10) that reported current moderate to severe chronic p...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - February 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Social support moderates D-dimer and self-rated successful aging within people with HIV and older adults
AbstractMany factors can influence perceptions of successful aging (SA), including social isolation and poor physical health. We hypothesized that social support attenuates the negative effect of plasma D-dimer, a correlate of HIV and aging, on SA. Participants included 230 adults (134 people with HIV; PWH, 96 HIV −), ages 36–65, segregated into age cohorts with up to 5 yearly visits. Multilevel modeling examined longitudinal within-person associations between D-dimer, social support, and SA. Social support moderated the relationship between D-dimer and SA and was significant among PWH and older individu a...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - February 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Impact of weight loss interventions on patient-reported outcomes in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review
AbstractPrevious reviews explored weight loss-induced metabolic changes in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) but did not report on the impact on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). This systematic review investigated the effect of weight loss interventions on weight loss and PROs in overweight and obese adults with T2D. We searched three electronic databases from inception to March 2018 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of weight loss interventions in overweight and obese (according to BMI) adults aged  ≥ 18 years reporting changes in PROs from baseline to at least one follow-...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - February 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Maternal practices and perceptions of child body mass status explain child energy expenditure behaviors and body mass
This study investigated whether maternal perceptions of child body mass status would predict child body mass index (BMI) z-score via two sets of sequential mediators: (1) four maternal practices promoting child energy expenditure and (2) children ’s energy expenditure behaviors. The data ofN = 729 mother–child dyads were collected at baseline [T1;n = 495 at 7- to 8-month follow-up (T2)]. Mothers reported perceptions of child body mass status and maternal practices (T1); children reported sedentary screen use and physical activity (T1, T2). Child body mass was assessed objectively (T1...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Everyday stress components and physical activity: examining reactivity, recovery and pileup
AbstractThe experience of naturally-occurring stress in daily life has been linked with lower physical activity levels. However, most of this evidence comes from general and static reports of stress. Less is known how different temporal components of everyday stress interfere with physical activity. In a coordinated secondary analysis of data from two studies of adults, we used intensive, micro-longitudinal assessments (ecological momentary assessments, EMA) to investigate how distinct components of everyday stress, that is,reactivity to stressor events,recovery from stressor events, andpileup of stressor events and respon...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Anxiety symptoms and smoking among Latinx adult smokers: the importance of sensitivity to internal cues in terms of dependence, barriers for quitting, and quit problems
AbstractAnxiety symptoms are one of the most common forms of psychological distress among Latinx individuals and related to poorer cessation outcomes among non-Latinx Whites. Yet, little is known about the relationship between anxiety symptoms and smoking among Latinx smokers. The current study evaluated sensitivity to internal anxiety-related sensations (anxiety sensitivity) as an explanatory variable in the relation between anxiety symptoms and cigarette dependence, perceived barriers for quitting, and severity of problems experienced during prior quit attempts. Participants included 363 Spanish-speaking Latinx daily smo...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Assessing the association of depression and anxiety with symptom reporting among individuals with type 2 diabetes
This study examined depression and anxiety in relation to total symptoms and symptom attributions in a diverse sample of 120 adults with T2D. Multiple linear regression tested associations after controlling for medical comorbidities and insulin use. Clinician-rated depression ( β = .53,p 
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Modelling multiple health behavior change with network analyses: results from a one-year study conducted among overweight and obese adults
This study examined the between-person associations of seven health behaviors in adults with obesity participating in a weight loss intervention, as well as the covariations between these behaviors within-individuals across the intervention. The present study included data from a 12-month weight loss trial (N  = 278). Seven health behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, total fat and added sugar) were measured at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Between- and within-participants network analyses were conducted to examine how these behaviors w ere asso...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Partner presence in the emergency department and adherence to daily cardiovascular medications in patients evaluated for acute coronary syndrome
AbstractStressful health situations may compromise spouses ’/partners’ ability to provide patients with support. We tested whether partner status/partner presence in the emergency department (ED) were associated with patients’ adherence to daily cardiovascular medications and whether effects differed by age/gender. Participants were 189 patients evalu ated for acute coronary syndrome at an urban academic ED (MAge = 62.18; 57.1% male; 58.7% Hispanic). Participants self-reported partner status/partner presence. Medication adherence was measured using an electronic pillcap. For male patients, h...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The separation in coordination between social- and self-regulation for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes
AbstractTo examine how self-regulation and social-regulation surrounding type 1 diabetes (T1D) management are coordinated during early emerging adulthood and whether classes of coordination relate to HbA1c and executive functioning (EF). Emerging adult participants (N = 212) with T1D (M age = 18.8 years, SD = .40) completed a 14-day diary to capture components of self-regulation and social-regulation. A mixture multi-level latent coordination model first determined the separate but coordinated factor structure of self- and social-regulation, then de termined the number of dist...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

My health smartphone intervention decreases daily fat sources among Latina breast cancer survivors
AbstractBreast cancer is the most common cancer among Latina women, and Latina women are at higher risk for breast cancer mortality than white women. Lifestyle factors, such as consuming a nutritious diet and engaging in regular physical activity, promote health and are protective against heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast cancer recurrence. Previous studies have developed and tested interventions for Latina breast cancer survivors to improve diet and increase physical activity, however, no studies to date have developed a smartphone delivered intervention. The purpose of the current study was to compare two Smartp...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Alcohol-related beliefs and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Cape Town, South Africa
This study conducted a clinic-based survey with 100 men and 193 women (mean age  = 36) to examine the prevalence of alcohol-ART interactive toxicity beliefs and whether they contribute to treatment non-adherence in South Africa. One in three (36%, n = 106) participants reported no current alcohol use and 64% (n = 187) reported current alcohol use. The majority of pa rticipants, including current alcohol drinkers, endorsed beliefs that it is harmful to mix ART and alcohol, with 57% who currently drink reporting that they forgo taking ART when they are drinking. Participants reported...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A multimethod approach examining the relative contributions of optimism and pessimism to cardiovascular disease risk markers
This study addressed these issues by using multiple indicators of optimism and pessimism and linking them to objective risk factors for CVD. A diverse sample of adults (N = 300) completed baseline assessments (including global reports of optimism and pessimism), a 2-day/1-night EMA protocol with ambulatory blood pressure (BP) at 45-min intervals, and had inflammatory markers and carotid intima media imaging collected. EMA reports of momentary positive and negati ve expectations were averaged to form intraindividual (person) means of optimism and pessimism, respectively. Optimism and pessimism were only modest...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Cognitive behavioral therapy for primary care depression and anxiety: a secondary meta-analytic review using robust variance estimation in meta-regression
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a typo in the second author surname. The author surname was incorrectly listed as Borhneimer. The correct name should be Bornheimer. (Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Testing a model of fear of cancer recurrence or progression: the central role of intrusions, death anxiety and threat appraisal
This study tested predictions arising from the model to explain fear of cancer recurrence or progression (FCR). Patients with cancer were recruited from a research registry or outpatient hospital clinics (n  = 211). In bivariate analyses, FCR was associated with metacognitive beliefs, intolerance of uncertainty, core belief disruption, less meaning in life, social constraints, death anxiety, intrusions, threat appraisal, and coping. A hierarchical regression explained 65% of the variance in FCR. FC R was predicted by younger age, intrusions, death anxiety, threat appraisal and meta-cognitions. The findings hi...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A response to ‘Comment on “Urban building demolitions, firearm violence and drug crime”’
(Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Association of social network factors with weight status and weight loss intentions among hispanic adults
AbstractHispanic adults have the highest obesity prevalence in the United States, but little is known about weight-related social network influences. A community-based sample of 610 Hispanic participants completed height/weight and a survey. The proportion of overweight or obese (OW/OB) network members was higher for OW/OB respondents compared to normal weight respondents. Participants with high weight loss intentions reported more positive social norms for weight control, social support, and social cohesion. If most or all of OW/OB participant ’s social contacts were trying to lose weight, the odds that they were li...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - January 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Comment on “Urban building demolitions, firearm violence and drug crime”
(Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine)
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Disgust propensity has a causal link to the stigmatization of people with cancer
This study had two parts: a survey (n = 272), assessing the association between disgust traits and cancer stigma; and an experiment, in which participants were exposed to a cancer surgery (n = 73) or neutral video (n = 68), in order to test a causal mechanism for the abovementioned association. Having a higher proneness to disgust was associated with an increased tendency to stigmatize people with cancer. Further, a significant causal pathway was observed between disgust propensity and awkwardness- and avoi dance-based cancer stigma via elevated disgust following cancer surgery exp...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - December 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychological and neighborhood factors associated with urban women ’s preventive care use
This study focuses on the largely understudied areas of psychological barriers (depression) and neighborhood factors (support and stressors) that may be associated w ith women’s preventive care use through secondary analysis of the Chicago Community Adult Health Study. Across models, 30–40% of the variance in preventive care adherence was explained by the neighborhood. Depressive symptoms were not associated with preventive care use when neighborhood factors were included. However, stratified models showed that associations varied by race/ethnicity. Previous research has tended to focus on individual determinan...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - December 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The relationship between minority stress and biological outcomes: A systematic review
AbstractSexual minority (non-heterosexual) individuals experience higher rates of physical health problems. Minority stress has been the primary explanatory model to account for this disparity. The purpose of this study was to identify in published research empirically established relationships between minority stress processes and biological outcomes and identify avenues for future research. The PubMed database was queried with search terms relevant to minority stress and a comprehensive list of physical and biological outcomes. To be included in the analysis, studies had to examine the relationship between minority stres...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - December 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research