A sexy approach to pacemaking: differences in function and molecular make up of the sinoatrial node.
Conclusion- This study has identified key differences in the expression of Cav1.3, Kir3.1 and Nkx2-5 at mRNA and/or protein levels between male and female SAN. Cav1.3 plays an important role in the pacemaker function of the SAN, therefore the higher intrinsic heart rate of the female SAN could be caused by the higher expression of Cav1.3. The differences identified in this study advance our understanding of sex differences in cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmias. PMID: 30968943 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - April 12, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Unique expression profiles of mucin proteins in interstitial pneumonia-associated lung adenocarcinomas.
Authors: Kataoka T, Okudela K, Nakashima Y, Mitsui H, Matsumura M, Umeda S, Arai H, Baba T, Suzuki T, Koike C, Tateishi Y, Tajiri M, Takemura T, Ogura T, Masuda M, Ohashi K Abstract In order to clarify idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP)-associated lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), we herein focused on the expression profiles of mucin proteins, the most common cellular differentiation markers. The expression of the mucin (MUC) 1, MUC2, MUC3B, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6, MUC7, MUC9, and MUC21 proteins was examined immunohistochemically and their levels were semi-quantified in 80 IIP-associated LADCs and 106 non-IIP LAD...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - April 10, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Modulatory effect of inulin with soya isoflavones on plasma lipid profile and liver SCD-18 index in rats with induced type-2 diabetes mellitus.
Authors: Misiakiewicz-Has K, Maciejewska D, Kolasa-Wołosiuk A, Pilutin A, Rzeszotek S, Wilk A, Szypulska-Koziarska D, Stachowska E, Łukomska A, Wiszniewska B Abstract Obesity and type-2 diabetes are often associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Soya isoflavones act as antidiabetic agents and protect against NAFLD. There are data suggesting that inulin may increase the plasma concentration and effect of soya isoflavones. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soya isoflavones, as opposed to the effect of soya isoflavones with inulin, on plasma lipid profile, liver morphology, a...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - April 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Platelet-generated amyloid beta peptides in Alzheimer's disease and glaucoma.
Authors: Inyushin M, Zayas-Santiago A, Rojas L, Kucheryavykh Y, Kucheryavykh L Abstract Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides have been implicated in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and glaucoma and have been shown to be the key etiological factor in these dangerous health complications. On the other hand, it is well known that Aβ peptide can be generated from its precursor protein and massively released from the blood to nearby tissue upon the activation of platelets due to their involvement in innate immunity and inflammation processes. Here we review evidence about the development of AD and glaucoma neuronal damage...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - April 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Comparison of protocols for removal of melanin from genomic DNA to optimize PCR amplification of DNA purified from highly pigmented lesions.
In conclusion, this genomic DNA extraction method is highly efficient for successful PCR when tumor samples are contaminated with melanin. PMID: 30949991 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - April 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Adult-onset Alexander disease with a heterozygous D128N GFAP mutation: a pathological study.
In conclusion, this work describes sporadic, rapidly advancing AOAD in a female patient and links it with other published cases with the same mutation. Reflections are provided on the influence of vasculitis and ANA in AD as well as the presence of Rosenthal fibres in the neurohypophysis. PMID: 30942895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - April 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Atelo-collagen type I bovine bone substitute and membrane in guided bone regeneration: A series of clinical cases and histopathological assessments.
Authors: Lucaciu O, Apostu D, Mester A, Campian RS, Gheban D, Miron RJ Abstract Absorbable atelo-collagen type 1 represents a new approach for guided bone regeneration with several reported advantages such as: osteoblast attachment, proliferation, mineralization potential, absorption of growth factors and inhibition of bacterial pathogen colonization. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, radiological (preoperative width, re-entry width, gain), Periotest measurements and histologic benefits of atelo-collagen-derived bovine bone grafts (ImploBone) in combination with an atelo-collagen type I barrier memb...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - April 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Density of CD8-positive tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes is an independent prognostic factor in adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction.
Authors: Knief J, Lazar-Karsten P, Hummel R, Thorns C Abstract Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have commonly been associated with markedly improved prognosis in a variety of human cancers, including carcinomas of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Especially the presence of T-cells (cytotoxic as well as helper cells) seems to define a subgroup of patients with prolonged overall and event-free survival. The density of TILs was assessed via immunohistochemistry for CD8 and CD103 in a population of 228 adenocarcinomas of the esophagogastric junction. Density of CD8+ T-lymphocytes was inversely correlate...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - April 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Role of heparan sulfate 6-0 endosulfatases in intervertebral disc homeostasis.
In conclusion, Sulf-1 might play a critical role from development to maintenance of IVD homeostasis by regulating collagen expression. PMID: 30924907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - March 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Effects of a probiotic on the morphology and mucin composition of pig intestine.
This study examined the effects of a multi-strain probiotic (SLAB51™) on the morphology and carbohydrate composition of mucins secreted by goblet cells of intestinal crypts in growing-finishing pigs. Sections of duodenum, caecum and colon from pigs fed for 12 weeks with an orally administered control basal diet (No-Pro) or one with a probiotic blend (Pro) were processed for microscopic analysis and stained with (1) haematoxylin-eosin for structural and morphometrical investigation; (2) conventional histochemistry (periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian Blue pH 2.5, high iron diamine staining) for neutral, acidic non-sulphated,...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - March 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Implications on pathogenesis and risk of oral lichen planus neoplastic transformation: an ex-vivo retrospective immunohistochemical study.
Authors: Squarzanti DF, Cena T, Sorrentino R, Migliario M, Chiocchetti A, Rimondini L, Azzimonti B, Valente G Abstract AIMS: to evaluate OPN, MCM7, Ki-67, p53, Bcl-2 and 53BP1 presence, together with the abnormal adaptive CD4 and CD8 T-cell response markers expression in a series of oral lichen planus (OLP) affected patients and assess their combined contribution for a more objective disease classification. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this ex-vivo retrospective analysis, biopsy specimens from 28 adults with a clinical diagnosis of OLP at different progression degree (16 reticular, 2 plaque-like, 1 erosive and 9 mix...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - March 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Transcription regulators are transiently expressed during the prostate gland adaptation to the hypoandrogenic environment.
In conclusion, androgen deprivation triggers the expression of temporally regulated gene sets in both epithelial and stromal cells. These gene subsets will help establish the regulatory gene expression programs orchestrating the castration-induced remodeling of the prostate gland, and represent putative targets to increase the efficacy of androgen-deprivation to induce epithelial (and cancer) cell death. PMID: 30912572 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - March 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Therapeutic effects of herbal compounds in cerebral ischemia with special reference to suppression of microglia activation implicated in neurodegeneration.
Authors: Jia WJ, Yuan Y, Wu CY Abstract Cerebral ischemia affects many especially with the ageing population. The ensuing ischemic reactions include oxidative stress, inflammation, and excitotoxicity among others. In the search for effective therapeutic strategies for cerebral ischemia, activated microglia which are the key player in neuroinflammation are now recognized as a potential therapeutic target. Microglia possess both neurotoxic and neuroprotective roles. They are protective by continuously surveilling the microenvironment, phagocytosing dead cells, secreting trophic factors and sculpting the neuronal conn...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - March 24, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Calcitonin gene related peptide gene-modified rat bone mesenchymal stem cells are effective seed cells in tissue engineering to repair skull defects.
Authors: Yu X, Liu S, Chen X, Du Y, Yin X, Du Y, Li S Abstract The study is to verify whether Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) gene-modified rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are promising seed cells with great potential to repair bone defect. A recombinant lentiviral vector overexpressing CGRP peptide, pLenO-DCE-CGRP, was constructed and transfected into rBMSCs to obtain stable CGRP expression. Differently transfected rBMSCs: CGRP- modified rBMSCs (CGRP group), empty vector- modified rBMSCs (Vector group) and normal rBMSCs (Control group) were transferred to collagen scaffold to repair rat skull defect...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - March 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis in chronic kidney disease: a mini-review.
Authors: Li Q, Zhang A, Xing C, Yuan Y Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a worldwide health problem. Progression of CKD may lead to many serious complications, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Presently, there is no satisfactory treatment. Thus, targeted therapies are urgently needed. The kidneys are second to the heart in terms of mitochondrial abundance and oxygen consumption. Thus, it is not surprising that mitochondrial homeostasis is absolutely essential for the normal function of the kidney. In fact, a number of reports indicate that mitochondria are involved i...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - March 21, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Haptoglobin expression in human colorectal cancer.
Conclusions. This study confirms the expression of Hp in CRC, both in vivo and in vitro, and provides further evidence of its association with disease progression and metastasis. PMID: 30864745 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - March 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Upregulation of glucose and amino acid transporters in micropapillary carcinoma.
Authors: Nosaka K, Makishima K, Sakabe T, Yurugi Y, Wakahara M, Kubouchi Y, Horie Y, Umekita Y Abstract Micropapillary carcinoma (MPC), a relatively rare histologic carcinoma observed in various organs, is associated with vascular invasion, nodal metastasis, and poor prognosis. MPC is different from papillary carcinoma as it has no fibrovascular core and is thus considered essentially hypovascular. MPCs are known to upregulate glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) via the activation of a transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1. Here we evaluated the expression of nutrient transporters in MPCs to gain a bette...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - March 13, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

A subpopulation of airway epithelial cells that express hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α - its implication in the development of non-terminal respiratory unit-type lung adenocarcinoma.
A subpopulation of airway epithelial cells that express hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α - its implication in the development of non-terminal respiratory unit-type lung adenocarcinoma. Histol Histopathol. 2019 Mar 08;:18098 Authors: Okudela K, Arai H, Kitamura H, Baba T, Mitsui H, Suzuki T, Sugiyama M, Honda E, Matsumura M, Takemura T, Kataoka T, Koike C, Tateshi Y, Tajiri M, Ogura T, Ohashi K Abstract A normal counterpart and precancerous lesion that non-terminal respiratory unit (TRU) lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs) develop from have not been clarified. Non-TRU LADCs specifically express hepatocyte nu...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - March 10, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Tripterygium glycoside protects diabetic kidney disease mouse serum-induced podocyte injury by upregulating autophagy and downregulating β-arrestin-1.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that tripterygium glycoside provided protection against podocyte injury induced by high-glucose serum, and that this effect was mediated by the concomitant activation of autophagy and downregulation of β-arrestin-1. PMID: 30839094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - March 7, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects the testis from damage generated by experimental cryptorchidism in rabbits.
Authors: Vigueras-Villaseñor RM, Jiménez Cabrera T, Chávez Saldaña M, Jiménez Trejo F, Cuevas Alpuche O, Rojas-Castañeda JC Abstract Cryptorchidism (CO) is a risk factor for infertility in men. It is associated with an increase in oxidative stress which alters the differentiation of the gonocytes to spermatogonia. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is an antioxidant that acts as a free radical scavenger and activates the antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this work was to investigate if EGCG plays a role in the protection of the testicle from alterations generated by CO and its...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - March 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Elevated blood/lymphatic vessel ratio in pterygium and its relationship with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) distribution.
CONCLUSION: In pterygium, while both lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis take place, the formation of new blood vessels is the most relevant event, correlating with the increased expression of vascular endothelial CD31 and an elevated blood/lymphatic vessel ratio. The presence of high levels of VEGF-A in both vessel networks and extracellular matrix in human pterygium tissue may have a major impact on angiogenesis in this pathological tissue. PMID: 30821336 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - March 4, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Eccrine spiradenoma of the nipple: Case report, differential diagnosis and literature review.
Authors: Metovic J, Gallino C, Zanon E, Bussone R, Russo R, Vissio E, Annaratone L, Conti L, Papotti M, Cassoni P, Castellano I Abstract Eccrine spiradenoma is a rare lesion originating from eccrine sweat glands, with only few cases reported in breast tissue: we here describe for the first time, an eccrine spiradenoma arising in the nipple. An 84 year-old woman with a lesion enlarging her right nipple, showing ulcerations and eczema-like changes of the covering skin, was admitted to our hospital. Surgical excision of the central quadrant with nipple-areola complex was performed, followed by histopathological evalua...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - February 28, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

The importance of adequate recognition of normal and dysplastic myelopoiesis for the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes.
Authors: Florensa L, Arenillas L, Calvo X, Pérez-Vila E, Ferrer A, Woessner S Abstract The diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes is based on the presence of cytopenias, dysplastic morphological features on peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM), cytogenetic abnormalities and requires to rule out other diseases resembling these conditions. Optical cytomorphology is the cornerstone of diagnosis of MDS. The recognition of cytological myelodysplasia has a crucial value in diagnosis and prognosis of MDS. Assessment of cytological morphology requires, like other diagnostic techniques (flow cytometry, cytogene...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - February 21, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

The comparative analyses of decalcification procedures and methyl benzoate pre-treatment on tissue preservation and antigenicity in human acetabular labra.
Authors: Pieroh P, Ehrlich A, Ghadban C, Litvak L, Steinke H, Josten C, Fakler JKM, Dehghani F Abstract The histological processing of musculoskeletal tissue might be challenging. The alteration of tissue composition e.g. by calcification of soft tissue in the elderly, after trauma or surgical interventions makes the histological processing of fixed tissue difficult. Additional steps of decalcification are then needed that probably affect the staining quality. In the present work, the effects of different decalcification agents and the intermedium methyl benzoate on histological staining methods and immunohistochem...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - February 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides in acquired heart diseases.
CONCLUSIONS: The rich expression of antimicrobial peptides and its association with CRP support the idea that an inflammatory process is involved in the pathogenesis of acquired heart diseases. The worst preoperative condition is associated with increased antimicrobial peptide expression in the right atrial cells. PMID: 30734265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - February 10, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Effects of the isoflavone daidzein in Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis: Modulation of the oestrogen receptor- β, apoptosis and enzymatic signalling pathways.
Effects of the isoflavone daidzein in Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis: Modulation of the oestrogen receptor-β, apoptosis and enzymatic signalling pathways. Histol Histopathol. 2019 Feb 07;:18090 Authors: Sarasquete C, Úbeda-Manzanaro M, Ortiz-Delgado JB Abstract Phytochemicals are widely present in the aquatic environment and they are derived from many anthropogenic activities. The isoflavone daidzein is a natural compound that is found in the soya products used as habitual constituents of aquafeeds. Nevertheless, this isoflavone possesses oestrogenic and apoptotic properties. The prese...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Polymorphous adenocarcinoma: An overview of immunohistochemical features and insights on molecular pathology.
Authors: Tasoulas J, Tsourouflis G, Klijanienko J, Theocharis S Abstract Polymorphous adenocarcinoma (PAC), represents a common minor salivary gland tumor (SGT) characterized by local growth, low metastatic potential and non-aggressive biologic behavior. Due to the clinical aggressiveness noted in a subset of such tumors, the former term polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) was recently revised. PAC's clinical features and histological diversity result in clinical overlap of this entity with several other SGTs including mainly adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC). Differential diagnosis among the entities is cru...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - February 7, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Synergism of imatinib, vatalanib and everolimus in the prevention of chronic lung allograft rejection after lung transplantation (LTx) in rats.
In conclusion, the combination of mTORI and RTKIs might be a possible strategy in the prevention of CLAD and BO. PMID: 30706940 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - February 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Striated-for-smooth muscle replacement in the developing mouse esophagus.
Authors: Baguma-Nibasheka M, Fracassi A, Costain WJ, Moreno S, Kablar B Abstract The esophagus is a muscular tube which transports swallowed content from the oral cavity and the pharynx to the stomach. Early in mouse development, an entire layer of the esophagus, the muscularis externa, consists of differentiated smooth muscle cells. Starting shortly after mid-gestation till about two weeks after birth, the muscularis externa almost entirely consists of striated muscle. This proximal-to-distal replacement of smooth muscle by the striated muscle depends on a number of factors. To identify the nature of the hypotheti...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - February 1, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Characterization of the early pathology of cochlear stereocilia in four inbred mouse strains with progressive hearing loss.
CONCLUSION: Early degeneration of stereocilia contributes to the functional impairment of hair cells and hearing loss in NOD/LtJ, A/J, DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice. PMID: 30675896 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - January 25, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Primary extranodal vaginal non-hodgkin lymphoma: Diagnostic pitfalls and therapeutic challenges.
CONCLUSIONS: localized or diffused hard-ligneous vaginal areas with Cork Wall sign represent the typical sign of disease presentation. PeNHVL is characterized by a very high sensitivity to chemotherapy and very favourable prognosis; therefore, radical surgery is not indicated. Histotype characterization is crucial to identify those uncommon variants associated with a less favorable clinical outcome. PMID: 30656635 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - January 19, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Hydroxy group requirement for halofuginone-dependent inhibition of muscle fibrosis and improvement of histopathology in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Authors: Wellner G, Mordechay S, Evans P, Genin O, Pines M, Halevy O Abstract In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the progressive loss of muscle and its ability to function is associated with significant fibrosis, representing the major disease complication in patients. Halofuginone, a halogenated analog of the naturally occurring febrifugine, has been shown to prevent fibrosis in various animal models, including those of muscular dystrophies. Here, two optically active enantiomers of deoxyhalofuginone-a halofuginone analogue in which the hydroxy group in position 3 was removed from the piperidinyl entity-were ev...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - January 12, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

High expression of GPNMB predicts poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Authors: Li H, Xiao Y, Wu CC, Yang LL, Cao LY, Chen DR, Zhou JJ, Zhang WF, Sun ZJ Abstract Glycoprotein non-metastatic protein B (GPNMB) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed in several malignancies compared with its expression in matched healthy tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic value of GPNMB expression in tumor tissue derived from a cohort of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). GPNMB expression in human HNSCC, oral dysplasia and normal mucosal tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The correlation...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - January 12, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Trehalose in ophthalmology.
Authors: Cejka C, Kubinova S, Cejkova J Abstract Trehalose, a disaccharide of glucose, is a naturally occurring nontoxic and nonreducing bioactive sugar. Trehalose is synthetized by many organisms when cells are exposed to stressful conditions, including dehydration, heat, oxidation, hypoxia or even anoxia. Although trehalose is not synthesized by mammalian cells, it has recently been demonstrated to have a number of important properties that indicate its utility in humans. Trehalose enables wound healing by protecting cells, especially cell membranes, from oxidative injury and dessication. When the injured cornea ...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - January 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Roles of long-non-coding RNAs in cancer therapy through the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway.
Authors: Lee KT, Gopalan V, Lam AK Abstract The vital need for Akt in maintaining basic cellular function has highlighted its importance in carcinogenesis. Unfortunately, Akt inhibitor development outcome has remained poor, as most of them have failed to show significant clinical benefit to cancer patients during the clinical trials. Recently, a new class of non-coding RNAs, known as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which show high tissue specificity, have demonstrated great influence in cancer progression and/or cancer inhibition. As both Akt signalling pathways and lncRNAs play such innate roles in carcinogenesis,...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - January 10, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

A brief review of chordomas: Pathogenesis, prognostic factors and therapeutic targets.
This article summarizes these achievements including the studies relative to pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and targeted therapies for chordomas. The theme of existing problems is also mentioned, which would facilitate general future efforts in this field. PMID: 30600829 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - January 4, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

BRAF mutation: Current and future clinical pathological applications in colorectal carcinoma.
Authors: Ng J, Lu CT, Lam AK Abstract The aims are to review the relevance of the BRAF mutations in the clinical settings of colorectal carcinoma. All the literature concerning BRAF mutations and colorectal carcinoma published in PubMed from 2010 to 2018 was reviewed. Multiple variants of BRAF mutations exist in colorectal cancer, the most common type being V600E. The mutation is found in 5 to 15% of colorectal carcinomas and is less common in Asian populations. BRAF mutations are linked with older age, female gender, cigarette smoking and are more common in the right (proximal) portion of the large intestine. BRAF...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - December 31, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Morphological rearrangement of the cortical region, in aging ovaries.
Authors: Díaz-Hernández V, Caldelas I, Montaño LM, Merchant-Larios H Abstract The ovary is a structurally dynamic organ that alters with age. Modifications in the paracrine status influence the capacity of aging oocytes to develop normal embryos. Despite the importance of understanding the cellular and molecular mechanism involved in the process of ovarian aging, histological changes remain poorly understood. Correlating the process of folliculogenesis and somatic cell function during ovarian aging is essential to explain the reproductive decline of aged mammalian species, including humans. Her...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - December 29, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

The effect of chronic stress and obesity on sperm quality and testis histology in male rats; a morphometric and immunohistochemical study.
CONCLUSIONS: Stress and obesity may induce male infertility by disrupting both sperm quality and testis histology. When stress and obesity are coexisting, these adverse effects are more severe. And also, increased GAT1 expression may be associated with these effects. PMID: 30566207 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - December 21, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Safety of isotretinoin treatment as measured by liver parameters.
This study was designed to investigate liver structure, hepatic enzyme levels and the stress oxidative parameter after isotretinoin treatment during a similar period and using the dosages of 1 mg/kg and another one of 10 mg/kg in young male Wistar rats. We have analyzed the blood serum biochemical levels to determine hepatic function and lipid peroxidation, hepatic tissue levels of hepatic enzymes, histology and ultrastructure. The groups receiving 1 mg/kg were not altered after treatment. Their ultrastructure showed a metabolically more active organ after treatment with 10 mg/kg, in which there was an increase in the area...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - December 19, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Reduction of PGRN increased fibrosis during skin wound healing in mice.
Authors: Li SS, Zhang MX, Wang Y, Wang W, Zhao CM, Sun XM, Dong GK, Li ZR, Yin WJ, Zhu B, Cai HX Abstract Progranulin (PGRN) is a multi-functional growth factor known to be involved in regulating of development, cell cycle progression, cell motility, tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. Research has revealed that PGRN is a crucial mediator of skin wound healing. Nonetheless, the role of PGRN in the fibrosis process of cutaneous wound healing has not been identified. In the present study, mice with excisional wounds were treated with si-m-PGRN or physiological saline. We observed the expression of PGRN in intact and post...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - December 19, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Histopathology of human small intestinal and colonic ischemia-reperfusion: experiences from human IR-models.
Authors: Leenarts CA, Grootjans J, Hundscheid IH, Schellekens DH, Lenaerts K, Buurman WA, Dejong CH, Derikx JP Abstract Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a frequent, but potentially life-threatening condition. Although much has been learned about its pathophysiology from animal IR models, the translation to the human setting is imperative for better understanding of its etiology. This could provide us with new insight into development of early detection and potential new therapeutic strategies. Over the past decade, we have studied the pathophysiology of human small intestinal and colonic ischemia-repe...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - December 15, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Parkinson's disease: a short story of 200 years.
Authors: Cuenca L, Gil-Martinez AL, Cano-Fernandez L, Sanchez-Rodrigo C, Estrada C, Fernandez-Villalba E, Herrero MT Abstract After Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent and incidental neurodegenerative disorder, affecting more than 2% of the population older than 65 years old. Since it was first described 200 years ago by Dr James Parkinson, great steps have been made in the understanding of the pathology. However, the cause(s) that initiates and perpetuates the neurodegenerative process is (are) still not clear. Thus, early diagnosis is not available, nor are there efficient t...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - December 13, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Correlation of securin and Ki67 in invasive breast carcinoma.
Authors: Talaat IM, Hamoudi RA, Yakout NM, Oweiss NY, Omar AM Abstract AIMS: To identify the role of securin (PTTG) as a prognostic marker in invasive breast carcinoma and its possible relation to ki67 and to evaluate the use of ImmunoRatio® as a tool for calculating ki67 and securin labelling indices. METHODS: Securin and ki67 immunohistochemical staining were performed on tissue microarray sections representative of 118 patients diagnosed with invasive breast carcinoma from 2005 to 2011. Assessment of immunohistochemical staining was carried out using both visual counting and ImmunoRatio®. The 118 cas...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - December 8, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

The distribution and time-dependent expression of HIPK2 during the repair of contused skeletal muscle in mice.
Authors: Zhang M, Zhang MZ, Wen SH, Sun YF, Jiang PH, Wang LL, Zhao R, Wang CL, Jiang SK, Guan DW Abstract HIPK2 is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase and is considered a co-regulator of an increasing number of transcription factors modulating a variety of cellular processes, including inflammation, proliferation and fibrosis. Skeletal muscle injuries repair is an overlapping event between inflammation and tissue repair. There are no reports about HIPK2 expression in skeletal muscles after trauma. A foundational study on distribution and time-dependent expression of HIPK2 was performed by immunohis...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - December 6, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Cytokeratin expression profiles of canine epithelial tissues.
Authors: Rickmeyer T, Jäger K, Schöniger S, Schoon HA Abstract Cytokeratins (CKs) are intermediate filaments of epithelial cells. In humans, different types of epithelia as well as their neoplasms show distinct CK expression profiles. The aim of this study was to establish a panel of CKs for the identification of specialized canine epithelia that can be integrated in a routine diagnostic setting. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 42 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) canine unaltered tissues including all epithelial tissues by using an antibody panel detecting CKs 7, 8, 13, 14, 17, 19 and 20 and ...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - December 2, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Immunohisto(cyto)chemistry: an old time classic tool driving modern oncological therapies.
Authors: Cooks T, Theodorou SD, Paparouna E, Rizou SV, Myrianthopoulos V, Gorgoulis VG, Pateras IS Abstract In the era of precision medicine immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) share some of the highlights in personalized treatment. Survival data obtained from clinical trials shape the cut-offs and IHC scoring that serve as recommendations for patient selection both for targeted and conventional therapies. Assessment of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors along with HER2 status has been among the first approved immunostaining assays revolutionizing breast cancer treatment. Similarly, ALK positi...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - November 29, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

STIM promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of podocytes through regulation of Fc γRII activity in diabetic nephropathy.
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that STIM and FcγRII play an essential role in the regulation of DKD-induced podocyte EMT. STIM is an essential component of FcγR activation and inhibition of STIM-mediated signaling pathway might be a new strategy to treat IgG-dependent renal diseases. PMID: 30475382 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - November 28, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Next-generation sequencing-based characterization of the invasion by anatomical contiguity in a primary osseous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Correlation between the genetic profile of the malignancy and the clinical outcome of the patient.
Authors: Zaharie F, Pop LA, Petrushev B, Jurj A, Muresan MS, Eniu D, Fetica B, Petkov B, Pasca S, Piciu D, Rus I, Deak D, Dima D, Desmirean MS, Tomuleasa C, Berindan-Neagoe I Abstract Primary bone lymphoma is now a well-described entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumors of Soft Tissue and Bone as a malignancy of the lymphoid tissue, with at least one mass within bone, without involvement of supraregional lymph nodes or other extranodal sites. In the current paper, we describe the complete characterization of the mutational landscape of a diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLB...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - November 25, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research

Epstein - Barr virus association with plasma cell neoplasms.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data shows that EBV was negative in all plasma cell myeloma cases in immunocompetent patients and has an overall low association with the different plasma cell neoplasms in the immunocompetent setting. When expressed, it is usually associated with variable plasmablastic features. PMID: 30452079 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Histology and Histopathology)
Source: Histology and Histopathology - November 21, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research