Multiple sevoflurane exposures during pregnancy inhibit neuronal migration by upregulating prostaglandin D2 synthase.
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that multiple sevoflurane exposures in pregnant mice may induce neuronal migration deficits in offspring mice. Additional studies comprising long-term behavioral tests are required to confirm the effects of sevoflurane exposure during pregnancy. PMID: 31499143 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - September 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chai D, Cheng Y, Sun Y, Yan J, Hu R, Zhang L, Jiang H Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

The Neuroprotective Role of Melatonin in a Gestational Hypermethioninemia Model.
se AT Abstract Elevated levels of methionine in blood characterize the hypermethioninemia, which may have genetic or non-genetic origin, as for example from high protein diet. Born rats from hypermethioninemic mothers presented cerebral oxidative stress, inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase, memory deficit and ultrastructure cerebral changes. Melatonin is a hormone involved in circadian rhythm and has antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to verify the possible neuroprotective effects of melatonin administration in hypermethioninemic pregnant rats on damage to biomolecules (Na+,K+-ATPase, sulfhydryl content and DN...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - August 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Figueiró PW, de S Moreira D, Dos Santos TM, Prezzi CA, Rohden F, Faccioni-Heuser MC, Manfredini V, Netto CA, Wyse AT Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Syngap1 Mutations: Clinical, Genetic, And Pathophysiological Features.
Abstract SYNGAP1 is a gene that encodes the cytosolic protein SYNGAP1 (SYNaptic GTPase Activating Protein), an essential component of the postsynaptic density at excitatory glutamatergic neurons. SYNGAP1 plays critical roles in synaptic development, structure, function, and plasticity. Mutations in SYNGAP1 result in a neurodevelopmental disorder termed Mental retardation-type 5 (OMIM #612621) with a phenotype consisting of intellectual disability, motor impairments, and epilepsy, attesting to the importance of this protein for normal brain development. Here we review the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of ...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - August 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Agarwal M, Johnston MV, Stafstrom CE Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Ectopic expression of L1CAM ectodomain alters differentiation and motility, but not proliferation, of human neural progenitor cells.
This study investigates the effects of ectopic overexpression of the L1 long ectodomain (L1LE; ˜180 kDa) on the motility, proliferation, and differentiation of human neural progenitor cells (HNPs). L1LE was ectopically expressed in HNPs using a lentiviral vector. Surprisingly, overexpression of L1LE resulted in reduced HNP motility in vitro, in stark contrast to the effects on glioma and other cancer cell types. L1LE overexpression resulted in a variable degree of maintenance of HNP proliferation in media without added growth factors but did not increase proliferation. In monolayer culture, HNPs expressed a va...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - August 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pusey MA, Pace K, Fascelli M, Linser PJ, Steindler DA, Galileo DS Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Levodopa is effective in the treatment of three Chinese Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency children.
We report three patients in China who were diagnosed with Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency by genetic testing and clinical manifestations. After L-DOPA treatment, their condition had sustained improvement. PMID: 31419477 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - August 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hou M, Yang C, Hu J, Guo Y, Liu P, Liu Y, Song J, Wei W, Chen Z Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Androgenic Regulation of Sexually Dimorphic Expression of RNA Binding Motif Protein 48 in the Developing Mouse Cortex and Hippocampus.
Abstract To further reveal the molecular mechanism underlying sexual differentiation of the mouse cerebral cortex and hippocampus, we reanalyzed our previous microarray study with Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment and found that the GO term "RNA binding" was over-represented among the 89 sexually dimorphic candidate genes. Thus, we selected 16 autosomal genes annotated to the term RNA binding and profiled their mRNA expression in the developing male and female mouse cortex/hippocampus. During the first three weeks after birth, sex differences in mRNA levels of Khdrbs2, Nanos2, Rbm48, and Tdrd3 were obse...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - August 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tsai HW, Franklin M, Armoskus C, Taniguchi S, Moder C, Trang K, Santacruz M, Milla A Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Valproic acid effect on neural tube defects is not prevented by concomitant folic acid supplementation: Early chick embryo model pilot study".
CONCLUSIONS: Even though number of embryos with neural tube defects decreased with concomitant folic acid administration, this difference could not reach a statistical level. More experimental animal and large-scaled prospective clinical studies are in need to detect folic acid mechanism in inhibiting antiepileptic drugs, if any present. PMID: 31376429 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - July 31, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Turgut U, Kazan S, Cakin H, Ozak A Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Neglect, HPA Axis Reactivity, and Development.
Abstract Neglect is a common and frequently chronic form of child maltreatment that can compromise child development and increase the risk of physical and psychological problems. In this review, we discuss one of the potential ways neglect becomes biologically embedded by shaping the development of a key stress responsive system: namely, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Several potential mediators and moderators of this process are examined, including inflammation, attachment and social buffering, self-regulation, child sex and age, and genetics. PMID: 31374220 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - July 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Reilly EB, Gunnar MR Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Early-life N-arachidonoyl-dopamine exposure increases antioxidant capacity of the brain tissues and reduces functional deficits after neonatal hypoxia in rats.
Abstract Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is one of the most common causes of perinatal brain injury and subsequent neurological disorders in children. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA) in the model of acute neonatal hypoxia (ANH) in rat pups. Male and female Wistar rats were exposed to a hypoxic condition (8% oxygen for 120 min) at postnatal day 2 (P2). Transcription factor HIF1-α and glutathione peroxidases GPx2 and GPx4 gene expression was increased in rat brains in the hypoxic group compared to control 1.5 ...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - July 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sukhanova IA, Sebentsova EA, Khukhareva DD, Vysokikh MY, Bezuglov VV, Bobrov MY, Levitskaya NG Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Opioid receptor-mediated changes in the NMDA receptor in developing rat and chicken.
Paulsen RE Abstract The use of opioids during pregnancy has been associated with neurodevelopmental toxicity in exposed children, leading to cognitive and behavioural deficits later in life. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit GluN2B plays critical roles in cerebellar development, and methadone has been shown to possess NMDAR antagonist effect. Consequently, we wanted to explore if prenatal opioid exposure affected GluN2B subunit expression and NMDAR function in rat and chicken cerebellum. Pregnant rats were exposed to methadone (10 mg/kg/day) or buprenorphine (1 mg/kg/day) for the who...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - July 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fredheim Fjelldal M, Ghezu Hadera M, Kongstorp M, Engeset Austdal LP, Šulović A, Mørch Andersen J, Paulsen RE Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Early Neurological Complications in Children with Classical Galactosemia and p.gln188arg Mutation.
uml;n N PMID: 31336146 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - July 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Özgün N Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Administration of branched-chain amino acids increases the susceptibility to lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in young Wistar rats.
Abstract Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of the metabolism caused by defects in the branched a-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), leading to the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) (leucine, isoleucine and valine). Patients with MSUD present a series of neurological dysfunction. Recent studies have been associated the brain damage in the MSUD with inflammation and immune system activation. MSUD patients die within a few months of life due to recurrent metabolic crises and neurologic deterioration, often precipitated by infection or other stresses. In this regard, our previou...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wessler LB, de Miranda Ramos V, Bittencourt Pasquali MA, Fonseca Moreira JC, de Oliveira J, Scaini G, Streck EL Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Developmental regulation and lateralization of GABA receptors in the rat hippocampus.
Abstract GABA is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain. However, in the developing brain it acts as an excitatory transmitter causing depolarization. Thereby, activates calcium-dependent processes that are crucial for brain development. Accordingly, GABA receptors have the great role in the brain development, especially in the area with persisting neurogenesis such as hippocampus. The present study investigated the development and lateralization of two important subunits of GABA receptors, GABAAα1 and GABAB1, in the developing rat hippocampus during the neurogenesis-active period, at the f...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - July 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Khoshdel-Sarkarizi H, Hami J, Mohammadipour A, Sadr-Nabavi A, Mahmoudi M, Kheradmand H, Peyvandi M, Nourmohammadi E, Haghir H Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Functional network connectivity changes in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state fMRI study.
Abstract The study aimed to investigate the pathologic mechanism of functional brain regions in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients through making comparisons of normal and ADHD children from the perspective of the network nodes of brain network and the intensity of functional connection between bilateral of hemispheres by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty-five ADHD and forty-two children were examined by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Data analysis was done via the degree centrality (DC) and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectiv...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - July 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jiang K, Yi Y, Li L, Li H, Shen H, Zhao F, Xu Y, Zheng A Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Application of stem cells and chitosan in the repair of spinal cord injury.
Abstract Cytology and histology obstacles have been the main barriers to multiple tissues injury repair. In search of the most promising treatment strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI), stem cell-based transplantation coupled with various materials/technologies have been explored extensively to enhance SCI repair. Chitosan (CS) has demonstrated immense potential for widespread application in the form of scaffolds and micro-particles for SCI repair. The current review summarizes the evidences for stem cell-based transplantation and CS in SCI repair. Stem cells transplantation, which plays a key role in the repair...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hu X, Zhou X, Li Y, Jin Q, Tang W, Chen Q, Aili D, Qian H Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Who's your daddy? Behavioral and epigenetic consequences of paternal drug exposure.
Abstract Substance use disorders (SUDs) reflect genetic and environmental factors. While identifying reliable genetic variants that predispose individuals to developing SUDs has been challenging, epigenetic factors may also contribute to the heritability of SUDs. Familial drug use associates with a wide range of problems in children, including an increased risk for developing a SUD. The implications of maternal drug use on offspring development are a well-studied area; however, paternal drug use prior to conception has received relatively little attention. Paternal exposure to several environmental stimuli (i.e. s...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - July 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nieto SJ, Kosten TA Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Maternal n-3 PUFAs deficiency during pregnancy inhibits neural progenitor cell proliferation in fetal rat cerebral cortex.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo impacts of maternal n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) deficiency during pregnancy on the proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the developing cerebral cortex of fetal rats. Our results showed that about 5 weeks of maternal dietary n-3 PUFAs deprivation resulted in a substantial n-3 PUFA deficiency in fetal rat cerebral cortex. Importantly, by two survival schemes and two quantitative methods, we found that maternal intake of n-3 PUFAs deficient diet during the gestation significantly inhibited the proliferation of NPCs in fetal rat cereb...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - July 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guo BQ, Ding SB, Li HB Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Elevated lysine crotonylation and succinylation in the brains of BTBR mice.
In this study, we detected four novel PTMs in the cerebral cortex of BTBR mice as compared to C57BL/6 J (B6) mice using western blotting. Results revealed that lysine crotonylation and succinylation were elevated in the cerebral cortex of BTBR mice compared to levels in B6 mice. We speculate that elevated profiles of lysine crotonylation and succinylation may be involved in mechanisms related to neuroanatomical abnormalities in cerebral cortex of BTBR mice. PMID: 31255717 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - June 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang M, Chang Q, Yang H, Liu Y, Wang C, Hu F, Wei H, Li R Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Early Life Stress and the Propensity to Develop Addictive Behaviors.
Abstract There is a vast literature on effects of early life manipulations in rodents much of which is aimed at investigating the long-term consequences related to emotion and cognition in adulthood. Less is known about how these manipulations affect responses reflective of alcohol (AUD) and substance (SUD) use disorders. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature of studies that employed early life manipulations and assessed behavioral responses to psychoactive substances, specifically alcohol, opiates, and stimulants, in rodents. While the findings with alcohol are more limited and mixed, studies with...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - June 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Walters H, Kosten TA Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Early adversity, child neglect, and stress neurobiology: From observations of impact to empirical evaluations of mechanisms.
Abstract Research on the effects of early life adversity, and in particular on the absence of responsive caregiving, has shown long-term impacts on well-being and development. These investigations have been conducted both in human populations and in animal models. The work has demonstrated that neglect experienced in the early years can affect not only behavior but also neurobiological functioning. In particular, studies of children in the foster care system show convergence with research on children adopted following institutional rearing in terms of dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis,...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - June 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Blaisdell KN, Imhof AM, Fisher PA Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Alterations in adolescent dopaminergic systems as a function of early mother-toddler attachment: a prospective longitudinal examination.
Abstract Early experiences have the potential for outsized influence on neural development across a wide number of domains. In humans, many of the most important such experiences take place in the context of the mother-child attachment relationship. Work from animal models has highlighted neural changes in dopaminergic systems as a function of early care experiences, but translational research in humans has been limited. Our goal was to fill this gap by examining the longitudinal associations between early attachment experiences (assessed at 2.5 years) and neural responses to risk and rewards during adolescence (a...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - June 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: McCormick EM, McElwain NA, Telzer EH Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Strain differences in maternal neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress and the relation to offspring cocaine responsiveness.
Abstract Early life stress exposure, including prenatal stress (PNS), influences subsequent risk for many disorders, including substance abuse, and these effects interact with genetic factors to determine risk for disease. We previously demonstrated gene X environmental interactions across the BXD recombinant inbred mouse strain panel and their progenitor strains in PNS modulation of cocaine-induced reward and locomotion. Critical to dissecting genetic interactions with PNS is consideration of the modes of stress transmission to the offspring. Both maternal neuroendocrine responses during stress and subsequent mat...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bagley JR, Adams J, Bozadjian RV, Bubalo L, Kippin TE Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

The Prevalence and Risk of DSM-IV Axis I Disorder in Adults with Early-life Earthquake Stress: A Cross-sectional Study.
CONCLUSION: Adults who were exposed to earthquake in the prenatal period had a significantly higher rate of schizophrenia than those who were not exposed or who experienced earthquake in their infancy. No statistically significant difference was found in the current and lifetime prevalence of other DSM-IV axis I disorders between those exposed and those not exposed to earthquake. Furthermore, prenatal earthquake stress exposure was not a significant risk of any of the lifetime or current DSD-IV axis I disorders. PMID: 31229525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - June 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Song M, Wang L, Zhao XC, Li N, Wang R, Gao YY, Yu LL, An CX, Wang XY Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Shaping the adult brain with exercise during development: Emerging evidence and knowledge gaps.
Abstract Exercise is known to produce a myriad of positive effects on the brain, including increased glia, neurons, blood vessels, white matter and dendritic complexity. Such effects are associated with enhanced cognition and stress resilience in humans and animal models. As such, exercise represents a positive experience with tremendous potential to influence brain development and shape an adult brain capable of responding to life's challenges. Although substantial evidence attests to the benefits of exercise for cognition in children and adolescents, the vast majority of existing studies examine acute effects. N...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - June 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Perez EC, Bravo DR, Rodgers SP, Khan AR, Leasure JL Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Role of estradiol in mediation of etomidate-caused seizure-like activity in neonatal rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Estradiol involves in the NKCC1-GABAAR mediated seizure-like activity caused by etomidte in neonatal rats and these the abnormality lasts near two weeks. PMID: 31202866 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - June 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang C, Li C, Sun J, Lu X Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Arundic Acid administration protects astrocytes, recovers histological damage and memory deficits induced by neonatal hypoxia ischemia in rats.
CONCLUSION: Overall, AA treatment showed beneficial effects on memory deficits, tissue damage, promoting astrocyte survival likely by reducing S100B release. Protection aided to astrocytes by AA treatment against HI lesion may lead to development of new therapeutic strategies that target these particular cells. PMID: 31202867 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - June 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mari C, Odorcyk FK, Sanches EF, Wartchow KM, Martini AP, Nicola F, Zanotto C, Wyse AT, Gonçalves CA, Netto CA Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Neuroglobin protects offspring rats from neuronal damage induced by sevoflurane exposure to pregnant rats by inhibiting endogenous apoptosis.
Abstract As a general anesthesia drug, sevoflurane has been found to be potentially neurotoxic to the developing brain. Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a novel oxygen-carrying globulin that has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects in a variety of central nervous system disorders. However, it is unclear whether Ngb has a protective effect on nerve damage caused by sevoflurane. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect and related mechanisms of Ngb on neural injury induced by sevoflurane. Pregnant rats on gestational day 20 (G20) were exposed to 3.5% sevoflurane for two hours, which led to an in...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - June 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Y, Yang F, Gao Y, Shan Y, Dong Y, Liu H Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

The left lateral occipital cortex exhibits decreased thickness in children with sensorineural hearing loss.
In this study, we investigated structural brain MRI in 30 children with SNHL (18 mild to moderate [M-M] SNHL and 12 moderately severe to profound [M-P] SNHL) by comparing gender- and age-matched normal controls (NC). Region-based analyses did not show statistically significant differences in volumes of the cerebrum, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and the ventricles between SNHL and NC. On surface-based analyses, the global and lobar cortical surface area, thickness, and volumes were not statistically significantly different between SNHL and NC participants. Regional surface areas, cortical thicknesses, and cortical volumes wer...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - June 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shiohama T, McDavid J, Levman J, Takahashi E Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Editorial: Neuroinflammation in the developing brain.
PMID: 31152854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Franceschini D, Zusso M Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Beneficial effects of pioglitazone, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ agonist in prenatal valproic acid-induced behavioral and biochemical autistic like features in Wistar rats.
Beneficial effects of pioglitazone, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist in prenatal valproic acid-induced behavioral and biochemical autistic like features in Wistar rats. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2019 May 22;76:6-16 Authors: Mirza R, Sharma B Abstract Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in children. It is diagnosis by two main behavioral phenotypes i.e. social-communication impairments and repetitive behavior. ASD is complex disorder with unsolved etiology due to multiple genes involvement, epigenetic mechanism and environmental factors. Valpr...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - May 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mirza R, Sharma B Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Hypothalamus - Response to early paracetamol exposure in male rats offspring.
In this study we examined the effect of early pretreatment of paracetamol on hypothalamic neurotransmission in rats' offspring. We used two-month old rats previously exposed to paracetamol at doses of 5 (P5) and 15 mg/kg (P15) during gestational development and next postnatally. The concentration of monoamines, their metabolites and amino acids in hypothalamus was chromatographically determined. The results of biochemical analysis were compared with the Control animals (Con). We found differences between groups in the concentration of main noradrenaline metabolite in hypothalamus. The control group had significantly...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - May 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Blecharz-Klin K, Wawer A, Pyrzanowska J, Piechal A, Jawna-Zboińska K, Widy-Tyszkiewicz E Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of brain damage in glutaric acidemia type I: Lessons from the genetic mice model.
Abstract Glutaric acidemia type I (GA I) is an inherited neurometabolic disease caused by deficient activity of the mitochondrial enzyme glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH), resulting in predominant accumulation of glutaric and 3-hydroxyglutaric acids derived from lysine (Lys), hydroxylysine, and tryptophan catabolism. GA I patients usually present progressive cortical leukodystrophy and frequently develop acute striatal degeneration during encephalopathic crises during the first three years of life. The pathophysiology of the neurodegeneration observed in GA I is still partly known, although the development of the ...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - May 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wajner M, Amaral AU, Leipnitz G, Seminotti B Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

The association between particulate matter 2.5 exposure and children with autism spectrum disorder.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Particulate matter (PM) as an environmental pollutant is suspected to be associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to assess whether exposures to PM2.5 during the first three years of life in relation to the risk and degree of the severity of ASD. METHODS: A total of two hundred and ninety-seven 3-6 years old Chinese children (99 confirmed autism cases and 198 their age-gender matched control subjects) were included. Children's exposures to PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - May 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Geng R, Fang S, Li G Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Preventing epigenetic traces of caregiver maltreatment: A role for HDAC inhibition.
Abstract Reorganization of the brain's epigenetic landscape occurs alongside early adversity in both human and non-human animals. Whether this reorganization is simply incidental to or is a causal mechanism of the behavioral deficits that result from early adversity is important to understand. Using the scarcity-adversity model of low nesting resources in Long Evans rats, our lab has previously reported specific epigenetic and behavioral trajectories occurring in response to early disruption of the caregiving relationship. To further probe that relationship, the current work investigates the ability of the epigeno...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - May 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Doherty TS, Chajes J, Reich L, Duffy HBD, Roth TL Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Maternal Deprivation Alters Nociceptive Response in a GENDER-Dependent Manner in Rats.
In conclusion, maternal deprivation induced a delayed reflex response at P8 and altered the anxiety and nociceptive behaviors according to the time after exposure to this stressor, in a gender-specific manner. PMID: 31071409 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - May 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ströher R, de Oliveira C, Costa Lopes B, da Silva LS, Regner GG, Richardt Medeiros H, de Macedo IC, Caumo W, Torres IL Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Musashi-2 and related stem cell proteins in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus and their potential role in circadian rhythms.
CONCLUSION: The results show that the SCN retains properties of immature neurons and these properties persist in culture conditions suitable for stem cells, where the SCN stem-like cells also proliferate. These properties may allow adaptive circadian rhythm adjustments. Further exploration should examine stem-like cells of the SCN in vivo, how they may affect circadian rhythms, and whether MSI2 serves as a master regulator of SCN stem-like properties. PMID: 31059735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - May 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Beligala DH, De A, Malik A, Silver R, Rimu K, LeSauter J, McQuillen HJ, Geusz ME Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

The Brain's Kryptonite: Overview of Punctate White Matter Lesions in Neonates.
Abstract With increasing advances in the field of medical brain imaging, the known spectrum of white matter lesions has expanded, and we can now assess the presence of punctate white matter lesions (PWML). These focal small lesions are quite frequently detected in the preterm infant and in full-term infants with congenital heart malformations with, some studies reporting a link between these lesions and adverse long-term outcomes. The etiology of PWML has sparked a lot of questions over the years, some of which still remain unanswered. This narrative review will bring an overview of current knowledge and their sig...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - May 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nguyen ALA, Ding Y, Suffren S, Londono I, Luck D, Lodygensky GA Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Parenchymal and non-parenchymal immune cells in the brain: a critical role in regulating CNS functions.
Abstract The presence of immune cells in the central nervous system has long been the subject of research to find out their role. For a long time it was believed that the CNS was a privileged area from an immunological point of view, due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), as circulating immune cells were unable to penetrate the brain parenchyma, at least until the integrity of the BBB was preserved. For this reason the study of the CNS immune system has focused on the functions of microglia, the immunocompetent resident element of the brain parenchyma that retain the ability to divide and self-renew...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - April 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Arcuri C, Mecca C, Giambanco I, Donato R Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Fetal Exposure to high levels of Maternal Glucocorticoids Alters Reelin Signaling in The Prefrontal Cortex of Rat Pups.
This study examined the effect of repeated maternal Carbenoxolone (CBX) injection during late gestation on reelin signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rat pups. CBX is a selective 11β-HSD2 enzyme inhibitor that promotes the direct transfer of maternal corticosteroids (CORT) to the fetus. Therefore, treatment with CBX can mimic the animal model of early life exposure to high levels of maternal stress hormone. In this study, pregnant rats were injected daily with either saline or CBX during gestation day (GD) 14-21, and the levels of reelin and its signaling proteins were examined in the PFC of rat pups at differ...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - April 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kolaka R, Chotwiwatthanakun C, Chutabhakdikul N Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

The effects of 'preferedness of task' on stress, emotion, and behaviour responses to forced activity transitions in boys with ASD.
CONCLUSION: Transition-related distress may be confounded by preferredness of task when understanding transition stress in boys with ASD. PMID: 30991095 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - April 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bitsika V, Sharpley CF Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine reduced sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and long-term memory deficits in neonatal rats.
This study examined whether DEX improves the long-term cognitive dysfunction observed after exposure of neonatal rats to 3% sevoflurane. Seven-day-old rats received intraperitoneal saline (DEX 0) or DEX (6.6, 12.5, 25 µg/kg) 30 min before exposure to 3% sevoflurane with 21% oxygen for 4 h (n = 10 per group). The pups in the control group received only DEX 25 µg/kg without anesthesia. The escape latency in the Morris water maze was significantly increased in the DEX 0 group compared with the sham and control group, and the escape latency, but not the swimming path length...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - April 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Goyagi T Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Prenatal maternal vaginal inflammation increases anxiety and alters HPA axis signalling in adult male mice.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that prenatal vaginal infection increases anxiety-like behaviour in male offspring, possibly via activation of the HPA axis. PMID: 30954504 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - April 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang HL, Pei DE, Yang RD, Wan CL, Ye YM, Peng SS, Zeng QQ, Yan Y Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia induces oxidative stress and accelerates 'aging' of mammalian neuromuscular synapses.
In this study, we analyzed age-dependent synaptic modifications in developing neuromuscular synapses of rats with prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia (hHCY). One of the main findings indicate that the intensity and the timing of transmitter release in synapses of neonatal (P6 and P10) hHCY rats acquired features of matured synaptic transmission of adult rats. The amplitude and frequency of miniature end-plate currents (MEPCs) and evoked transmitter release were higher in neonatal hHCY animals compared to the control group. Analysis of the kinetics of neurotransmitter release demonstrated more synchronized release in neonatal rat...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - April 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Khuzakhmetova V, Yakovleva O, Dmitrieva S, Khaertdinov N, Ziyatdinova G, Giniatullin R, Yakovlev A, Bukharaeva E, Sitdikova G Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Undernourishment and recurrent seizures early in life impair Long-Term Potentiation and alter NMDAR and AMPAR expression in rat hippocampus.
In conclusion, our study showed impaired LTP after undernourishment and recurrent seizures early in life, together with differential expression of NDMA expression in the hippocampus during adulthood. PMID: 30940500 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - March 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wearick-Silva LE, Sebben AD, Costa-Ferro ZSM, Marinowic DR, Nunes ML Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Quantitative analysis of age and life-history stage related changes in DCX expression in the male Japanese quail (Cortunix Japonica) telencephalon.
In conclusion, neuronal incorporation in the quail telencephalon is widespread but it declines with post hatching age. In addition, the most dramatic decline in neuronal incorporation in the telencephalic areas quantified takes place just after the birds have attained sexual maturity. PMID: 30890437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - March 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nkomozepi P, Mazengenya P, Ihunwo AO Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Immediate and delayed decrease of long term potentiation and memory deficits after neonatal intermittent hypoxia.
Abstract Apnea of prematurity is a common clinical condition that occurs in premature infants and results in intermittent hypoxia (IH) to brain and other organs. While short episodes of apnea are considered of no clinical significance, prolonged apnea with bradycardia and large oxygen desaturation is associated with adverse neurological and cognitive outcome. The mechanisms of cognitive deficits in IH are poorly understood. We hypothesized that brief but multiple episodes of severe oxygen desaturation accompanied by bradycardia may affect early and late synaptic plasticity and produce long-term cognitive deficits....
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - March 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Goussakov I, Synowiec S, Yarnykh V, Drobyshevsky A Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Role of the endocannabinoid system in neurological disorders.
Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that begins in infancy. Although the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood, many studies have shown that ASD is closely related to structural and functional defects in the nervous system, especially synaptic transmission. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is an important regulatory system of the central nervous system that regulates neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity and plays an important role in emotional and social responses and cognitive function. The relationship between eCB system and ASD has attracted increasing...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - March 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zou M, Li D, Li L, Wu L, Sun C Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Quercetin promotes learning and memory performance concomitantly with neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult rat dentate gyrus.
Abstract The decline in neurogenesis is a very critical problem in Alzheimer disease. Different biological activities have been reported for medicinal application of quercetin. Herein, we investigated the neurogenesis potential of quercetin in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease induced by amyloid-beta injection. Rats were randomly divided into Control, Alzheimer + Saline and Alzheimer + Quercetin groups. Following the administration of Amyloid-beta, rats in the Alzheimer + Quercetin group received 40 mg/kg/day quercetin orally for one month. Our data demonstrated am...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - February 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Karimipour M, Rahbarghazi R, Tayefi H, Shimia M, Ghanadian M, Mahmoudi J, Saghaei Bagheri H Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Role of DAPK1 in neuronal cell death, survival and diseases in the nervous system.
Abstract DAPK (death-associated protein kinase) is a calcium/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM) regulated serine/threonine kinase. Structurally, it assumes a multi-domain structure and participates in various apoptotic systems which imply that it may interact with a wide range of intracellular components to exert its action. DAPK plays vital roles in pro-apoptotic, apoptotic and autophagic pathways. In addition, it plays important roles in many diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cerebral ischemia and epilepsy. Although a novel protein, DAPK's various cellular signal transduction pathways proves that it can be a targ...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - February 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sulaiman Alsaadi M Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

Time Course and Expression Pattern of the Neuronal Markers in the Developing Human Spinal Cord.
Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the spatio-temporal appearance of different neuronal cell subtypes by analyzing expression patterns of several neuronal markers (calretinin, neurofilament 200 (NF200), vanilloid receptor 1(VR1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)) of the embryonic human spinal cord (SC). Developing human SCs from 11 human conceptuses beetwen 5-10 developmental weeks (DW) were examined by light and electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Light and electron microscopy revealed different embryonic stages of recognizable structure of the SC. NF200, CGRP and VR1 positive cells we...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - February 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Restovic I, Bocina I, Vukojevic K, Kero D, Filipović N, Raonić J, Vučinić J, Vukmirović F, Vučković L, Saraga-Babic M Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research