No rapid and demarcating astroglial reaction to stab wounds in Agama and Gecko lizards and the caiman Paleosuchus - it is confined to birds and mammals.
Authors: Lőrincz D, Kálmán M Abstract The present study proves that rapid and demarcating astroglial reactions are confined to birds and mammals. To understand the function of post-lesion astroglial reaction, the phylogenetical aspects are also to be investigated. Considering the regenerative capabilities, reptiles represent an intermediate position between the brain regeneration-permissive fishes and amphibians and the almost non-permissive birds and mammals. Damage is followed by a rapid astroglial reaction in the mammalian and avian brain, which is held as an impediment of regeneration. In other v...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - October 29, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Novel PD-L1 mAb HC16 reveals upregulation of PD-L1 in BAC subtype.
In this study, a short peptide sequence corresponding to PD-L1 amino acids 172-187 (from the extracellular Ig-like C-type domain, and with high predicted antigenicity and hydrophilicity) was used to generate a monoclonal antibody (mAb). The resultant PD-L1 mAb, clone HC16, was examined for binding specificity and reactivity in cancer cell-lines, as assessed by immunocytochemical, immunoblotting, and co-immunoprecipitation. The potential diagnostic and clinical applicability of clone HC16 was further tested using malignant tissue arrays derived from various cancer types analyzed with an automated immunohistochemical (IHC) s...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - October 29, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Identifying specific Notch1 target proteins in lung carcinoma cells.
CONCLUSION: There is a strong association between the expression of Notch1 protein and the expression of Hes1, c-Myc and Jagged2 proteins, which could aid in better understanding tumorigenesis in SCLC. PMID: 33094831 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - October 25, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Fragmentation of the Golgi complex of dopaminergic neurons in human substantia nigra: New cytopathological findings in Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Tomás M, Martínez-Alonso E, Martínez-Martínez N, Cara-Esteban M, Martínez-Menárguez JA Abstract Fragmentation of the Golgi ribbon is a common feature of Parkinson´s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. This alteration could be the consequence of the anterograde and retrograde transport imbalance, α-synuclein aggregates, and/or cytoskeleton alterations. Most information on this process has been obtained from cellular and animal experimental models, and as such, there is little information available on human tissue. If the information on human ti...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - October 22, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Plasma Golgi protein 73 levels predict prognosis of HCV-related hepatic fibrosis.
CONCLUSION: The plasma GP73 might be a potential biomarker for staging liver fibrosis, and could predict regression or progression of HCV-related liver fibrosis. PMID: 33063838 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - October 21, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

CD9 expression in vascular aging and atherosclerosis.
Authors: Kim JR, Choi JH Abstract CD9 is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the tetraspanin family. CD9 expression has been reported to be associated with cellular signaling, cell adhesion, cell migration, and tumor related processes. The aim of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of CD9 in vascular senescence and atherosclerosis. One hundred and twenty samples of normal young arteries (obtained from individuals aged 0-60 years), 40 samples of normal old arteries (obtained from individuals aged 61-80 years), and 67 samples of atherosclerotic arteries were obtained from surgically res...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

H3F3A G34 mutation DNA sequencing and G34W immunohistochemistry analysis in 366 cases of giant cell tumors of bone and other bone tumors.
Authors: Gong L, Bui MM, Zhang W, Sun X, Zhang M, Yi D Abstract H3F3A mutations and the expression of glycine 34 to tryptophan (G34W) mutants in giant cell tumors of bone (GCTBs) and other bone tumors were detected to compare H3F3A mutation types and the expression of G34W-mutant protein in order to provide a theoretical basis for using H3F3A mutations as a diagnostic and differential-diagnostic tool for GCTBs. A total of 366 bone tumor cases were investigated. The cases involved 215 men and 151 women, whose median age was 29 years (3-84). The cases included GCTB (n=180), recurrent GCTB (n=19), GCTB with lung metas...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - October 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

POM121 is a novel marker for predicting the prognosis of laryngeal cancer.
In this study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect POM121 expression in laryngeal tissues. The associations between POM121 and clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival in laryngocarcinoma patients were also analyzed. The mechanism of POM121 was preliminarily explored through gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). mRNA and protein expression of POM121 in laryngocarcinoma tissues were higher than those in nontumor tissues. High POM121 expression was positively correlated with poor differentiation (χ²=42.391, P
Source: Histology and Histopathology - October 6, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Regulation of inflammatory cytokines for spinal cord injury recovery.
Authors: Lin S, Xu C, Lin J, Hu H, Zhang C, Mei X Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most destructive traumatic diseases in human beings. The balance of inflammation in the microenvironment is crucial to the repair process of spinal cord injury. Inflammatory cytokines are direct mediators of local lesion inflammation and affect the prognosis of spinal cord injury to varying degrees. In spinal cord injury models, some inflammatory cytokines are beneficial for spinal cord repair, while others are harmful. A large number of animal studies have shown that local targeted administration can effectively regul...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - October 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

MicroRNA-204-5p mediates sevoflurane-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells by targeting brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that downregulation of miR-204-5p can decrease oxidative status in HT22 cells and alleviate sevoflurane-induced cytotoxicity through stimulating the BDNF/TrkB/Akt pathway. Therefore, miR-204-5p might be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for the treatment of sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. PMID: 33006132 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - October 3, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Cerebrovascular pathophysiology of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Authors: Suzuki H, Kanamaru H, Kawakita F, Asada R, Fujimoto M, Shiba M Abstract Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a serious cerebrovascular disease. Even if SAH patients survive the initial insults, delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) may occur at 4 days or later post-SAH. DCI is characteristics of SAH, and is considered to develop by blood breakdown products and inflammatory reactions, or secondary to early brain injury, acute pathophysiological events that occur in the brain within the first 72 hours of aneurysmal SAH. The pathology underlying DCI may involve large artery vasospasm and/or microcircula...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - October 2, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Tumour-associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE) in oral squamous cell carcinoma: a comprehensive review.
Authors: Mascitti M, Togni L, Rubini C, Troiano G, Lo Muzio L, Santarelli A Abstract Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common head and neck malignancy, characterised by high invasive capacity, lymph node metastasis, and high recurrence rate. Among the morphological features of oral cancer, the tumour-associated tissue eosinophilia has gained growing interest in the last years. Eosinophils are a minor subpopulation of leukocytes, representing 1-3% of all circulating white blood cells. The presence of high levels of eosinophils is associated with several diseases, but their role in cancer pathophysiology is co...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 30, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Rab GTPases in the differential processing of phagocytosed pathogens versus efferocytosed apoptotic cells.
Authors: Taefehshokr N, Yin C, Heit B Abstract Phagocytosis is an important feature of innate immunity in which invading microorganisms are engulfed, killed and degraded - and in some immune cells, their antigens presented to adaptive immune system. A closely related process, efferocytosis, removes apoptotic cells, and is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis. Both phagocytosis and efferocytosis are tightly regulated processes that involve target recognition and uptake through specific receptors, followed by endolysosomal trafficking and processing of the internalized target. Central to the uptake and traffi...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 30, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Nephrotoxicity of cypermethrin in rats. Histopathological aspects.
In conclusion, Cypermethrin is found to be toxic to mammals. It caused marked ultrastructural damage to the renal proximal and distal tubules of Wistar rats and the intensity of nephrotoxicity correlated with the dose of oral administration. PMID: 32969486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 26, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Increased expression of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
In this study, using immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in the tissues of 26 human PTC (including 17 classical or conventional (CPTC) and 9 follicular (FVPTC) variants of PTC; 15 cases without and 11 cases with lymph node metastasis) and 10 cases of nodular goiter (NG). Compared to NG, a significant increase in the expression of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 was found in PTC overall, as well as in CPTC and FVPTC separately. Higher CX3CL1 expression was found in CPTC than in FVPTC, but there was no significant difference in CX3CR1 expression between these subtypes of PTC. When analyzing their expressi...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 26, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

An association between successful engraftment of osteosarcoma patient-derived xenografts and clinicopathological findings.
In conclusion, we have shown that the osteosarcoma PDX model reliably recapitulates the morphological aspects of the human disease after serial passage in mice. The observation that more aggressive forms of osteosarcoma, including those with metastatic disease at presentation, have a higher efficiency to generate PDXs provides a promising scenario to address several unanswered issues in clinical oncology. PMID: 32964941 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 25, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Tripartite motif-containing 35 (TRIM35) is up-regulated in UUO-induced renal fibrosis animal model.
In this study, we aimed at illustrating the role of TRIM35 in the renal fibrosis process. A UUO mouse model and a TGF-β1-induced tubulointerstitial fibrosis model were constructed for the research of renal fibrosis at animal and cell level, respectively. Hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining were used for visualizing the pathological change. qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect the expression of fibrosis-associated proteins and TRIM35. The results showed that, after the modeling, the expressions of α-SMA, Collagen I, Collagen III, Fibronectin and Snail1 were up-regu...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 23, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Proliferative and chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells from pluripotent and bone marrow cells.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, MSCs derived from both hESCs and hiPSCs had superior proliferative capacity compared to BM-MSCs, but they were inefficient in their ability to form hyaline cartilage. PMID: 32959885 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 23, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Cytoglobin-expressing cells in the splenic cords contribute to splenic fibrosis in cirrhotic patients.
CONCLUSION: Splenic fibrosis progresses along with advancement of PH. Cygb-expressing cells in the splenic cord possibly participate in this process through mechanisms including oxidative stress. PMID: 32945524 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 20, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical determination of mTOR pathway molecules in ovaries and uterus in rat estrous cycle stages.
Authors: Ekizceli G, Inan S, Oktem G, Onur E, Ozbilgin K Abstract mTOR is a member of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway that participates in cell growth, proliferation, protein synthesis, transcription, angiogenesis, apoptosis and autophagy. mTOR and MAPK pahways are two important key signal pathways which are related to each other. We investigated the role of mTOR and other signaling molecules in rat ovaries and uteruses in stages of the estrous cycle. Young adult female rats were divided into four groups as proestrous, estrous, metestrous and diestrous according to vaginal smears. Immunohistochemical staining o...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 19, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Nephronectin is a prognostic biomarker and promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
Authors: Mei D, Zhao B, Zhang J, Xu H, Huang B Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) is a malignant disease with high incidence and mortality rates worldwide. Nephronectin (NPNT) was found to be dysregulated in some kinds of cancer. The goal of our study was to explore the expression profile of NPNT based on large numbers of GC samples with detailed clinicopathological and prognostic data from our institution and the data from a public database. A total of 117 GC samples and 73 corresponding non-tumorous adjacent tissues (NATs) were obtained from GC patients and used to detect expression of NPNT through immunohistochemistry...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 18, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Morphological hallmarks facilitating distinction of omental milky spots and lymph nodes: an exploratory study on their discriminative capacity.
CONCLUSION: The presence of a capsule, trabeculae, distinct B- and T-cell regions and a layered organization represent consistent and reliable morphological features which allow to easily distinguish LNs from OMSs, especially when applied in combination. PMID: 32926399 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 16, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Advances in translational orthopaedic research with species-specific multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells derived from the umbilical cord.
Authors: Ramallo M, Carreras-Sánchez I, López-Fernández A, Vélez R, Aguirre M, Feldman S, Vives J Abstract Compliance with current regulations for the development of innovative medicines require the testing of candidate therapies in relevant translational animal models prior to human use. This poses a great challenge when the drug is composed of cells, not only because of the living nature of the active ingredient but also due to its human origin, which can subsequently lead to a xenogeneic response in the animals. Although immunosuppression is a plausible solution, this is not suitable ...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

The flavonoid 6-hydroxyflavone prevention of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
In this study, the flavonoid, 6-hydroxyflavone was investigated for its renal protective activity in the cisplatin rat model of nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were included in the study. 6-Hydroxyflavone was daily administered at 25 and 50 mg/kg (i.p.), while ascorbic acid was used as a positive control and injected (i.p.) at 50 mg/kg for 15 days. The nephrotoxicity was evoked with a single cisplatin injection at 7.5 mg/kg on the tenth day of treatment. The renal function and levels of oxidative stress markers were assessed. Each tissue slide of different groups was observed under a compound mi...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 12, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Combined expression levels of KDM2A and KDM2B correlate with nucleolar size and prognosis in primary breast carcinomas.
In this study we aimed to define the combined contribution of KDM2A and KDM2B to breast cancer outcome. KDM2A and KDM2B mRNA levels, nucleolar area as a marker of ribosome biogenesis, and patients' prognosis were retrospectively assessed in a series of primary breast carcinomas. We observed that tumors characterized by reduced levels of both KDM2A and KDM2B displayed a particularly aggressive clinical behavior and increased nucleolar size. Our results suggest that KDM2A and KDM2B may cooperate in regulating ribosome biogenesis thus influencing the biological behavior and clinical outcome of human breast cancers. PMID: ...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 10, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Histopathological effect of pterostilbene as chemoprevention in N-nitroso-tri-chloroethylurea (NTCU)-induced lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) mouse model.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of PS on the development of lung SCC in the mouse model. METHODS: A total of 24 seven-week-old female Balb/C mice were randomly categorised into four groups, including two control groups comprising the N-nitroso-trischloroethylurea (NTCU)-induced lung SCC and vehicle control (VC) groups and two treatment groups comprising the 10mg/kg PS (PS10) and 50mg/kg PS (PS50) groups. All lung organs were harvested at week 26 for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: All PS treatment groups showed chemopreventive activity by inhibiting the progression of lung SCC formation with PS10, r...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 9, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Immunology of tissue homeostasis, ovarian cancer growth and regression, and long lasting cancer immune prophylaxis - review of literature.
Authors: Bukovsky A Abstract Data on the substantial physiological role of the immune system in the organism's ability to manage proper differentiation and function of normal tissues (tissue homeostasis), and detailed causes of the immune system's essential role for the in-vivo stimulation of cancer growth, are severely lacking. This results in a lack of effective cancer immunotherapy without adverse events, and in the lack of long-lasting cancer immune prophylaxes, particularly in ovarian cancers. Elimination of blood auto-antibodies blocking anti-cancer T cell effectors by intermittent moderate doses of cyclophos...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 9, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Angiosarcomas: histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular insights with implications for differential diagnosis.
Authors: Machado I, Giner F, Lavernia J, Cruz J, Traves V, Requena C, Llombart B, López-Guerrero JA, Llombart-Bosch A Abstract Angiosarcomas (AS) represent a heterogenous group of tumors with variable clinical presentation. AS share an important morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap with other sarcomas, hence the differential diagnosis is challenging, especially in poorly-differentiated tumors. Although molecular studies provide significant clues, especially in the differential diagnosis with other vascular neoplasms, a thorough hematoxylin and eosin analysis remains an essential tool in AS diagnosis. ...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - September 6, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

LncRNA AY343892 inhibits breast cancer development by positively regulating BRCA1-mediated transcription of PTEN.
In conclusion, this study illustrated that AY343892 inhibited breast cancer development by positively regulating BRCA1-mediated transcription of PTEN. This finding contributes to a better understanding in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and provides a theoretical basis for the treatment of breast cancer patients. PMID: 32754899 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

How bad is brazilian ginseng extract for reproductive parameters in mice?
Authors: Dias FCR, Machado-Neves M, Lima GDA, Martins ALP, Menezes TP, Melo FCSA, Gomes MLM, Cupertino MC, Otoni WC, Matta SLP Abstract Properties attributed to the Panax ginseng are also attributed to the Brazilian ginseng, such as adaptogenic and aphrodisiac effects. There are studies demonstrating that the Brazilian ginseng (BGE) possibly increases the serum levels of testosterone and nitric oxide in mice and rats. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of its extract on male fertility and sperm quality. Male Swiss mice (n = 60) were divided into six groups. The control animals were provided 0.5 mL of w...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - August 2, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Genetic investigation of nodal melanocytic nevi in cases of giant congenital melanocytic nevus.
Authors: Cao Y, Yang X, Lai YM, Jia L, Diao XT, Zhuang Q, Lin DM Abstract Nodal melanocytic nevi are common incidental findings in lymph nodes that have been removed during sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma. They can also occur in the local lymph nodes of the giant congenital nevus (GCN), but very little is known regarding nodal melanocytic nevi in the giant congenital nevus, especially at the genetic level. There are two theories that explain the possible pathogenesis of nodal melanocytic nevi, mechanical transport and arrested migration during embryogenesis. However, there have been few tests of these two t...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - July 31, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Upregulation of miRNA-1228-3p alleviates TGF- β-induced fibrosis in renal tubular epithelial cells.
CONCLUSION: Upregulation of miRNA-1228-3p markedly inhibited the progression of renal fibrosis in vitro, indicating that miRNA-1228-3p may serve as a potential novel target for the treatment of renal fibrosis. PMID: 32720699 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - July 30, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid receptor modulates dendritic cell function in ulcerative colitis.
Authors: Yang X, Geng J, Meng H Abstract Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a serious form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) occurring worldwide. Although anti-TNF therapy is found to be effective in over 70% of patients with UC, nearly one-third are still deprived of effective treatment. Because glucocorticoids (GC) can effectively inhibit granulocyte-recruitment into the mucosa, cytokine secretion and T cell activation, they are used widely in the treatment of UC. However, remission is observed in only 55% of the patients after one year of steroid use due to a condition known as steroid response. Additionally, it has b...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - July 28, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Nuclei detection in hepatocellular carcinoma and dysplastic liver nodules in histopathology images using bootstrap regression.
In conclusion, this system can detect more eligible cells of precancerous nature as well as malignant cells even in a cluttered background of nuclei. PMID: 32691405 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - July 23, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Microglia mediated neuroinflammation - signaling regulation and therapeutic considerations with special reference to some natural compounds.
Authors: Yao YY, Ling EA, Lu D Abstract Neuroinflammation plays a central role in multiple neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), cerebral ischemic injury etc. In this connection, microglia, the key players in the central nervous system, mediate the inflammatory response process. In brain injuries, activated microglia can clear the cellular debris and invading pathogens and release neurotrophic factors; however, prolonged microglia activation may cause neuronal death through excessive release of inflammatory mediators. Therefore, it is of pa...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - July 16, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Analysis of wt1a reporter line expression levels during proepicardium formation in the zebrafish.
In this study, we used the zebrafish model to compare intensity level of the wt1a reporter line epi:GFP in PE and its original tissue, the DP. We found that GFP is present at higher intensity level in the PE tissue, and differentially wt1 expression at pericardial tissues could be involved in the PE formation process. Our results reveal that bmp2b overexpression leads to enhanced GFP level both in DP and in PE tissues. PMID: 32633330 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - July 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Cadherins down-regulation: towards a better understanding of their relevance in colorectal cancer.
Authors: Losi L, Zanocco-Marani T, Grande A Abstract The down-regulation of cadherin expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) has been widely studied. However, existing data on cadherin expression are highly variable and its relevance to CRC development has not been completely established. This review examines published studies on cadherins whose down-regulation has been already demonstrated in CRC, trying to establish a relationship with promoter methylation, the capacity to influence the Wnt / CTNNB1 (catenin beta 1, beta-catenin) signalling pathway and the clinical implications for disease outcome. Moreover, it als...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - June 24, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor ACY1215 ameliorates mitochondrial dynamic and function injury in hepatocytes by activating AMPK signaling pathway in acute liver failure mice.
Authors: Chen Q, Wang Y, Jiao F, Shi C, Pei M, Wang L, Gong Z Abstract Acute liver failure (ALF) is often accompanied by dynamic and functional disorders of mitochondria in hepatocytes. The histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor Rocilinostat (ACY1215) has a hepatoprotective effect. However, its protective effect on mitochondria of hepatocytes and its related mechanisms in ALF remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the protective effect of ACY1215 on mitochondrial of hepatocytes in ALF by regulating AMPK signaling pathway. LPS and D-Gal were used to induce ALF model in C57BL/6 mice. D-Gal and TNF...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - June 24, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Phosphorylated TDP-43 localizes to chronic cerebral infarctions in human brains.
Authors: Umahara T, Uchihara T, Hirao K, Shimizu S, Hanyu H Abstract The transactivation response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a nuclear protein pivotal in RNA processing. Because phosphorylated TDP43 (pTDP-43) has been identified as a component of the ubiquitin-positive and tau-negative inclusions observed in the brains of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, it is considered to play a major role in neurodegenerative processes. We previously reported that pTDP-43 is located in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions of human carotid and major cerebr...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - June 21, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Angiopoietin-1 is associated with a decreased risk of lymph node metastasis in early stage cervical cancer.
CONCLUSION: ANG1 is associated with a significantly decreased risk of LNM in early stage cervical cancer. The predictive value and role of ANG1 in LNM needs to be further investigated in future studies. PMID: 32557524 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - June 21, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Current knowledge of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in articular cartilage.
Authors: Lauretta G, Ravalli S, Szychlinska MA, Castorina A, Maugeri G, D'Amico AG, D'Agata V, Musumeci G Abstract Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an evolutionally well conserved neuropeptide, mainly expressed by neuronal and peripheral cells. It proves to be an interesting object of study both for its trophic functions during the development of several tissues and for its protective effects against oxidative stress, hypoxia, inflammation and apoptosis in different degenerative diseases. This brief review summarises the recent findings concerning the role of PACAP in the articular cart...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - June 17, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Silence of FOXD2-AS1 inhibited the proliferation and invasion of esophagus cells by regulating miR-145-5p/CDK6 axis.
In conclusion, silening FOXD2-AS1 significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of EC cells by regulating the miR-145-5p/CDK6 axis. Therefore, FOXD2-AS1 might be used as diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for EC. PMID: 32524576 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - June 13, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Merkel cells of human oral mucosa express the pluripotent stem cell transcription factor Sox2.
Authors: García-Caballero L, Caneiro J, Gándara M, González-Ortega N, Cepeda-Emiliani A, Gude F, Collado M, Beiras A, Gallego R Abstract Merkel cells are neuroendocrine cells associated to a neural sensitive ending and localized primarily in the epidermis, although they are also found in oral mucosa. Sox2 or SRY-box2 is a key transcription factor important in the maintenance of embryonic neural crest stem cell pluripotency. Sox2 has been described in Merkel cells of skin and in Merkel cell carcinomas, but not specifically in oral Merkel cells. The aims of the present study were to analyze the d...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - June 6, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Intratumor heterogeneity in human parathyroid tumors.
Authors: Verdelli C, Tavanti GS, Corbetta S Abstract Parathyroid tumors are the second most common endocrine neoplasia after thyroid neoplasia. They are mostly associated with impaired parathormone (PTH) synthesis and release determining the metabolic and clinical condition of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). PHPT is the third most prevalent endocrine disorder, mainly affecting postmenopausal women. Parathyroid benign tumors, both adenomas of a single gland or hyperplasia involving all the glands, are the main histotypes, occurring in more than 95% of PHPT cases. The differential diagnosis between benign and mal...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - May 31, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Ferroptosis-relevant mechanisms and biomarkers for therapeutic interventions in traumatic brain injury.
Authors: Rui T, Li Q, Song S, Gao Y, Luo C Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most significant health care problems worldwide, causing disability and death especially among young individuals. Although a large range of agents and therapies have been proved beneficial to lesions post-TBI to some extent, effective treatments have not been translated to the clinic. As a newly discovered form of iron-dependent regulated cell death, ferroptosis has been implicated in TBI. In this review, we update the current state of knowledge related to second injuries post-TBI, including ferroptosis, oxidative stress,...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - May 29, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Expression and prognostic significance of YAP, TAZ, TEAD4 and p73 in human laryngeal cancer.
This study addresses their expression and prognostic significance in human laryngeal carcinoma. METHODS: Protein expression of YAP, TAZ, TEAD4 and p73 was examined by immunohistochemistry in 121 human laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Correlations with clinicopathological data and survival were evaluated. RESULTS: All proteins were overexpressed in human laryngeal carcinomas compared to non-neoplastic adjacent epithelium. High expression of YAP, TAZ, TEAD4 and p73 correlated significantly with high grade, advanced stage, supraglottic location of tumor, nodal metastases and recurrence. Furthermore, high expression...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - May 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Knockdown of ADAMDEC1 inhibits the progression of glioma in vitro.
CONCLUSION: Downregulation of ADAMDEC1 could significantly inhibit the tumorigenesis of glioma in vitro, which may serve as a novel target for the treatment of glioma. PMID: 32378728 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - May 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Follicle-stimulating hormone promotes nerve growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in epithelial ovarian cells.
Authors: Garrido MP, Bruneau N, Vega M, Selman A, Tapia JC, Romero C Abstract Ovarian cancer is the first cause of death for gynecological malignances in developed countries and around 80% correspond to Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC). Overexpression of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and its high affinity receptor TRKA are involved in EOC progression, modulating several oncogenic processes such as angiogenesis by the increase of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). FSH receptors (FSH-R) are present in EOC, but their changes and contribution during EOC progression are still not thoroughly known. The aims of this st...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - May 7, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Immunoexpression of adhesion molecules during human fetal hair development.
CONCLUSION: Adhesion molecules are essential for hair follicle down growth and proliferation; integrins and cadherins play a major role in this process. More studies are needed to describe hair follicle development. PMID: 32364615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - May 5, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNA SNHG7 promotes malignant melanoma progression through negative modulation of miR-9.
Authors: Wang W, Liu G, Liu M, Li X Abstract Long non-coding small nucleolar RNA host gene 7 (lncRNA SNHG7) was verified to act as an onco-gene in human cancers. Nevertheless, the role of SNHG7 in malignant melanoma remains elusive. The present study showed an increase of SNHG7 expression in malignant melanoma tissues and cell lines. Besides, SNHG7 knockdown inhibited proliferation and migration in malignant melanoma cells. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that SNHG7 functions as a molecular sponge for miR-9 in biological behavior of melanoma cells. And miR-9 could inhibit the expression of PI3KR3 by binding wi...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - May 5, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research