Erratum to: Redler G, Pearson E, Liu X, et al. Small Animal IMRT Using 3D-Printed Compensators. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021; 110(2):551-565.
The published article properly references Figures 7 and 8 in the text. However, the captions associated with these figures are mismatched. In other words, Figure 7 shows the composite dose distribution and Figure 8 shows the flow chart depicting general approach to a preclinical image guided intensity modulated therapy. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Navigating Past the Chaos of the Radiation Oncology 2021 Match
Parisian mathematician Jules Henri Poincare is credited with identifying fundamental concepts that established chaos theory, which describes dynamic systems wherein small differences in initial conditions can lead to widely diverging outcomes. The phenomenon is often called the “butterfly effect,” conjuring an image of an insect in China flapping its wings, possibly triggering a cascade of meteorologic events that ultimately cause a tornado in Texas.1 For the record, we know of no actual Asian lepidopteran that has ever affected Panhandle weather, intentionally or othe rwise. (Source: International Journal of R...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Emma C. Fields, Brian D. Kavanagh Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Erratum to: Li T-C, Liu C-C, Lee YZ, et al. Combination Therapy of Pulsed-Wave Ultrasound Hyperthermia and Immunostimulant OK-432 Enhances Systemic Antitumor Immunity for Cancer Treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2020; 108(1):140-149.
We made an error in describing tumor size in the ‘Methods and Materials’ section of the paper under the heading “Preparation of cancer cells and the tumor model (pages 141-142)”. The correct statement should be “The survival time was defined as the period from tumor implantation to a tumor size larger than 2000 mm3. In compliance with th e animal care guidelines of IACUC, mice were euthanized when either primary or secondary tumors reached 2000 mm3(1-4)” rather than 1000 mm3. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Issue Highlights page
(Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Meetings page
(Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Phase I Trial of Stereotactic MRI-guided Online Adaptive Radiation Therapy (SMART) for the Treatment of Oligometastatic Ovarian Cancer
SBRT is increasingly used to treat a variety of oligometastatic histologies, but few data exist for ovarian cancer. Ablative SBRT dosing is challenging in sites like the abdomen, pelvis, and central thorax due to proximity and motion of organs-at-risk. A novel radiation delivery method, stereotactic magnetic-resonance-guided online-adaptive radiotherapy (SMART), may improve SBRT's therapeutic index through enhanced soft-tissue visualization, real-time non-ionizing imaging, and ability to adapt to the anatomy-of-the-day, with the goal of producing systemic-therapy-free intervals. (Source: International Journal of Radiation ...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Lauren E. Henke, Jennifer A. Stanley, Clifford Robinson, Amar Srivastava, Jessika A. Contreras, Austen Curcuru, Olga L. Green, L. Stewart Massad, Lindsay Kuroki, Katherine Fuh, Andrea Hagemann, David Mutch, Carolyn McCourt, Premal Thaker, Matthew Powell, Tags: Clinical Investigation Source Type: research

Activated B-cells and Plasma cells are Resistant to Radiation Therapy.
B-cells play a key role in outcomes of cancer patients and responses to checkpoint blockade immunotherapies. However, the effect of radiation therapy on B-cell populations is poorly understood. Here we characterize the effects of radiation on the development, survival, and phenotype of physiologic B-cell subsets. Na ïve and immunized tumor bearing and non-tumor bearing mice were treated with large field or focal stereotactic radiation and distinct B-cells subsets of varying developmental stages were analyzed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Ida Franiak-Pietryga, Sayuri Miyauchi, Sangwoo Shawn Kim, P. Dominick Sanders, Whitney Sumner, Lin Zhang, AJ Mundt, Joseph A. Califano, Andrew B. Sharabi Source Type: research

Thecal Sac Contouring as a Surrogate for the Cauda Equina and Intracanal Spinal Nerve Roots for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT): Contour Variability and Recommendations for Safe Practice
To present interobserver variability in thecal sac (TS) delineation based on contours generated by 8 radiation oncologists experienced in spine stereotactic body radiation therapy and to propose contouring recommendations to standardize practice. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Emma M. Dunne, Simon S. Lo, Mitchell C. Liu, Alanah Bergman, Robert Kosztyla, Eric L. Chang, Ung-Kyu Chang, Samuel T. Chao, Nicolas Dea, Salman Faruqi, Amol J. Ghia, Kristin J. Redmond, Scott G. Soltys, Arjun Sahgal Tags: Clinical Investigation Source Type: research

Moving Beyond the Standard of Care: Accelerate Testing of Radiation-Drug Combinations
Radiotherapy is a major treatment modality used in over 60% of cancer patients, as definitive local treatment for inoperable locoregionally confined tumors and as palliative therapy. While cytotoxic chemotherapy enhances the effectiveness of treatment, the benefit over radiotherapy alone is still quite modest. There is a need to further enhance the effectiveness of local tumor control over what sequentially or concurrently administered cytotoxic chemotherapy provides. Although many biologic pathways are known to enhance the effectiveness of radiotherapy, there is currently a paucity of drugs approved for use in combination...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Steven H. Lin, Henning Willers, Sunil Krishnan, Jann N. Sarkaria, Michael Baumann, Theodore S. Lawrence Tags: Biology Contribution Source Type: research

Noninvasive Thalamotomy for Refractory Tremor by Frameless Radiosurgery
We sought to determine whether a more widely accessible, non-invasive frameless approach to radiosurgical thalamotomy would improve objective measures of refractory essential or parkinsonian tremor without added toxicity compared to reports of frame-based radiosurgery. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Mohamed H. Khattab, Anthony J. Cmelak, Alexander D. Sherry, Guozhen Luo, Li Wang, Hong Yu, Peter Hedera, Fenna T. Phibbs, Christopher J. Lindsell, Joseph Neimat, Austin N. Kirschner Tags: Clinical Investigation Source Type: research

Thecal Sac Contouring as a Surrogate for the Cauda Equina and Intra-Canal Spinal Nerve Roots for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT): Contour Variability and Recommendations for Safe Practice
Purpose: To present inter observer variability (IOV) in thecal sac (TS) delineation based on contours generated by eight experienced spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) radiation oncologists, and propose contouring recommendations to standardize practice.Methods and materials: In the setting of a larger contouring study that reported target volume delineation guidelines specific to sacral metastases, eight academically based radiation oncologists (RO) with dedicated spine SBRT programs independently contoured the TS as a surrogate for the cauda equina and intra-canal spinal nerve roots. (Source: International Journ...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Emma Maria Dunne, Simon Lo, Mitchell C Liu, Alanah Bergman, Robert Kosztyla, Eric L Chang, Ung-Kyu Chang, Samuel T Chao, Nicolas Dea, MSc Salman Faruqi, Amol J Ghia, Kristin J Redmond, Scott G Soltys, Arjun Sahgal Tags: Clinical Investigation Source Type: research

Correlation of LET with MRI changes in brain and potential implications for normal tissue complication probability for meningioma patients treated with pencil beam scanning proton therapy
To investigate the correlation between imaging changes in brain normal tissue and the spatial distribution of linear energy transfer (LET) for a cohort of meningioma patients treated with scanned proton beams. Then, assuming imaging changes are induced by cell lethality, to study the correlation between normal tissue complication probability and LET. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Alejandro Bertolet, Ramin Abolfath, David J. Carlson, Robert A. Lustig, Christine Hill-Kayser, Michelle Alonso-Basanta, Alejandro Carabe Tags: Physics Contribution Source Type: research

Positron Emission Tomography –Guided Bone Marrow–Sparing Radiation Therapy for Locoregionally Advanced Cervix Cancer: Final Results From the INTERTECC Phase II/III Trial
To test effects of positron emission tomography (PET) –based bone marrow–sparing (BMS) image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) on efficacy and toxicity for patients with locoregionally advanced cervical cancer. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Casey W. Williamson, Igor Sir ák, Ronghui Xu, Lorraine Portelance, Lichun Wei, Rafal Tarnawski, Umesh Mahantshetty, Elena S. Heide, Catheryn M. Yashar, Michael T. McHale, Walter Bosch, Jessica Lowenstein, Cheryl C. Saenz, Steve Plaxe, Ramez Eskander, Joh Tags: Clinical investigation Source Type: research

Positron Emission Tomography-Guided Bone Marrow-Sparing Radiation Therapy for Locoregionally Advanced Cervix Cancer: Final Results from the XXX Phase II/III Trial
To test effects of positron emission tomography (PET)-based bone marrow-sparing (BMS) image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on efficacy and toxicity for patients with locoregionally advanced cervical cancer. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Casey W. Williamson, Igor Sir ák, Ronghui Xu, Lorraine Portelance, Lichun Wei, Rafal Tarnawski, Umesh Mahantshetty, Elena S. Heide, Catheryn M. Yashar, Michael T. McHale, Walter Bosch, Jessica Lowenstein, Cheryl C. Saenz, Steve Plaxe, Ramez Eskander, Joh Source Type: research

Gamma-H2AX Foci Decay Ratio as a Stronger Predictive Factor of Late Radiation Toxicity than Dose-Volume Parameters in a Prospective Cohort of Prostate Cancer Patients
Late radiation toxicity is a major dose-limiting factor in curative cancer radiotherapy. Previous studies identified several risk factors for late radiation toxicity, including both dose-volume factors and genetic predisposition. Herein, we investigated the contribution of genetic predisposition, particularly compared to dose-volume factors, to the risk of late radiation toxicity in patients treated with highly conformal radiotherapy. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Anna C. Nuijens, Arlene L. Oei, Bregje van Oorschot, Jorrit Visser, Rob M. van Os, Perry D. Moerland, Nicolaas A.P. Franken, Coen R.N. Rasch, Lukas J.A. Stalpers Source Type: research

Can Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance Improve Nasopharyngeal Cancer Outcomes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Reporting the First Phase of a Prospective International Atomic Energy Agency Study
This study reports the results of the first phase of the International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Project (325-E3-TM-47712). (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: June Corry, Wai Tong Ng, Alisha Moore, Horace C.W. Choi, Quynh Le, Sofee Holmes, Arie Munandar, Shengzi Wang, Angela Camacho, Jiraporn Setakornnukul, Chuleeporn Jiarpinitnun, P.N. Hiep, Sarbani Ghosh Laskar, Noureddine Benjaafar, Mohammad Faheem, Feng Jin Tags: Clinical Investigation Source Type: research

Secondary Infections After Diagnosis of Severe Radiation Pneumonitis (SRP) Among Patients With Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Pathogen Distributions, Choice of Empirical Antibiotics, and the Value of Empirical Antifungal Treatment
This study aimed to assess pathogen distributions and antimicrobial sensitivity characteristics in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with severe radiation pneumonitis (SRP) and secondary infections. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Ting Mei, Xuexi Yang, Yang Yu, Xiaoman Tian, Qianyue Deng, Yong Xu, Lin Zhou, Xiaojuan Zhou, Yongmei Liu, Bingwen Zou, Jianxin Xue, Min Quan, Libo Yan, You Lu, Youling Gong Tags: Clinical Investigation Source Type: research

Coronary Artery Calcifications and Cardiac Risk After Radiation Therapy for Stage III Lung Cancer
Heart dose and heart disease increase the risk for cardiac toxicity associated with radiation therapy. We hypothesized that computed tomography (CT) coronary calcifications are associated with cardiac toxicity and may help ascertain baseline heart disease. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Kyle Wang, Hayley E. Malkin, Nicholas D. Patchett, Kevin A. Pearlstein, Hillary M. Heiling, Sean D. McCabe, Allison M. Deal, Panayiotis Mavroidis, Mary Oakey, Jeffrey Fenoli, Carrie B. Lee, J Larry Klein, Brian C. Jensen, Thomas E. Stinchcombe, Lawrence B Tags: Clinical investigation Source Type: research

Coronary Artery Calcifications and Cardiac Risk after Radiotherapy for Stage III Lung Cancer
Heart dose and heart disease increase risk for RT-associated cardiac toxicity. We hypothesized that CT coronary calcifications are associated with cardiac toxicity and may help ascertain baseline heart disease. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Kyle Wang, Hayley E. Malkin, Nicholas D. Patchett, Kevin A. Pearlstein, Hillary M. Heiling, Sean D. McCabe, Allison M. Deal, Panayiotis Mavroidis, Mary Oakey, Jeffrey Fenoli, Carrie B. Lee, J Larry Klein, Brian C. Jensen, Thomas E. Stinchcombe, Lawrence B Source Type: research

Radiation toxicity in patients with collagen vascular disease: A meta-analysis of case-control studies
Background: Several retrospective series have reported that patients with collagen vascular disease (CVD) are at increased risk of radiation (RT) toxicity. However, the evidence is mixed, and many series lack control groups. We performed a meta-analysis including only case-cohort or randomized studies examining the risk of RT toxicity for patients with CVD compared to controls.Methods: MOOSE guidelines were used to perform a comprehensive search identifying case-control or randomized studies reporting RT toxicity outcomes for patients with CVD versus controls. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Parvez M Shaikh, Sarah A Singh, Fiori Alite, John A Vargo, Bahman Emami, Meng-Jia Wu, Geraldine Jacobson, Veli Bakalov, William Small, Basem Dahshan, Joshua Weir, Paul B Renz, Matthew M Harkenrider Source Type: research

Can Radiotherapy Quality Assurance (RT QA) improve nasopharyngeal cancer outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) – Reporting the first phase of a prospective International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study.
This study reports the results of the first phase of the XXXX XXXX Project (XXX). (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: June Corry, Wai Tong Ng, Alisha Moore, Horace C.W. Choi, Quynh Le, Sofee Holmes, Arie Munandar, Shengzi Wang, Angela Camacho, Jiraporn Setakornnukul, Chuleeporn Jiarpinitnun, P.N. Hiep, Sarbani Ghosh Laskar, Noureddine Benjaafar, Mohammad Faheem, Feng Jin Tags: Clinical Investigation Source Type: research

Secondary infections after diagnosis of severe radiation pneumonitis (SRP) among non-small cell lung cancer patients: pathogen distributions, choice of empirical antibiotics and the value of empirical antifungal treatment
To assess pathogen distributions and antimicrobial sensitivity characteristics in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients diagnosed with severe radiation pneumonitis with secondary infections. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Ting Mei, Xuexi Yang, Yang Yu, Xiaoman Tian, Qianyue Deng, Yong Xu, Lin Zhou, Xiaojuan Zhou, Yongmei Liu, Bingwen Zou, Jianxin Xue, Min Quan, Libo Yan, You Lu, Youling Gong Tags: Clinical Investigation Source Type: research

Logistic Regression in Clinical Studies
Conflicts of interest: None (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Emily C. Zabor, Chandana A. Reddy, Rahul D. Tendulkar, Sujata Patil Tags: Critical Review Source Type: research

Quantitative Bioluminescence Tomography-guided Conformal Irradiation for Preclinical Radiation Research
Widely used cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided irradiators in preclinical radiation research are limited to localize soft tissue target because of low imaging contrast. Knowledge of target volume is a fundamental need for radiation therapy (RT). Without such information to guide radiation, normal tissue can be overirradiated, introducing experimental uncertainties. This led us to develop high-contrast quantitative bioluminescence tomography (QBLT) for guidance. The use of a 3-dimensional bioluminescence signal, related to cell viability, for preclinical radiation research is one step toward biology-guided RT. (Sou...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 16, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Xiangkun Xu, Zijian Deng, Hamid Dehghani, Iulian Iordachita, Michael Lim, John W. Wong, Ken Kang-Hsin Wang Tags: Physics Contribution Source Type: research

Prospective Clinical Investigation of the Efficacy of Combination Radiation Therapy With Immune Checkpoint Inhibition
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) lead to durable responses in a subset of patients with cancer, but most patients do not respond to ICI, prompting interest in combining immunotherapy with other therapeutic regimens. Preclinical evidence supports the potential for therapeutic synergy between immunotherapy and radiation therapy through modulation of the tumor microenvironment and antitumor immune responses. Local therapy also has the potential to overcome localized sites of relative immune suppression and resistance. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 16, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Elliot H. Akama-Garren, Zachary S. Morris, Andrew G. Sikora, Ralph Weichselbaum, Jonathan D. Schoenfeld Tags: Critical Review Source Type: research

Prospective clinical investigation of the efficacy of combination radiotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibition
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) lead to durable responses in a subset of cancer patients, but most patients do not respond to ICI, prompting interest in combining immunotherapy with other therapeutic regimens. Preclinical evidence supports the potential for therapeutic synergy between immunotherapy and radiotherapy through modulation of the tumor microenvironment and anti-tumor immune responses. Local therapy also has the potential to overcome localized sites of relative immune suppression and resistance. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 16, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Elliot H. Akama-Garren, Zachary S. Morris, Andrew G. Sikora, Ralph Weichselbaum, Jonathan D. Schoenfeld Tags: Critical Review Source Type: research

Quantitative Bioluminescence Tomography-guided Conformal Irradiation for Pre-clinical Radiation Research
Widely-used CBCT-guided irradiators in pre-clinical radiation research are limited to localize soft tissue target due to low imaging contrast. Knowledge of target volume is a fundamental need for radiotherapy (RT). Without such information to guide radiation, normal tissue can be over-irradiated, introducing experimental uncertainties. It led us to develop high contrast quantitative bioluminescence tomography (QBLT) for guidance. The use of 3D bioluminescence signal, related to cell viability, for pre-clinical radiation research is one step toward biology-guided RT. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 16, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Xiangkun Xu, Zijian Deng, Hamid Dehghani, Iulian Iordachita, Michael Lim, John W. Wong, Ken Kang-Hsin Wang Tags: Physics Contribution Source Type: research

Mechanisms and Review of Clinical Evidence of Variations in Relative Biological Effectiveness in Proton Therapy
Proton therapy is increasingly being used as a radiation therapy modality. There is uncertainty about the biological effectiveness of protons relative to photon therapies as it depends on several physical and biological parameters. Radiation oncology currently applies a constant and generic value for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1, which was chosen conservatively to ensure tumor coverage. The use of a constant value has been challenged particularly when considering normal tissue constraints. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 14, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Harald Paganetti Tags: Critical review Source Type: research

Mechanisms and review of clinical evidence for variations in relative biological effectiveness in proton therapy
Proton therapy is increasingly being used as a radiation therapy modality. There is uncertainty about the biological effectiveness of protons relative to photon therapies as it depends on several physical and biological parameters. Radiation oncology currently applies a constant and generic value for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1, which was chosen conservatively to ensure tumor coverage. The use of a constant value has been challenged particularly when considering normal tissue constraints. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 14, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Harald Paganetti Source Type: research

Long-Term Outcomes of NRG Oncology/RTOG 0529: A Phase 2 Evaluation of Dose-Painted Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combination With 5-Fluorouracil and Mitomycin-C for the Reduction of Acute Morbidity in Anal Canal Cancer
A multi-institutional phase 2 trial assessed long-term outcomes of dose-painted intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and mitomycin-C (MMC) for anal canal cancer. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Lisa A. Kachnic, Kathryn A. Winter, Robert J. Myerson, Michael D. Goodyear, Andre A. Abitbol, Oscar E. Streeter, Mark E. Augspurger, Tracey E. Schefter, Alan W. Katz, Barbara J. Fisher, Lauren E. Henke, Samir Narayan, Christopher H. Crane Tags: Clinical Investigation Source Type: research

Preclinical risk evaluation of normal tissue injury with novel radiosensitizers
Genotoxic damage induced by radiation triggers a highly coordinated DNA damage response (DDR), and molecular inhibitors of key nodes within this complex response network can provide profound enhancement in the anti-tumor efficacy of radiation. This is especially true for drugs targeting the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), which is a core component of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway, and Ataxia Telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which coordinates cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA repair functionalities after radiation exposure. (Source: International Journal of Radiation ...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Sonja Dragojevic, Ji Jianxiong, Pankaj K. Singh, Margaret A. Connors, Robert W. Mutter, Scott C. Lester, Surabhi M. Talele, Wenjuan Zhang, Brett L. Carlson, Nicholas B. Remmes, Sean S. Park, William F. Elmquist, Sunil Krishnan, Erik J. Tryggestad, Jann N. Source Type: research

Irradiation at ultra-high (FLASH) dose rates reduces acute normal tissue toxicity in the mouse gastrointestinal system
Preclinical studies using ultra-high dose rate (FLASH) irradiation have demonstrated reduced normal tissue toxicity compared to conventional dose rate (CONV) irradiation, although this finding is not universal. We investigated the effect of temporal pulse structure and average dose rate of FLASH compared to CONV irradiation, on acute intestinal toxicity. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Jia-Ling Ruan, Carl Lee, Shari Wouters, Iain DC Tullis, Mieke Verslegers, Mohamed Mysara, Chee Kin Then, Sean C Smart, Mark A Hill, Ruth J Muschel, Amato J Giaccia, Borivoj Vojnovic, Anne E Kiltie, Kristoffer Petersson Source Type: research

Long term Outcomes of NRG Oncology/RTOG 0529: A Phase II Evaluation of Dose-Painted Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (DP-IMRT) in Combination with 5-Fluorouracil and Mitomycin-C for the Reduction of Acute Morbidity in Anal Canal Cancer
Purpose: A multi-institutional phase II trial assessed long-term outcomes of DP-IMRT with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and mitomycin-C (MMC) for anal canal cancer.Patients and Methods: T2-4N0-3M0 anal cancers received 5FU (1000 mg/m2/day 96 hour infusion) and MMC (10 mg/m2 bolus) days 1 and 29 of DP-IMRT prescribed as - T2N0: 42Gy elective nodal and 50.4Gy anal tumor planning target volumes (PTVs), 28 fractions; T3-4N0-3: 45Gy elective nodal, 50.4Gy ≤3cm and 54Gy>3cm metastatic nodal and 54Gy anal tumor PTVs, 30 fractions. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Lisa A Kachnic, Kathryn Winter, Robert J Myerson, Michael D Goodyear, Andre A Abitbol, Oscar E Streeter, Mark E Augspurger, Tracey E Schefter, Alan W Katz, Barbara J Fisher, Lauren E Henke, Samir Narayan, Christopher H Crane Source Type: research

Dosimetric uncertainties resulting from interfractional anatomic variations for patients receiving pancreas stereotactic body radiation therapy and cone-beam CT image guidance
To estimate the effects of interfractional anatomic changes on dose to organs-at-risk (OARs) and tumors, as measured with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image guidance for pancreatic stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Joshua S. Niedzielski, Yufei Liu, Sylvia S.W. Ng, Rachael M. Martin, Luis A. Perles, Sam Beddar, Neal Rebueno, Eugene J. Koay, Cullen Taniguchi, Emma B. Holliday, Prajnan Das, Grace L. Smith, Bruce D. Minsky, Ethan B. Ludmir, Joseph M. Herman, Albert Koon Source Type: research

Radiation Therapy Across Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma Research Group Protocols: A Report From the Staging, Evaluation, and Response Criteria Harmonization (SEARCH) for Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma (CAYAHL) Group
Radiation therapy (RT) has played a central role in the management of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) for more than 50 years. Palliative RT was replaced with large fields delivered with curative treatment intent during the 1950s and 1960s.1 Over time, combined modality therapy (CMT) with chemotherapy followed by consolidative RT has increased cure rates while often using less intensive chemotherapy regimens and smaller RT fields at lower doses. The 10-year overall survival now exceeds 85% with CMT for pediatric patients with HL. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Matthew D. Hall, Stephanie A. Terezakis, John T. Lucas, Eve Gallop-Evans, Karin Dieckmann, Louis S. Constine, David Hodgson, Jamie E. Flerlage, Monika L. Metzger, Bradford S. Hoppe Tags: Critical Review Source Type: research

Radiotherapy across pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma research group protocols: a report from the Staging, Evaluation, and Response Criteria Harmonization (SEARCH) for childhood, adolescent, and young adult Hodgkin lymphoma (CAYAHL) Group.
Radiotherapy (RT) technology and utilization has considerably evolved over the last 50 years in the management of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). In response to significant late effects from RT in HL survivors, clinical trials in the United States and Europe have evaluated ways to maintain high cure rates while reducing late toxicities from treatment. While numerous differences exist with respect to the RT guidelines embedded within therapeutic protocols across the cooperative groups, greater agreement is observed in the indications for RT, doses, volumes, and the incorporation of modern treatment modalities. (Source: Int...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Matthew D. Hall, Stephanie A. Terezakis, John T. Lucas, Eve Gallop-Evans, Karin Dieckmann, Louis S. Constine, David Hodgson, Jamie E. Flerlage, Monika L. Metzger, Bradford S. Hoppe Source Type: research

Involved-Field Radiation Therapy Prevents Recurrences in the Early Stages of Hodgkin Lymphoma in PET-Negative Patients After ABVD Chemotherapy: Relapse Analysis of GHSG Phase 3 HD16 Trial
The HD16 trial of the German Hodgkin Study Group (NCT00736320) demonstrated that radiation therapy in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma without risk factors cannot be safely omitted, and therefore combined modality therapy (CMT) remains the standard treatment. To demonstrate the local effect of consolidating involved-field radiation therapy (IF-RT), we performed an analysis of the recurrence pattern of positron emission tomography (PET)-negative HD16 patients. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Christian Baues, Helen Goergen, Michael Fuchs, Johannes Rosenbrock, Eren Celik, Hans Eich, Carsten Kobe, Conrad-Amadeus Voltin, Andreas Engert, Peter Borchmann, Simone Marnitz Tags: Clinical Investigation Source Type: research

Involved-Field Radiotherapy prevents recurrences in the early stages of Hodgkin's lymphoma in PET-negative patients after ABVD Chemotherapy Relapse Analysis of GHSG Phase III HD16 Trial
The HD16 trial of the GHSG (xxxxxxxx) demonstrated that radiotherapy in early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma without risk factors (ESHL) cannot be safely omitted and therefore combined modality therapy (CMT) remains the standard treatment. To demonstrate the local effect of consolidating involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) we performed an analysis of the recurrence pattern of PET-negative HD16 patients. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Christian Baues, Helen Goergen, Michael Fuchs, Dr. Johannes Rosenbrock, Eren Celik, Hans Eich, Carsten Kobe, Conrad-Amadeus Voltin, Andreas Engert, Peter Borchmann, Simone Marnitz Tags: Clinical Investigation Source Type: research

A prospective trial demonstrating the benefit of personalized selection of breath-hold technique for upper-abdominal radiotherapy using the Active Breathing Co-ordinator (ABC)
Background: For upper abdominal (UA) tumors, our institutional-standard motion reduction method is Expiration Breath Hold (EBH), using Active Breathing Coordinator (ABC)TM. However, an individual patient's breath-hold (BH) reproducibility (RBH) may be improved in Deep Inspiration or Inspiration Breath-Hold (DIBH or IBH). This trial compared the tumor position RBH, stability (SBH), and breath-hold time (TBH) of three BH methods, using ABC, to personalize the selection of technique, by employing a pre-planning screening assessment. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Briana Farrugia, Kellie Knight, Caroline Wright, Mark Tacey, Farshad Foroudi, Michael Chao, Richard Khor Source Type: research

Interprofessional Image Verification Workshop for Physician and Physics Residents: A Multi-Institutional Experience
Verification of patient position through pretreatment setup imaging is crucial in modern radiotherapy. As treatment complexity increases and technology  evolves, physicist-physician collaboration becomes imperative for safe and successful radiation delivery. Despite the importance of both, residency programs lack formal interprofessional education (IPE) activities or structured training for image verification.  Here we show the impact of an  interprofessional image verification workshop for residents in a multi-institutional setting. (Source: International Journal of Radiation O...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Laura Padilla, Jay W. Burmeister, Omer Lee Burnett, Elizabeth L. Covington, Robert B. Den, Michael M. Dominello, Kevin L. Du, Paulina E. Galavis, Stephanie Junell, Jenna Kahn, Monica Kishore, Karen Mooney, Nitai D. Mukhopadhyay, Matthew T. Studenski, Raph Source Type: research

ROECSG Spring Symposium
(Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Lung Carcinoma: A Preclinical Study
This study is the first to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of S-MRT for the treatment of lung carcinoma, using a new syngeneic and orthotopic mouse model. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Verdiana Trappetti, Cristian Fernandez-Palomo, Lloyd Smyth, Mitzi Klein, David Haberth ür, Duncan Butler, Micah Barnes, Nahoko Shintani, Michael de Veer, Jean A. Laissue, Marie C. Vozenin, Valentin Djonov Tags: Biology Contribution Source Type: research

Synchrotron Microbeam Radiotherapy for the treatment of lung carcinoma: a pre-clinical study
This study is the first to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of S-MRT for the treatment of lung carcinoma, using a new syngeneic and orthotopic mouse model. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Verdiana Trappetti, Cristian Fernandez-Palomo, Lloyd Smyth, Mitzi Klein, David Haberth ür, Duncan Butler, Micah Barnes, Nahoko Shintani, Michael de Veer, Jean A. Laissue, Marie C. Vozenin, Valentin Djonov Tags: Biology Contribution Source Type: research

A Young Patient with EBV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Dissonance of Dose, Variance of Volume, and Tussle of Timing
The patient is a previously healthy 18-year-old man with no medical history and previously normal development. He presented with rapidly progressive bilateral level II neck masses. He was treated with antibiotics without response. He then developed bilateral nasal obstruction and snoring. At that time, his general practitioner referred him to an otolaryngologist. Visible on flexible nasophayngoscopy was a bulky mass on the right posterior nasopharyngeal wall with ulcerated tissue occluding the right side of the choana and submucosal swelling extending inferiorly beyond the oropharynx into the supraglottic region. (Source: ...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Daniel J. Indelicato, Roi Dagan Source Type: research

Management of Pediatric Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Role for RT Dose De-escalation
Standard treatment for pediatric and adolescent and young adult nasopharyngeal carcinoma1 is induction chemotherapy and response-based, concurrent, dose de-escalated chemoradiation, an approach evaluated in prospective US and German studies.2,3 The Children ’s Oncology Group (COG-ARAR0331) single-arm phase 2 study used 3 cycles of induction cisplatin-5FU followed by response-based chemoradiation therapy with cisplatin. Three-quarters of the patients had a complete response or partial response and received 45 Gy with a boost to 61.2 Gy. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Cheng-Chia Wu, Matthew J. Krasin Tags: Gray Zone Source Type: research

High-Dose Chemoradiation Irrespective of Age
This 18-year-old with Epstein –Barr virus (EBV)+ nasopharyngeal carcinoma can be treated using either the pediatric or the adult paradigm. Given his locoregionally advanced presentation, induction chemotherapy (IC) is strongly considered. The Children’s Oncology Group ARAR0331 enrolled patients up to age 19. Patients receive d 3 cycles of IC (cisplatin and fluorouracil), followed by concurrent high-dose cisplatin and radiation therapy. Complete/partial responders received 61.2 Gy, and those with stable disease received 71.2 Gy, yielding an estimated 5-year cumulative incidence of local and distant relapse of 3....
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Anna Lee, Nancy Y. Lee Source Type: research

The Modernization of Radiation Therapy Services in Cambodia: A Model of International Collaboration
Cambodia is a Southeast Asian low-middle-income country with a population of>15 million. In 2020, Cambodia was estimated to have 18,375 new diagnoses of cancer and 12,638 deaths attributable to cancer. Cambodia was estimated to have a deficit of 16 megavoltage machines in 2012. Cambodia's radiation therapy services have suffered through the tumultuous events of the country's history, with intermittent services until the last decade. In recent years, Cambodia has undergone rapid economic growth and, with this, the development of its first comprehensive cancer center, the National Cancer Centre (NCC). (Source: Internation...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Sokha Eav, Mora Mel, Vannyat Ath, Nikki Shelton, Kate Rogl, Glen Newman, Iain Ward, Mei Ling Yap Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The Role of the Global Coalition for Radiotherapy in Political Advocacy for Radiation Therapy as a Cost-Effective and Underfunded Modality Around the World
The Global Coalition for Radiotherapy (GCR)1 was formed in April 2020 to understand the challenges and opportunities facing radiation therapy delivery during the radical disruption of cancer services worldwide caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Timely advice and experience of adapting radiation therapy during the pandemic was shared by frontline radiation oncologists from around the world via 3-weekly video meetings, daily website updates of relevant publications, and a Google forum. As the world moved through the pandemic, the momentum of the GCR grew, and virtual meetings attracted those with responsibility for global radi...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Pat Price, Birgit Fleurent, Shandi E. Barney Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Keeping Kids Kool —Influence of Induction, Advantage of Adaptation, Curtailment of Complications
This is a young, otherwise healthy patient with a bulky, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Given the high initial disease burden, we would recommend 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy (gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 days 1 and 8; cisplatin 80 mg/m2 day 1), followed by concurrent chemoradiation. In contrast to adults, for whom evidence supporting response-adapted dosing is lacking, a prospective pediatric trial (ARAR0331) provides a convincing rationale to reduce doses in the setting of complete or partial response to induction chemotherapy for nonkeratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (Source: Internati...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Whitney A. Sumner, Loren K. Mell Source Type: research

Standard Versus Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer: New Insights, but Questions Remain
There has been debate in recent years about the relative merits of standard fractionation versus hypofractionated radiation for definitive bladder cancer treatment, and this question has gained relevance during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic as patients and providers look for shorter treatment courses to limit exposure to the virus. A recently published study by Choudhury et al in Lancet Oncology comparing standard versus hypofractionated radiation therapy is very timely and addresses an important topic. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - August 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Brian C. Baumann, Paul Sargos, Jason A. Efstathiou Tags: Editorial Source Type: research